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1.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 426-432, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557521

RESUMO

Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common gastrointestinal problem in the world. The Rome III consensus subdivided functional dyspepsia into two groups: meal-related postprandial distress syndrome (PDS) and meal-unrelated epigastric pain syndrome (EPS). Limited data are available regarding FD in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic and clinical characteristics of FD and its sub-types. This cross-sectional study was conducted in which we recruited patients who attended the outpatient department of Gastroenterology of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Bangladesh from March 2017 to February 2018. Patients fulfilling Rome III FD criteria and a negative upper GIT endoscopy were included for this study. The patients were then subdivided into 'pure' PDS (i.e. meeting criteria for PDS without EPS symptoms), 'pure' EPS (i.e., meeting criteria for EPS without PDS symptoms), and overlapping PDS-EPS (i.e., symptoms of both PDS and EPS) groups. Total of 368 FD patients (56.0% females, mean age 32.8±8.6 years, BMI: 22.0±2.7), were included in this study. Out of them, 112(30.4%) patients (57.2% females, mean age 33.9±9.3 years, BMI: 22.0±2.7) fulfilled criteria of pure EPS and 64(17.4%) patients (68.8% females, mean age 33.2±7.8 years, BMI: 22.1±2.4) fulfilled criteria of pure PDS. However, the majority of patients [192(52.2%), 52.1% females, mean age 32.0±8.4 years, BMI: 21.9±2.8] had symptoms of overlapping EPS-PDS. More than 40% of patients in our study presented with 3 or more of the four key symptoms of FD. A longer duration of presenting symptoms was seen among patients with overlapping EPS-PDS in comparison to pure EPS and pure PDS (p<0.001). A significant overlap of symptoms of both EPS and PDS was noticed among patients with FD. The value of dividing functional dyspepsia into the subgroups of PDS and EPS is thus questionable. Further research and modification of the diagnostic criteria for FD subtypes are necessary.


Assuntos
Dispepsia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Masculino , Dispepsia/diagnóstico , Dispepsia/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Transversais , Demografia
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 33(2): 402-410, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38557518

RESUMO

Stroke is the second-leading cause of death and also a leading cause of combined death and disability. In Bangladesh, stroke prevalence is 11.39 per 1000 population, but highest prevalence of stroke is 14.71 per 1000 population in the Mymensingh division. Hyperuricemia has been reported as an independent risk factor for stroke in different studies and a significant association between serum uric acid and dyslipidemia has also been stated. On the contrary, some studies suggest that uric acid has a neuroprotective role. This cross-sectional study was completed in the Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from March 2021 to January 2023. In this cross-sectional study, 352 adult acute ischemic stroke patients were included from the Medicine Department of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. Serum uric acid and fasting serum lipid levels were measured within 48 hours of admission. The mean age ±SD of the respondents was 61.9±12.8 years. Hyperuricemia was found among 18.2% of respondents, whose mean ±SD serum uric acid was 5.7±1.9 mg/dl. Dyslipidemia was present in 88.4% of patients. The mean ±SD of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score was 12.0±5.9. Most of the patients (65.6%) were suffering from moderate stroke, followed by moderate to severe stroke (15.1%), severe stroke (10.8%) and minor stroke (8.5%). After multiple linear regressions, the independent variables age, gender, serum uric acid and total cholesterol were found to be significant predictors of the NIHSS score of the respondents. In conclusion, the majority of acute ischemic stroke patients have an association with dyslipidemia, but only around one-fifth of patients have hyperuricemia. There is a significant association of high serum uric acid and high serum total cholesterol with stroke severity (NIHSS score). But low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and, triglycerides have no association with stroke severity.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Dislipidemias , Hiperuricemia , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Humanos , Ácido Úrico , Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Hiperuricemia/complicações , Hiperuricemia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Triglicerídeos , HDL-Colesterol , Fatores de Risco , Dislipidemias/complicações , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hospitais
3.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(4): 1208-1213, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37777923

RESUMO

Takayasu's arteritis is a chronic large vessel vasculitis that mainly affects the aorta and its major branches such as brachiocephalic, carotid, subclavian, vertebral, renal, coronary and pulmonary arteries. It most commonly occurs in female at child bearing age and female to male ratio is 8:2. Initial presentations of Takayasu's arteritis may be nonspecific like fever, malaise, weakness, fatigue, arthralgia, myalgia and weight loss but in advanced stage there may be features of vascular inflammation like segmental stenosis, occlusion, dilatation and/or aneurysm. It is a sub acute process over months to years and usually with good collateral formation. So, critical limb ischemia due to acute onset of vascular stenosis is very rare. Here we are reporting a case of a 50-year- old male patient who presented with digital gangrene due to critical limb ischemia. Though the age of onset was at 50 years and the patient lacks clinical features like constitutional symptoms, bruit, claudication, asymmetrical blood pressure, the patient was diagnosed as a case of Takayasus's arteritis. The patient dramatically improved with oral glucocorticoid treatment. Although rare, takayasu's arteritis can presents only with digital gangrene without having other clinical features. The physicians should be aware of this unusual but limb threatening presentation and more studies are needed to find out the exact mechanism of this presentation.


Assuntos
Arterite de Takayasu , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Arterite de Takayasu/complicações , Arterite de Takayasu/diagnóstico , Gangrena/etiologia , Isquemia Crônica Crítica de Membro , Constrição Patológica , Rim
4.
J Dent Res ; 102(13): 1417-1424, 2023 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37899507

RESUMO

Enamel hypoplasia (EH) is a prevalent developmental defect of teeth that can result from various insults, including prenatal nutrient deficiencies. This study aimed to evaluate the association between prenatal serum retinol deficiency and EH in the deciduous teeth of offspring at 2-y of age. A cohort of 1,450 pregnant women was enrolled, and their prenatal nutritional status was assessed between 12 and 14 wk of gestation. Maternal serum retinol, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), hemoglobin, body mass index, and birth outcomes, infant feeding practices, family socioeconomic status, and demographic information were recorded. Oral health examinations were conducted for the children semiannually, and EH was diagnosed using the Modified DDE index on all the surfaces of erupted teeth. A modified Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the cumulative risk of EH over a period of 2-y. A total of 920 (63.4%) mother-child pairs completed the study, and the cumulative EH prevalence among offspring after 2-y of follow-up was 16.5% (N = 152; 87/1,114 children in the first year and 132/920 in the second year, with 20/920 having EH only in the first year). After adjusting for potential confounders, maternal serum retinol deficiency significantly increased the risk of deciduous EH (risk ratio [RR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.7). In addition, deficient serum 25OHD (RR, 6.5; 95% CI, 4.0-10.7), caesarean delivery (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.4), Muslim (RR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.0-4.1) and Christian (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.6-3.5) versus Hindu religions, and very preterm birth (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.9) increased the risk of EH. Children presenting with EH had 2 or more teeth affected, and the maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected, followed by the first primary molars and canines. In conclusion, maternal serum retinol deficiency during the 12 to 14 wk of gestation may increase the risk of deciduous EH, besides the well-established 25OHD deficiency.


Assuntos
Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário , Nascimento Prematuro , Deficiência de Vitamina A , Lactente , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Feminino , Gravidez , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/epidemiologia , Hipoplasia do Esmalte Dentário/etiologia , Esmalte Dentário , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(2): 338-347, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37002743

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemia, raised blood pressure and impaired blood sugar levels. Patients with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional observational study was carried out from January 2019 to December 2019 at the inpatient and outpatient department of BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Adult subjects aged ≥18 years with metabolic syndrome (IDF criteria, 2006) were included and purposive sampling was done. A total of 242 participants were included and the mean age was 40.2±14.1 years ranging from 18-70 years. Among them, 140(57.85%) were female and 102(42.15%) were male. Out of 242 participants, 170(70.25%) subjects had Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver (NAFLD) and 72(29.75%) subjects had metabolic syndrome without NAFLD. In the male participants, the mean waist-hip ratio (WHR) of MetS with NAFLD and MetS without NAFLD was 1.01±0.07 vs. 0.96±0.08 respectively (p-value 0.003). In female subjects, the mean waist-hip ratio (WHR) of MetS with NAFLD and MetS without NAFLD group was 0.90±0.10 vs. 0.86±0.08 respectively (p-value 0.026). MetS with NAFLD subjects were more hypertensive than MetS without NAFLD subjects (61.2% vs. 42.7%). In the MetS with NAFLD group (n=170), 11.8% was normoglycemic, 43.5% was prediabetic and 44.7% was diabetic. In the MetS without NAFLD group (n=72), 19.5% was normoglycemic, 50% was prediabetic and 30.5% was diabetic. SGPT value was significantly raised in MetS with NAFLD subjects (56.4%) than MetS without NAFLD (38.9%) subjects (p-value 0.038). SGOT value was significantly raised in MetS with NAFLD subjects (58.8%) than MetS without NAFLD subjects (41.7%); (p-value 0.005). Mean Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride were significantly raised in MetS with NAFLD subjects than MetS without NAFLD subjects (p-value 0.01). In Subjects with grade I fatty liver, mean SGPT and SGOT were 42.27±22.31 vs. 39.59±16.93 respectively. In Subjects with grade II fatty liver, mean SGPT and SGOT were 62.13±32.42 vs. 52.45±28.56 respectively. In grade III fatty liver, mean SGPT and SGOT were 51.50±32.19 vs. 41.00±17.52 respectively (p value <0.001). More than two-third of participants with metabolic syndrome had non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and a significant elevation of liver enzymes than metabolic syndrome without NAFLD participants. About 85.0% of metabolic syndrome participants had glucose intolerance in the form of prediabetes and diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Síndrome Metabólica , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Alanina Transaminase , Prevalência , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Fatores de Risco
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468858

RESUMO

Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Técnicas e Procedimentos Diagnósticos
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-9, 2023. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468915

RESUMO

Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence [...].


Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S [...].


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/síntese química , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella/isolamento & purificação , Ração Animal/análise , Resíduos Industriais/análise
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-11, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468934

RESUMO

This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Chenopodium/química , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469074

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469131

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados para controlar o crescimento microbiano.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 832023.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1469150

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e240842, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339375

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to investigate various mosquitocidal activities of Chenopodium botrys whole- plant n-hexane extract against Culex quinquefasciatus. The extract showed remarkable larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus. During the larvicidal and pupicidal activities, the 24-hour lethal concentration (LC50) of extract against 2nd instar larvae, 4th instar larvae and pupae were 324.6, 495.6 and 950.8 ppm, respectively. During the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) bottle bioassay for adulticidal activity, the median knockdown times (KDT50) at 1.25% concentration was 123.4 minutes. During the filter paper impregnation bioassay for adulticidal activity, the KDT50 value at 0.138 mg/cm2 concentration was 48.6 minutes. The extract was fractionated into 14 fractions through silica gel column chromatography which were then combined into six fractions on the basis of similar retention factor (Rf) value. These fractions were screened for adulticidal activity by applying CDC bottle bioassay. The fraction obtained through 60:40 to 50:50% n-hexanes-chloroform mobile phase with 0.5 Rf value showed 100% adulticidal activity at 0.2% concentration. During oviposition deterrent activity, the highest concentration (1000 ppm) showed 71.3 ± 4.4% effective repellence and 0.6 ± 0.1 oviposition activity index. During adult emergence inhibition activity, the median emergence inhibition (EI50) value was 312.3 ppm. From the outcome of the present investigation, it is concluded that the n-hexane extract of C. botrys whole- plant possesses strong larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent and adult emergence inhibitory activities against Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar várias atividades mosquitocidas do extrato n-hexano de planta inteira de Chenopodium botrys contra Culex quinquefasciatus. O extrato mostrou atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora de oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus. Durante as atividades larvicida e pupicida, a concentração letal de 24 horas (CL50) do extrato contra larvas de 2º estádio, larvas de 4º estádio e pupa foi de 324,6, 495,6 e 950,8 ppm, respectivamente. Durante o bioensaio com frasco do CDC (Centros para Controle e Prevenção de Doenças) para adulticida, o tempo médio de desativação (KDT50) na concentração de 1,25% foi de 123,4 minutos. Durante o bioensaio de impregnação com papel de filtro para a atividade adulticida do extrato, o valor KDT50 na concentração de 0,138 mg / cm2 foi de 48,6 minutos. O extrato foi fracionado em 14 frações através de cromatografia em coluna de gel de sílica que foram então combinadas em seis frações com base em um valor de fator de retenção (Rf) semelhante. Essas frações foram selecionadas quanto à atividade adulticida por meio da aplicação do bioensaio com garrafa do CDC. A fração obtida através da fase móvel de n-hexanos-clorofórmio 60:40% a 50:50% com valor de 0,5 Rf apresentou atividade adulticida de 100% na concentração de 0,2%. Durante a atividade de dissuasão da oviposição, a maior concentração de extrato (1000 ppm) apresentou repelência efetiva de 71,3 ± 4,4% e índice de atividade de oviposição de 0,6 ± 0,1. Durante a atividade de inibição da emergência de adultos, o valor médio de inibição da emergência (EI50) foi de 312,3 ppm. A partir do resultado da presente investigação, conclui-se que o extrato de n-hexano da planta inteira de C. botrys possui fortes atividades larvicida, pupicida, adulticida, dissuasora da oviposição e inibidora da emergência de adultos contra a Cx. quinquefasciatus.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Chenopodium , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Hexanos , Larva
13.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245585, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339413

RESUMO

Abstract Many soil microorganisms' i.e., bacteria and fungi produce secondary metabolites called antibiotics. These are used for the treatment of some of the bacterial, fungal and protozoal diseases of humans. There is a need for isolation of a broad spectrum of antibiotics from microorganisms due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. In the present study two antibiotic producing bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bacillus cereus were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry of Hattar, Haripur Pakistan. Total 10 waste samples were collected from different industries (Marble, Ghee, Soap, Mineral, Steel, Poultry Feed, Pharmaceutical, Qarshi, Cosmetic and Glass). Thirty-three bacterial strains were isolated from industrial wastes of these ten different industries. Fourteen out of thirty-three bacterial strains exhibited antimicrobial activities against at least one of the test microbes considered in this study including Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi. The bacteria were isolated by standard serial dilution spread plate technique. Morphological characterization of the isolates was done by Gram staining. Nine bacterial isolates out of fourteen were initially identified as B. cereus and five as K. pneumoniae through biochemical characterization. The antibacterial activities were tested by well diffusion method. Maximum number of antibiotic producing bacteria were isolated from pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry based on the results of primary screening, the most potential isolates S9, S19, S20, S22 and S23 were selected for secondary screening. The maximum activity against E. coli and S. aureus was recorded by bacterial isolate S19 i.e zones of inhibition of 6.5mm and 9mm while S20 showed 7.5mm and 6mm zones respectively. Molecular identification was carried out on the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Finally, the isolates were identified as B. cereus accession number LC538271and K. pneumoniae accession number MT078679. Analysis of bacterial extract S20 through GC-MS indicated the presence of 8 compounds of diverse nature and structure. Present study suggests that wastes of pharmaceutical and poultry feed industry may have antibiotic producing bacteria. These bacteria could be utilized for the production of antibiotics. B. cereus and K. pneumoniae isolated from wastes of poultry feed and pharmaceutical industries have the potential to produce antibiotics and could be used to control the microbial growth.


Resumo Muitos microrganismos do solo, ou seja, bactérias e fungos produzem metabólitos secundários chamados antibióticos. Eles são usados ​​para tratamento de algumas doenças bacterianas, fúngicas e protozoárias em humanos. Há necessidade de isolamento de um amplo espectro de antibióticos de microrganismos devido ao surgimento de resistência aos antibióticos. No presente estudo, duas bactérias produtoras de antibióticos, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Bacillus cereus, foram isoladas da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola de Hattar, Haripur, Paquistão. Um total de 10 amostras de resíduos foi coletado de diferentes indústrias (mármore, ghee, sabão, mineral, aço, ração para aves, farmacêutica, Qarshi, cosmética e vidro). Trinta e três cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de resíduos industriais dessas dez diferentes indústrias. Quatorze das 33 cepas bacterianas exibiram atividades antimicrobianas contra pelo menos um dos micróbios de teste considerados neste estudo, incluindo Escherchia coli, Staphylococcus aureus e Salmonella typhi. As bactérias foram isoladas pela técnica de placa de diluição em série padrão. A caracterização morfológica dos isolados foi feita por coloração de gram. Nove isolados bacterianos de 14 foram inicialmente identificados como B. cereus e cinco como K. pneumoniae por meio de caracterização bioquímica. As atividades antibacterianas foram testadas pelo método de difusão em poço. O número máximo de bactérias produtoras de antibióticos foi isolado da indústria farmacêutica e de ração avícola com base nos resultados da triagem primária, os isolados mais potenciais S9, S19, S20, S22 e S23 foram selecionados para a triagem secundária. A atividade máxima contra E. coli e S. aureus foi registrada pelo isolado bacteriano S19, ou seja, zonas de inibição de 6,5 mm e 9 mm, enquanto S20 mostrou zonas de 7,5 mm e 6 mm, respectivamente. A identificação molecular foi realizada com base na análise da sequência 16S rRNA. Finalmente, os isolados foram identificados como B. cereus número de acesso LC538271 e K. pneumoniae número de acesso MT078679. A análise do extrato bacteriano S20 por meio de GC-MS indicou a presença de oito compostos de natureza e estrutura diversas. O presente estudo sugere que resíduos da indústria farmacêutica e de ração para aves podem conter bactérias produtoras de antibióticos. Essas bactérias podem ser utilizadas para a produção de antibióticos B. cereus e K. pneumoniae isolados de resíduos de rações de aves e indústrias farmacêuticas têm potencial para produzir antibióticos e podem ser usados ​​para controlar o crescimento microbiano.


Assuntos
Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Resíduos Industriais , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Extratos Vegetais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Escherichia coli , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia
15.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 35(5)2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395508

RESUMO

The pseudomorphic growth of Ge1-xSnxon Ge causes in-plane compressive strain, which degrades the superior properties of the Ge1-xSnxalloys. Therefore, efficient strain engineering is required. In this article, we present strain and band-gap engineering in Ge1-xSnxalloys grown on Ge a virtual substrate using post-growth nanosecond pulsed laser melting (PLM). Micro-Raman and x-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the initial in-plane compressive strain is removed. Moreover, for PLM energy densities higher than 0.5 J cm-2, the Ge0.89Sn0.11layer becomes tensile strained. Simultaneously, as revealed by Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy investigations and XRD the crystalline quality and Sn-distribution in PLM-treated Ge0.89Sn0.11layers are only slightly affected. Additionally, the change of the band structure after PLM is confirmed by low-temperature photoreflectance measurements. The presented results prove that post-growth ns-range PLM is an effective way for band-gap and strain engineering in highly-mismatched alloys.

16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e264336, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36169408

RESUMO

Environmental contamination with heavy metals is a threat to the organisms due to their toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in food chains. The study was aimed to assess cadmium (Cd) effect on calcium (Ca) level in bones of a freshwater fish Channa gachua. 42 fish individuals were kept into six (6) aquaria; labelled aq.0, 1, 2, 3,4 and 5 in the laboratory for treatment. Aq.0 was control group and aq.1, 2,3,4,5 were experimental with treatment solution of Cd 0, 0.1ppm, 0.5ppm, 1ppm, 2.5ppm and 5ppm respectively for three months. After exposure, bones tissue were examined for Cd accumulation and Ca concentration. Highest accumulation of Cd were recorded in aq.5 mean 46.86 ± 0.46 mgkg-1 .and lowest in the control group with mean 0.61 ± 0.06 mgkg-1. The order of Cd bioaccumulation in bones were aq.5 > aq.4 >aq.3 > aq.2 > aq.1 > aq.0. Highest concentration of Ca were noted in aq.0 (Control group) mean 7888.06 ± 4827.22 mgkg-1 and lowest were 1132.36 ± 203.73 mgkg-1 in aq.5 (at 5.0 ppm). Generally a pattern of decreasing Ca level were observed with each rise of Cd bioaccumulation aq.0 > aq.1 > aq.2 > aq.3 > aq.4 > aq.5. Current study indicated that Cd accumulation have substantial effect on Ca level in bones and hence on skeleton system. Strict rules must be implemented by government to control metals pollution and exploitations of biota.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Osso e Ossos/química , Cádmio/toxicidade , Cálcio , Cálcio da Dieta , Peixes , Água Doce , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1218, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36180905

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Following the COVID-19 directive to cease non-essential services, a rapid shift was made in the delivery of Speech Language Pathology (SLP) dysphagia management in the 3-arm, randomized PRO-ACTIVE trial. To inform future programs, this study explored patients' experiences with telehealth when the planned in-person SLP intervention was moved to a telehealth modality. METHODS: A theory-guided qualitative descriptive approach was used. Willing participants who had received at least one telehealth swallowing therapy session participated in a one-time semi-structured interview. Interview transcripts were subjected to a standard qualitative content/theme analysis. Researchers reviewed all transcripts and used a multi-step analysis process to build a coding framework through consensus discussion. Summaries and key messages were generated for each code. RESULTS: Eleven participants recounted their telehealth experiences and reported feeling satisfied, comfortable and confident with the session(s). They identified that previous experience with teleconferencing, access to optimal technical equipment, clinician skill, and caregiver assistance facilitated their telehealth participation. Participants highlighted that telehealth was beneficial as it reduced commuting time, COVID-19 exposure and fatigue from travel; and also allowed caregiver participation particularly during COVID. In comparing their in-person SLP sessions to telehealth sessions, limitations were also identified, including: lack of previous experience with and/or poor access to technology, and less opportunity for personalization. Participants indicated that use of phone alone was less preferred than an audio/video platform. DISCUSSION: Patients reported that overall, telehealth sessions did not compromise their learning experience when compared to in-person sessions. Patients benefited from use of telehealth in several ways despite some limitations of the use of technology. Patient feedback about telehealth provides an important perspective that may be critical to inform best practices for care delivery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos de Deglutição , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Telemedicina , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(2): 337-343, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383747

RESUMO

This study aims to explore physician's perceptions about the use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), COVID prevention, and management during the COVID pandemic since knowledge on these might explain the reason behind infection and death of physicians in Bangladesh at an unexpected rate. This cross-sectional study was conducted based on an online questionnaire on 346 physicians (n=346) by the Department of Gastroenterology of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Bangladesh from 15th July 2020 to 14th September 2020. Physicians of different health care facilities across Bangladesh were invited to take part. Knowledge on specific points of the questionnaire was evaluated, scored, and compared between different groups by Independent sample t-test. Mean knowledge score between the respondents working up to 8 hours and beyond 8 hours per day was 17.28±1.28, 16.90±1.40 respectively (p=0.03). Mean knowledge score observed between graduate and post-graduate physicians and work experience of 5 years and beyond 5 years were 17.26±1.36 vs. 17.16±1.27; (p=0.40), 16.87±1.75 vs. 17.27±1.21; (p=0.11) respectively. Physician's safety should be first concern that is highlighted through proper use of PPE and prevention of COVID. Patient management skills would be better if physicians are trained well on infection prevention and control which in turn will reduce infection and death of physicians.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Médicos , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 24(4): 642-651, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533541

RESUMO

A supply of plant micronutrients (some of which are metals) is necessary to regulate many plant processes; their excess, however, can have detrimental consequences and can hamper plant growth, physiology and metabolism. Artemisia annua is an important crop plant used in the treatment of malaria. In this investigation, the physio-biochemical mechanisms involved in exogenous hydrogen sulphide-mediated (H2 S) alleviation of copper (Cu) stress in A. annua were assessed.. Two different levels of Cu (20, 40 mg·kg-1 ), one H2 S treatment (200 µm) and their combinations were introduced while one set of plants was retained as control. Results showed that the presence of excess Cu in the soil reduced growth and biomass, photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll content and fluorescence, gas exchange parameters and induced antioxidant enzyme activity. Copper stress enhanced the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increased Cu content in both roots and shoots of affected plants. Exogenous application of H2 S restored the physio-biochemical characteristics of Cu-treated A. annua plants by reducing lipid peroxidation and enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes in Cu-stressed plants as compared with the controls. Hydrogen sulphide also reduced the Cu content in different plant parts, increased photosynthetic efficiency, trichome density, average area of trichomes and artemisinin content. Therefore, our results provide a comprehensive assessment of the defensive role of H2 S in Cu-stressed A. annua.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua , Artemisininas , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Artemisia annua/metabolismo , Artemisininas/metabolismo , Cobre/metabolismo , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Tricomas
20.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: 1-6, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468463

RESUMO

Illnesses caused by human pinworm remains a pediatric health problem in developing nations including Pakistan. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in school children of four districts in Malakand region, Pakistan. Four hundred faecal specimens were screened from May 2014 to July 2017 using normal saline and Lugol Iodine solution. Twenty three (5.75%) individuals were found infected with E. vermicularis. Five children (1.25%) were infected with only E. vermicularis and eighteen (4.5%) were mixed with other helminths. E. vermicularis 23 (5.75%), hookworm 11 (2.75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1.25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0.5%) and Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%) were detected. Age wise 5-8 years were more parasitized followed by 13-15 and 9-12 years of age (0.0296, P<0.05). Male children were highly (0.06700, P<0.05) infected than female. Children in Malakand district were found more infected followed by Dir Upper, similar infection rate was noted in children of districts Lower Dir and Swat (0.0192, P<0.05). Children in primary level were highly (0.0013, P<0.05) infected than those of middle and high levels. Enterobiosis is still the most common parasitic diseases in children. Studies on enterobiosis should be conducted time by time to recognize the hazardous of such parasitic infection in remote areas of the country.


As doenças causadas pela traça humana continuam sendo um problema de saúde pediátrica nos países em desenvolvimento, incluindo o Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a prevalência de Enterobius vermicularis em escolares de quatro distritos na região de Malakand, Paquistão. Quatrocentos espécimes fecais foram selecionados de maio de 2014 a julho de 2017, usando solução salina normal e solução de lugol iodo. Vinte e três (5,75%) indivíduos foram encontrados infectados por E. vermicularis. Cinco crianças (1,25%) foram infectadas apenas com E. vermicularis e dezoito (4,5%) foram misturadas com outros helmintos. Foram detectados E. vermicularis 23 (5,75%), ancilóstomo 11 (2,75%), Ascaris lumbricoides 5 (1,25%), Taenia saginata 2 (0,5%) e Trichuris trichuira 4 (1%). Com relação à idade, 5-8 anos foram mais parasitados, seguidos por 13-15 e 9-12 anos de idade (0,0296, P <0,05). Crianças do sexo masculino foram altamente (0,06700, P <0,05) infectadas do que as do sexo feminino. As crianças no distrito de Malakand foram encontradas mais infectadas, seguidas por Dir Upper, taxa de infecção semelhante foi observada em crianças dos distritos Lower Dir e Swat (0,0192, P <0,05). As crianças do nível primário foram altamente (0,0013, P <0,05) infectadas do que as dos níveis médio e alto. A enterobiose ainda é a doença parasitária mais comum em crianças. Os estudos sobre enterobiose devem ser conduzidos periodicamente para reconhecer a periculosidade dessa infecção parasitária em áreas remotas do país.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Doenças Negligenciadas , Enterobius/parasitologia , Enterobíase/diagnóstico , Enterobíase/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Helmintíase
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