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1.
J Pharm Pract ; : 8971900241253661, 2024 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720191

RESUMO

Background: Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) help manage type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and may have efficacy in steatotic liver disease. Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical impact of GLP-1 RA use in patients with T2DM and liver disease. Methods: This was a retrospective study of adult patients with T2DM and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL), or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) between 1/1/21-12/31/21. Patients with hepatitis B or C, or on pioglitazone were excluded. Eligible patients treated with a GLP-1 RA were compared to controls. The primary outcome was change in Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, with NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS) as a secondary outcome. Follow-up scores were calculated from labs within 3 to 15 months after baseline. Results: Of 242 eligible patients, 79 patients (32.6%) were treated with a GLP-1 RA. At baseline, FIB-4 score was lower and NFS was higher in the GLP-1 RA group vs controls (1.80 vs 2.33; P = .101, .36 vs -.47, P < .001; respectively). At follow up, FIB-4 score decreased to 1.77 in the GLP-1 RA group and increased to 2.71 in controls (P = .045). Follow up NFS was stable in the GLP-1 RA group and increased in the control group (.36 vs -.43; P = .308). Conclusion: Patients treated with GLP-1 RAs had less evidence of liver fibrosis progression compared to no treatment, although the differences were small. These results suggest that treatment with GLP-1 RAs may have clinical impact on slowing liver fibrosis, however results should be confirmed in a larger, more diverse sample.

2.
J Biosoc Sci ; 56(3): 445-458, 2024 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38314634

RESUMO

Pakistan has a high burden of hereditary and congenital anomalies and their incidence rate almost doubles against the background of parental consanguinity. Consanguineous unions (CU) are customary in Pakistan and deeply rooted socio-cultural norms favour CU. This study aimed to elucidate the determinants and temporal change in CU in four northwestern populations of Pakistan. In a cross-sectional study, data on marital union types, bio-demographic factors, and paternal consanguinity were collected from 6,323 ever-married individuals in four districts of northwest Pakistan: Haripur, Muzaffarabad, Mansehra, and Shangla. We used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression analysis. The CU were calculated to be 55%, and inbreeding coefficient F (ICF) was estimated to be 0.029. Eight factors, including district, rural origin, age of husband, occupational group of husband, literacy of husband, parental consanguinity, exchange marriage, and extended family type, were found to be significant predictors of consanguinity in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. The rate of consanguinity decreased significantly in the younger age categories of individuals. The rate of CU was seen to be declining over time and in marriages that started 'before 1980' and 'after 2010', respectively, and there was a decline in ICF from 0.030 to 0.027. These analyses also showed that the literacy rate improved, the average age at marriage increased, and the frequency of exchange marriages decreased over time. This study employs a sizable first-hand dataset to demonstrate a lowering CU rate in northwest Pakistan. It is anticipated that the burden of inherited and congenital anomalies may likely to diminish in the study populations along with the fall in ICF.


Assuntos
Pai , Casamento , Masculino , Humanos , Consanguinidade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais
3.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 6(1): dlae013, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328263

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial consumption and trends of therapeutic drugs for COVID-19 treatments, including corticosteroids, remdesivir and monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab) from April 2017 to September 2022 in a secondary care NHS Trust in England. Methods: A retrospective intervention time series analysis was conducted for April 2017 to September 2022 at the Mid Yorkshire Teaching NHS Trust. Data were retrieved from the pharmacy dispensing system as defined daily doses (DDDs) monthly and reported per 1000 occupied bed days (OBDs). Antimicrobial consumption and COVID-19 treatment options were measured. DDDs were calculated according to the classification of antimicrobials for systemic use (J01) and for other drugs classification. Trends for antimicrobial consumption and other therapeutic drugs for treating COVID-19 were also determined in each wave in England. Results: During the pandemic: total antibiotic consumption decreased from 826.4 to 728.2 DDDs per 1000 OBDs (P = 0.0067); piperacillin/tazobactam use increased (P < 0.0001) and ciprofloxacin use decreased (P < 0.0001); there were no changes in Access, Watch, Reserve antibiotic use, and the proportion of antifungal consumption was consistent throughout the study. The use of total antibiotics (P = 0.024), levofloxacin (P = 0.0007), piperacillin/tazobactam (P = 0.0015) and co-amoxiclav (P = 0.0198) increased during wave one. Consumption of COVID-19 treatment drugs was highest during wave two, with 624.3 DDDs per 1000 OBDs for dexamethasone (P = 0.4441), 6.8 DDDs per 1000 OBDs for remdesivir (P < 0.0001) and 35.01 DDDs per 1000 OBDs for tocilizumab (P = 0.2544). Discussion: This study determined the consumption of antimicrobials trends before and during the pandemic. The individual wave antimicrobial consumption indicates maximum consumption in the first wave, advocating for antimicrobial stewardship and preparedness for future pandemics.

6.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 149: 106215, 2024 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984284

RESUMO

The piezoelectric effect is widely known to have a significant physiological function in bone development, remodeling, and fracture repair. As a well-known piezoelectric material, barium titanate is particularly appealing as a scaffold layer to improve bone tissue engineering applications. Currently, the chemical bath deposition method is used to prepare green synthesized barium titanate coatings to improve mechanical and biological characteristics. Molarity of the solutions, an essential parameter in chemical synthesis, is changed at room temperature (0.1-1.2 Molar) to prepare coatings. The XRD spectra for as deposited coatings indicate amorphous behavior, while polycrystalline nature of coatings is observed after annealing (300 °C). Coatings prepared with solutions of relatively low molarities, i.e. from 0.1 to 0.8 M, exhibit mixed tetragonal - cubic phases. However, the tetragonal phase of Perovskite barium titanate is observed using solution molarities of 1.0 M and 1.2 M. Relatively high value of transmission, i.e. ∼80%, is observed for the coatings prepared with high molarities. Band gap of annealed coatings varies between 3.47 and 3.70 eV. For 1.2 M sample, the maximum spontaneous polarization (Ps) is 0.327x10-3 (µC/cm2) and the residual polarization (Pr) is 0.072x10-3 (µC/cm2). For 1.2M solution, a high hardness value (1510 HV) is recorded, with a fracture toughness of 28.80 MPam-1/2. Low values of weight loss, after dipping the coatings in simulated body fluid, is observed. The antibacterial activity of BaTiO3 is tested against E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. Drug encapsulation capability is also tested for different time intervals. As a result, CBD-based coatings are a promising nominee for use as scaffold and protective coatings.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Óxidos , Bário/química , Titânio/farmacologia , Titânio/química
8.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 5(5): dlad109, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37818393

RESUMO

Objectives: Healthcare institutions implement antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes to optimize the use of antibiotics. The focus is often on inpatient rather than outpatient settings. We aimed to explore perceptions of AMS stakeholders on effective interventions for appropriate antibiotic use in outpatient settings, and the role of clinical pharmacists in the AMS multidisciplinary team. Methods: A qualitative semi-structured interview study using thematic analysis by two researchers independently. Participants that practice AMS programmes were recruited from healthcare facilities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interviews were conducted face to face or online and transcribed verbatim. Results: Four themes emerged: (i) Perceived factors leading to unnecessary or inappropriate antibiotic prescribing and their impact on patients and the community; (ii) current outpatient AMS activities and perceived barriers and facilitators for their sustainability; (iii) suggested outpatient AMS strategies to be implemented in outpatient settings; and (iv) perceived future AMS implementation barriers and suggested mitigation strategies. Conclusions: Several AMS interventions, together with the presence of a clinical pharmacist, may be effective in improving antibiotic use in UAE outpatient settings. Future research should investigate the most appropriate AMS strategy considering barriers and possible mitigation strategies to ensure sustainability.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(18)2023 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37760476

RESUMO

Aquaporin (AQP) channels in endometrial cancer (EC) cells are of interest as pharmacological targets to reduce tumor progression. A panel of compounds, including AQP1 ion channel inhibitors (AqB011 and 5-(phenoxymethyl) furan-2-carbaldehyde, PMFC), were used to test the hypothesis that inhibition of key AQPs can limit the invasiveness of low- and high-grade EC cells. We evaluated the effects on transwell migration in EC cell lines (Ishikawa, MFE-280) and primary EC cells established from surgical tissues (n = 8). Quantitative PCR uncovered classes of AQPs not previously reported in EC that are differentially regulated by hormonal signaling. With estradiol, Ishikawa showed increased AQPs 5, 11, 12, and decreased AQPs 0 and 4; MFE-280 showed increased AQPs 0, 1, 3, 4, 8, and decreased AQP11. Protein expression was confirmed by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. AQPs 1, 4, and 11 were colocalized with plasma membrane marker; AQP8 was intracellular in Ishikawa and not detectable in MFE-280. AQP1 ion channel inhibitors (AqB011; PMFC) reduced invasiveness of EC cell lines in transwell chamber and spheroid dispersal assays. In Ishikawa cells, transwell invasiveness was reduced ~41% by 80 µM AqB011 and ~55% by 0.5 mM 5-PMFC. In MFE-280, 5-PMFC inhibited invasion by ~77%. In contrast, proposed inhibitors of AQP water pores (acetazolamide, ginsenoside, KeenMind, TGN-020, IMD-0354) were not effective. Treatments of cultured primary EC cells with AqB011 or PMFC significantly reduced the invasiveness of both low- and high-grade primary EC cells in transwell chambers. We confirmed the tumors expressed moderate to high levels of AQP1 detected by immunohistochemistry, whereas expression levels of AQP4, AQP8, and AQP11 were substantially lower. The anti-invasive potency of AqB011 treatment for EC tumor tissues showed a positive linear correlation with AQP1 expression levels. In summary, AQP1 ion channels are important for motility in both low- and high-grade EC subtypes. Inhibition of AQP1 is a promising strategy to inhibit EC invasiveness and improve patient outcomes.

10.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 75(Suppl 1): 680-688, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37206838

RESUMO

Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma rarely presents in head and neck and is even rarer in the sinonasal region. However, a sinonasal metastatic mass is usually of RCC origin. These metastases may present prior to the renal symptoms or may appear after primary treatment. Report a 60-year lady with epistaxis due to metastatic RCC. Calculate total published cases of sino-nasal metastasis of RCC. Classify according to sequence of primary and metastatic presentation. A computer aided search of PubMed and Google scholar databases was done using pertinent combinations of the keywords "renal cell carcinoma", "nose and paranasal sinus", "metastasis", "delayed metastasis" and "unusual presentation", revealing 1350 articles. 38 relevant articles were included in the review. Our case presented with epistaxis 3 years after primary RCC. She had a vascular left sided nasal mass which was excised enblock. Immunohistochemistry confirmed metastatic RCC. She is on oral chemotherapy and asymptomatic 1 year post excision. Literature search revealed 116 such cases. 19 patients presented within 10 years of RCC while 7 more were delayed metastasis. 17 cases presented primarily with nasal symptoms with subsequent incidental renal mass. Chronology of presentation was unavailable in the rest 73 cases. We recommend to consider the diagnosis of sinonasal metastatic RCC in a patient presenting with epistaxis or nasal mass, particularly with a past history of RCC. Also, any person with known diagnosis of RCC should undergo regular ENT examination for early diagnosis of sinonasal metastasis.

12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 44(10): 1569-1575, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36939089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Contaminated blood cultures result in extended hospital stays and extended durations of antibiotic therapy. Rapid molecular-based blood culture testing can speed positive culture detection and improve clinical outcomes, particularly when combined with an antimicrobial stewardship program. We investigated the impact of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) FilmArray Blood Culture Identification (BCID) system on clinical outcomes associated with contaminated blood cultures. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving secondary data analysis at a single institution. In this before-and-after study, patients with contaminated blood cultures in the period before PCR BCID was implemented (ie, the pre-PCR period; n = 305) were compared to patients with contaminated blood cultures during the period after PCR BCID was implemented (ie, the post-PCR implementation period; n = 464). The primary exposure was PCR status and the main outcomes of the study were length of hospital stay and days of antibiotic therapy. RESULTS: We did not detect a significant difference in adjusted mean length of hospital stay before (10.8 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8-11.9) and after (11.2 days; 95% CI, 10.2-12.3) the implementation of the rapid BCID panel in patients with contaminated blood cultures (P = .413). Likewise, adjusted mean days of antibiotic therapy between patients in pre-PCR group (5.1 days; 95% CI, 4.5-5.7) did not significantly differ from patients in post-PCR group (5.3 days; 95% CI, 4.8-5.9; P = .543). CONCLUSION: The introduction of a rapid PCR-based blood culture identification system did not improve clinical outcomes, such as length of hospital stay and duration of antibiotic therapy, in patients with contaminated blood cultures.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Hemocultura , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular
13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(4)2023 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36831372

RESUMO

Impairing the motility of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells is a compelling goal for new approaches to manage this highly invasive and rapidly lethal human brain cancer. Work here characterized an array of pharmacological inhibitors of membrane ion and water channels, alone and in combination, as tools for restraining glioblastoma spread in human GBM cell lines U87-MG and U251-MG. Aquaporins, AMPA glutamate receptors, and ion channel classes (shown to be upregulated in human GBM at the transcript level and linked to mechanisms of motility in other cell types) were selected as pharmacological targets for analyses. Effective compounds reduced the transwell invasiveness of U87-MG and U251-MG glioblastoma cells by 20-80% as compared with controls, without cytotoxicity. The compounds and doses used were: AqB013 (14 µM); nifedipine (25 µM); amiloride (10 µM); apamin (10 µM); 4-aminopyridine (250 µM); and CNQX (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione; 30 µM). Invasiveness was quantified in vitro across transwell filter chambers layered with extracellular matrix. Co-application of each of the ion channel agents with the water channel inhibitor AqB013 augmented the inhibition of invasion (20 to 50% greater than either agent alone). The motility impairment achieved by co-application of pharmacological agents differed between the GBM proneural-like subtype U87-MG and classical-like subtype U251-MG, showing patterns consistent with relative levels of target channel expression (Human Protein Atlas database). In addition, two compounds, xanthurenic acid and caelestine C (from the Davis Open Access Natural Product-based Library, Griffith University QLD), were discovered to block invasion at micromolar doses in both GBM lines (IC50 values from 0.03 to 1 µM), without cytotoxicity, as measured by full mitochondrial activity under conditions matching those in transwell assays and by normal growth in spheroid assays. Mechanisms of action of these agents based on published work are likely to involve modulation of glutamatergic receptor signaling. Treating glioblastoma by the concurrent inhibition of multiple channel targets could be a powerful approach for slowing invasive cell spread without cytotoxic side effects, potentially enhancing the effectiveness of clinical interventions focused on eradicating primary tumors.

15.
Elife ; 122023 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36695572

RESUMO

The emergence of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is alarming and demands in-depth knowledge for timely diagnosis. We performed genome-wide association analysis using 2237 clinical strains of Mtb to identify novel genetic factors that evoke drug resistance. In addition to the known direct targets, we identified for the first time, a strong association between mutations in DNA repair genes and the multidrug-resistant phenotype. To evaluate the impact of variants identified in the clinical samples in the evolution of drug resistance, we utilized knockouts and complemented strains in Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mtb. Results show that variant mutations compromised the functions of MutY and UvrB. MutY variant showed enhanced survival compared with wild-type (Rv) when the Mtb strains were subjected to multiple rounds of ex vivo antibiotic stress. In an in vivo guinea pig infection model, the MutY variant outcompeted the wild-type strain. We show that novel variant mutations in the DNA repair genes collectively compromise their functions and contribute to better survival under antibiotic/host stress conditions.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Animais , Cobaias , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Reparo do DNA , Mutação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
16.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 138: 105635, 2023 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36603524

RESUMO

A wide range of bioactive materials have been investigated for tissue engineering and regeneration. Barium titanate is a promising smart material to be used as scaffold for bone tissue engineering. Barium titanate coatings are prepared in the present study using chemical bath deposition technique. Coatings are prepared at room temperature with the variation in solution molarity from 0.1 to 1.2 M. Perovskite tetragonal phase is observed after annealing the samples at 300 °C using 1.0-1.2 M solutions. Normal-anomalous dielectric response is observed for annealed coatings. Maximum transmission of ∼55% and ∼82% is observed under as-prepared and annealed coatings, respectivly. Variation in direct band gap, i.e. 3.45-3.64 eV, is observed with varying molarity. High hardness of the coatings (∼1180 HV) is observed at 1.2M with fracture toughness of ∼22 MPam-1/2. Biodegradation studies show smaller values of weight loss even after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) after 26 weeks. Barium titanate coatings also show high antioxidant activity. BaTiO3's antibacterial reaction is evaluated against microorganisms such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity shows highest zone of inhibition (∼31 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Quantitative real-time PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile in cultivated cells. Thus, coatings produced without the use of hazardous solvents/reagents utilizing CBD technique are a potential material for biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Escherichia coli , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis/química , Bário , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química
17.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(12)2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547624

RESUMO

Background: An increase in the number of recurrent and recalcitrant dermatophytoses calls for a tool to guide the clinician to correlate in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data, antifungal treatment with clinical outcomes. This systematic review aims to explore a possible correlation between one aspect of this, previous antifungal exposure, and clinical outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature search for articles on previous antifungal treatment, treatment outcome, susceptibility methods used, organism (genus/species), and MIC values was conducted. Results: A total of 720 records were identified of which 19 articles met the inclusion criteria. Forty percent of the cases had contact with or travel to India, 28% originated from or had traveled to other countries where treatment unresponsive tinea infections had been reported. Tinea corporis was the most common clinical presentation and the species involved were Trichophyton (T.) indotineae and T. rubrum, followed by T. mentagrophyte/interdigitale complex and T. tonsurans. Nearly all patients had previously been exposed to one or more antifungals. The studies were too heterogeneous to perform a statistical analysis to test if previous antifungal exposure was related to resistance. Conclusions: Only a few studies were identified, which had both sufficient and robust data on in vitro susceptibility testing and clinical treatment failure. Further research on the value of susceptibility testing to improve clinical practice in the management of dermatophyte infections is needed.

18.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421244

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a well-known global threat due to the subsequent increase in antimicrobial usage. Several antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) strategies have been implemented to curb irrational prescribing and reduce the AMR burden. However, since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, it has enormously impacted the healthcare system and jeopardized public health, causing millions of deaths globally. Our semi-structured qualitative study aimed to explore the impact of COVID-19 on AMS activities in the UK hospitals. Seventeen interviews were conducted with health care professionals who were part of AMS teams (consultant medical microbiologists, infectious disease consultants, antimicrobial pharmacists). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. An inductive thematic framework was adopted to analyse and create the themes. After agreement of the hierarchical framework definition, all transcripts were coded accordingly. Four main themes and 15 sub-themes were identified. These main themes were: (1) AMS activities or strategies before and during the pandemic; (2) challenges to implementing AMS activities before and during the pandemic; (3) information from public authorities on AMS during the pandemic; and (4) new AMS activities/strategies adopted during the pandemic. Staff vacancies, redeploying of AMS staff to other duties and meeting the burden related to the COVID-19 and lack of resources were the most frequently identified contributing factors to withheld AMS activities during the pandemic. However, modifications to the hybrid working environment, i.e., remote or flexible working, allowed for resumption of AMS activities including virtual ward rounds, virtual meetings and other activities. Further research needs to assess the impact of the hybrid delivery system on AMS activities.

19.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 1001499, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36226302

RESUMO

Plant pathogens cause serious diseases to agricultural crops which lead to food insecurity in the world. To combat plant pathogens, various strategies have been developed including the use of agrochemicals. The overuse of these chemicals is now leading to the pesticide-resistant capability of pathogens. To overcome this problem, modern nanobiotechnology offers the production of alternative nano drugs. In this study, we used Mentha spicata for the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using the green synthesis method. The synthesis of Fe2O3 NPs was confirmed through various characterizations. UV-Vis analysis detected a characteristic absorbance at the spectral range of 272 nm. The SEM micrographic analysis at various magnifications displayed circular or rod-shaped nanoparticles with a size ranging from 21 to 82 nm. The elemental EDX characterization showed intense peaks with a weight percent of 57, 34.93, and 8.07 for Fe, O, and, Cl respectively. TGA analysis showed that weight loss at 44-182, 500, and 660°C with no further modification indicates the thermal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles. FTIR spectrum of uncalined detects various bands at 3331, 1625, and 1,437 cm-1 for the hydroxyl group. After calcination two bands at 527 and 434 cm-1 were observed for Fe-O. The antimicrobial in vitro study showed maximum growth inhibition of Phytophthora infestans by the concentration of 100 µg ml-1 of Fe2O3-PE and Fe2O3 NPs. Therefore, this study resulted that bio-stable iron oxide nanoparticles can be used as alternative antimicrobial agents.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 922727, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36081793

RESUMO

Aim: The aim was to evaluate the impact of intermittent fasting (IF) on human body mass index (BMI) and serum lipid profile thorough constructive rectification of gut microbiota. Methods and results: Fourteen healthy women and thirty-one men were included in the study. Their blood and fecal samples were collected before and at the end of the study. Blood parameters, anthropometric values, and gut microbiology were noted to investigate the impact of intermittent fasting (IF) on human gut microbiota and physiology. Our data revealed that IF reduces the body weight and improves blood lipid profile, such as increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and decreasing total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and very low-density lipoprotein levels. IF also decreases culturable aerobic bacterial count and increased fungal count. It was also found that the gut metagenome is altered considerably after IF. The human fecal bacterial diversity exhibited significant changes in decreased overall bacterial population, increased bacterial diversity (alpha diversity), and promoted evenness within the bacterial population at the species level. Anti-inflammatory bacteria Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were favorably increased, while pathogenic bacteria were decreased. Conclusion: Collectively, these results indicated that IF could improve lipid profile and body weight in humans, and the potential mechanisms might be via regulating gut microbiota. Significance and impact of the study: We demonstrated for the first time that IF improved body weight and blood lipid profile, indicating that IF could mitigate gut microbiota in humans.

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