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2.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 11(3): ofae065, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516384

RESUMO

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant has spread globally. However, the contribution of community versus household transmission to the overall risk of infection remains unclear. Methods: Between November 2021 and March 2022, we conducted an active case-finding study in an urban informal settlement with biweekly visits across 1174 households with 3364 residents. Individuals displaying coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related symptoms were identified, interviewed along with household contacts, and defined as index and secondary cases based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and symptom onset. Results: In 61 households, we detected a total of 94 RT-PCR-positive cases. Of 69 sequenced samples, 67 cases (97.1%) were attributed to the Omicron BA.1* variant. Among 35 of their households, the secondary attack rate was 50.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37.0%-63.0%). Women (relative risk [RR], 1.6 [95% CI, .9-2.7]), older individuals (median difference, 15 [95% CI, 2-21] years), and those reporting symptoms (RR, 1.73 [95% CI, 1.0-3.0]) had a significantly increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 secondary infection. Genomic analysis revealed substantial acquisition of viruses from the community even among households with other SARS-CoV-2 infections. After excluding community acquisition, we estimated a household secondary attack rate of 24.2% (95% CI, 11.9%-40.9%). Conclusions: These findings underscore the ongoing risk of community acquisition of SARS-CoV-2 among households with current infections. The observed high attack rate necessitates swift booster vaccination, rapid testing availability, and therapeutic options to mitigate the severe outcomes of COVID-19.

3.
Cell Host Microbe ; 32(4): 606-622.e8, 2024 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479396

RESUMO

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes acute, subacute, and chronic human arthritogenic diseases and, in rare instances, can lead to neurological complications and death. Here, we combined epidemiological, virological, histopathological, cytokine, molecular dynamics, metabolomic, proteomic, and genomic analyses to investigate viral and host factors that contribute to chikungunya-associated (CHIK) death. Our results indicate that CHIK deaths are associated with multi-organ infection, central nervous system damage, and elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines compared with survivors. The histopathologic, metabolite, and proteomic signatures of CHIK deaths reveal hemodynamic disorders and dysregulated immune responses. The CHIKV East-Central-South-African lineage infecting our study population causes both fatal and survival cases. Additionally, CHIKV infection impairs the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, as evidenced by an increase in permeability and altered tight junction protein expression. Overall, our findings improve the understanding of CHIK pathophysiology and the causes of fatal infections.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Humanos , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Proteômica , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo
4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(3): e0383123, 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38315011

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 XBB is a group of highly immune-evasive lineages of the Omicron variant of concern that emerged by recombining BA.2-descendent lineages and spread worldwide during 2023. In this study, we combine SARS-CoV-2 genomic data (n = 11,065 sequences) with epidemiological data of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) cases collected in Brazil between October 2022 and July 2023 to reconstruct the space-time dynamics and epidemiologic impact of XBB dissemination in the country. Our analyses revealed that the introduction and local emergence of lineages carrying convergent mutations within the Spike protein, especially F486P, F456L, and L455F, propelled the spread of XBB* lineages in Brazil. The average relative instantaneous reproduction numbers of XBB* + F486P, XBB* + F486P + F456L, and XBB* + F486P + F456L + L455F lineages in Brazil were estimated to be 1.24, 1.33, and 1.48 higher than that of other co-circulating lineages (mainly BQ.1*/BE*), respectively. Despite such a growth advantage, the dissemination of these XBB* lineages had a reduced impact on Brazil's epidemiological scenario concerning previous Omicron subvariants. The peak number of SARI cases from SARS-CoV-2 during the XBB wave was approximately 90%, 80%, and 70% lower than that observed during the previous BA.1*, BA.5*, and BQ.1* waves, respectively. These findings revealed the emergence of multiple XBB lineages with progressively increasing growth advantage, yet with relatively limited epidemiological impact in Brazil throughout 2023. The XBB* + F486P + F456L + L455F lineages stand out for their heightened transmissibility, warranting close monitoring in the months ahead. IMPORTANCE: Brazil was one the most affected countries by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, with more than 700,000 deaths by mid-2023. This study reconstructs the dissemination of the virus in the country in the first half of 2023, a period characterized by the dissemination of descendants of XBB.1, a recombinant of Omicron BA.2 lineages evolved in late 2022. The analysis supports that XBB dissemination was marked by the continuous emergence of indigenous lineages bearing similar mutations in key sites of their Spike protein, a process followed by continuous increments in transmissibility, and without repercussions in the incidence of severe cases. Thus, the results suggest that the epidemiological impact of the spread of a SARS-CoV-2 variant is influenced by an intricate interplay of factors that extend beyond the virus's transmissibility alone. The study also underlines the need for SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance that allows the monitoring of its ever-shifting composition.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
5.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 10: e47673, 2024 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194263

RESUMO

Globally, millions of lives are impacted every year by infectious diseases outbreaks. Comprehensive and innovative surveillance strategies aiming at early alert and timely containment of emerging and reemerging pathogens are a pressing priority. Shortcomings and delays in current pathogen surveillance practices further disturbed informing responses, interventions, and mitigation of recent pandemics, including H1N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2. We present the design principles of the architecture for an early-alert surveillance system that leverages the vast available data landscape, including syndromic data from primary health care, drug sales, and rumors from the lay media and social media to identify areas with an increased number of cases of respiratory disease. In these potentially affected areas, an intensive and fast sample collection and advanced high-throughput genome sequencing analyses would inform on circulating known or novel pathogens by metagenomics-enabled pathogen characterization. Concurrently, the integration of bioclimatic and socioeconomic data, as well as transportation and mobility network data, into a data analytics platform, coupled with advanced mathematical modeling using artificial intelligence or machine learning, will enable more accurate estimation of outbreak spread risk. Such an approach aims to readily identify and characterize regions in the early stages of an outbreak development, as well as model risk and patterns of spread, informing targeted mitigation and control measures. A fully operational system must integrate diverse and robust data streams to translate data into actionable intelligence and actions, ultimately paving the way toward constructing next-generation surveillance systems.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Ciência de Dados , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle
6.
Heliyon ; 10(1): e23670, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38187242

RESUMO

Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to SARS-CoV-2, inhibits infection of susceptible cells, and activates the complement system via the lectin pathway. In this study, we investigated the association of MBL2 polymorphisms with the risk of hospitalization and clinical worsening in patients with COVID-19. A total of 550 patients with COVID-19 were included (94 non-hospitalized and 456 hospitalized). Polymorphisms in MBL2 exon 1 (codons 52, 54 and 57) and promoter region (-550, -221, and +4) were determined by real-time PCR. MBL and complement proteins were measured by Luminex. A higher frequency of the H/H genotype and the HYPA haplotype was observed in non-hospitalized patients when compared to hospitalized. In addition, critically ill patients carrying haplotypes associated with high MBL levels (HYPA/HYPA + HYPA/LYPA + HYPA/LYQA + LYPA/LYQA + LYPA/LYPA + LYQA/LYQA + LXPA/HYPA + LXPA/LYQA + LXPA/LYPA) were protected against lower oxygen saturation levels (P = 0.02), use of invasive ventilation use (P = 0.02, OR 0.38), and shock (P = 0.01, OR 0.40), independent of other potential confounders adjusted by multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that variants in MBL2 associated with high MBL levels may play a protective role in the clinical course of COVID-19.

7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 139: 92-100, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38056689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a reemerging global public health concern, which causes acute febrile illness, rash, and arthralgia and may affect both mothers and infants during pregnancy. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of CHIKV in Africa remains understudied. METHODS: Our cohort study screened 1006 pregnant women with a Zika/dengue/CHIKV rapid test at two clinics in Nigeria between 2019 and 2022. Women who tested positive for the rapid test were followed through their pregnancy and their infants were observed for 6 months, with a subset tested by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization, to investigate seropositivity rates and MTCT of CHIKV. RESULTS: Of the 1006, 119 tested positive for CHIKV immunoglobulin (Ig)M, of which 36 underwent detailed laboratory tests. While none of the IgM reactive samples were RT-PCR positive, 14 symptomatic pregnant women were confirmed by CHIKV neutralization test. Twelve babies were followed with eight normal and four abnormal outcomes, including stillbirth, cleft lip/palate with microcephaly, preterm delivery, polydactyly with sepsis, and jaundice. CHIKV IgM testing identified three possible antepartum transmissions. CONCLUSION: In Nigeria, we found significant CHIKV infection in pregnancy and possible CHIKV antepartum transmission associated with birth abnormalities.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Gestantes , Estudos de Coortes , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Fenda Labial/complicações , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Febre de Chikungunya/diagnóstico , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/complicações , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Natimorto , Imunoglobulina M
8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 139: 159-167, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 BQ.1* variant rapidly spread globally in late 2022, posing a challenge due to its increased immune evasion. METHODS: We conducted a prevalence survey in Brazil from November 16 to December 22, 2022, as part of a cohort study. We conducted interviews and collected nasal samples for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing and whole-genome sequencing. Cumulative incidence was estimated using RT-PCR positivity, cycle threshold values, and external data on the dynamics of RT-PCR positivity following infection. RESULTS: Among 535 participants, 54% had documented SARS-CoV-2 exposure before this outbreak and 74% had received COVID-19 vaccination. In this study, 14.8% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, with BQ.1* identified in 90.7% of cases. Using case data and cycle threshold values, cumulative incidence was estimated at 56% (95% confidence interval, 36-88%). Of the 79 positive participants, 48.1% had a symptomatic illness, with a lower proportion fulfilling the World Health Organization COVID-19 case definition compared to prior Omicron waves. No participants required medical attention. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high population-level hybrid immunity, the BQ.1* variant attacked 56% of our population. Lower disease severity was associated with BQ.1* compared to prior Omicron variants. Hybrid immunity may provide protection against future SARS-CoV-2 variants but in this case was not able to prevent widespread transmission.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/genética , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Adaptativa
9.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1221682, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37601355

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis is an opportunistic disease in HIV-1 infected individuals, unrecognized as a determining factor for AIDS diagnosis. The growing geographical overlap of HIV-1 and Leishmania infections is an emerging challenge worldwide, as co-infection increases morbidity and mortality for both infections. Here, we determined the prevalence of people living with HIV (PWH) with a previous or ongoing infection by Leishmania infantum and investigated the virological and immunological factors associated with co-infection. We adopted a two-stage cross-sectional cohort (CSC) design (CSC-I, n = 5,346 and CSC-II, n = 317) of treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals in Bahia, Brazil. In CSC-I, samples collected between 1998 and 2013 were used for serological screening for leishmaniasis by an in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with SLA (Soluble Leishmania infantum Antigen), resulting in a prevalence of previous or ongoing infection of 16.27%. Next, 317 PWH were prospectively recruited from July 2014 to December 2015 with the collection of sociodemographic and clinical data. Serological validation by two different immunoassays confirmed a prevalence of 15.46 and 8.20% by anti-SLA, and anti-HSP70 serology, respectively, whereas 4.73% were double-positive (DP). Stratification of these 317 individuals in DP and double-negative (DN) revealed a significant reduction of CD4+ counts and CD4+/CD8+ ratios and a tendency of increased viral load in the DP group, as compared to DN. No statistical differences in HIV-1 subtype distribution were observed between the two groups. However, we found a significant increase of CXCL10 (p = 0.0076) and a tendency of increased CXCL9 (p = 0.061) in individuals with DP serology, demonstrating intensified immune activation in this group. These findings were corroborated at the transcriptome level in independent Leishmania- and HIV-1-infected cohorts (Swiss HIV Cohort and Piaui Northeast Brazil Cohort), indicating that CXCL10 transcripts are shared by the IFN-dominated immune activation gene signatures of both pathogens and positively correlated to viral load in untreated PWH. This study demonstrated a high prevalence of PWH with L. infantum seropositivity in Bahia, Brazil, linked to IFN-mediated immune activation and a significant decrease in CD4+ levels. Our results highlight the urgent need to increase awareness and define public health strategies for the management and prevention of HIV-1 and L. infantum co-infection.

10.
Viruses ; 15(8)2023 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37631993

RESUMO

(1) Background: The HIV subtype D is generally associated with a faster decline in CD4+ T cell counts, a higher viral load, and a faster progression to AIDS. However, it is still poorly characterized in Brazil. In this study, we used genomics and epidemiological data to investigate the transmission dynamics of HIV subtype D in the state of Bahia, Northeast Brazil. (2) Methods: To achieve this goal, we obtained four novel HIV-1 subtype D partial pol genome sequences using the Sanger method. To understand the emergence of this novel subtype in the state of Bahia, we used phylodynamic analysis on a dataset comprising 3704 pol genome sequences downloaded from the Los Alamos database. (3) Results: Our analysis revealed three branching patterns, indicating multiple introductions of the HIV-1 subtype D in Brazil from the late 1980s to the late 2000s and a single introduction event in the state of Bahia. Our data further suggest that these introductions most likely originated from European, Eastern African, Western African, and Southern African countries. (4) Conclusion: Understanding the distribution of HIV-1 viral strains and their temporal dynamics is crucial for monitoring the real-time evolution of circulating subtypes and recombinant forms, as well as for designing novel diagnostic and vaccination strategies. We advocate for a shift to active surveillance, to ensure adequate preparedness for future epidemics mediated by emerging viral strains.


Assuntos
Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1 , Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Genômica , Bases de Dados Factuais
11.
Microorganisms ; 11(8)2023 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37630497

RESUMO

Skin ulcers of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are characterized by a localized inflammatory response mediated by innate and adaptive immune cells, including dendritic cells (DC) and natural killer (NK) cells. Bidirectional interactions between DCs and NK cells contribute to tailor leishmaniasis outcome. Despite advances in the Leishmania biology field in recent decades, the mechanisms involved in DC/NK-mediated control of Leishmania sp. pathogenesis as well as the cellular and molecular players involved in such interaction remain unclear. The present study sought to investigate canonical pathways associated with CL arising from Leishmania braziliensis infection. Initially, two publicly available microarray datasets of skin biopsies from active CL lesions were analyzed, and five pathways were identified using differentially expressed genes. The "Crosstalk between DCs and NK cells" pathway was notable due to a high number of modulated genes. The molecules significantly involved in this pathway were identified, and our findings were validated in newly obtained CL biopsies. We found increased expression of TLR4, TNFRSF1B, IL-15, IL-6, CD40, CCR7, TNF and IFNG, confirming the analysis of publicly available datasets. These findings reveal the "crosstalk between DCs and NK cells" as a potential pathway to be further explored in the pathogenesis of CL, especially the expression of CCR7, which is correlated with lesion development.

12.
Sci Data ; 10(1): 460, 2023 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37452060

RESUMO

Mayaro Virus (MAYV) is an emerging health threat in the Americas that can cause febrile illness as well as debilitating arthralgia or arthritis. To better understand the geographic distribution of MAYV risk, we developed a georeferenced database of MAYV occurrence based on peer-reviewed literature and unpublished reports. Here we present this compendium, which includes both point and polygon locations linked to occurrence data documented from its discovery in 1954 until 2022. We describe all methods used to develop the database including data collection, georeferencing, management and quality-control. We also describe a customized grading system used to assess the quality of each study included in our review. The result is a comprehensive, evidence-graded database of confirmed MAYV occurrence in humans, non-human animals, and arthropods to-date, containing 262 geo-positioned occurrences in total. This database - which can be updated over time - may be useful for local spill-over risk assessment, epidemiological modelling to understand key transmission dynamics and drivers of MAYV spread, as well as identification of major surveillance gaps.


Assuntos
Alphavirus , Animais , América , Artrópodes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos
13.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 13(13)2023 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37443626

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global public health system has been severely tested by the COVID-19 pandemic. Mass testing was essential in controlling the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2; however, its implementation has encountered challenges, particularly in low-income countries. The urgent need for rapid and accurate tests for SARS-CoV-2 has proven to be extremely important. Point-of-care tests using the CRISPR system for COVID-19 have shown promise, with a reported high sensitivity and rapid detection. The performance of a CRISPR-based SARS-CoV-2 testing system was reported in this study. METHODS: A total of 29 nasopharyngeal samples were evaluated, including 23 samples from individuals suspected of COVID-19, and six samples positive for H3N2 or respiratory syncytial virus. Two reference samples with known concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 RNA (3000 RNA copies/mL) or viral titer determined by plaque assay (105 PFU/mL) were also evaluated. The LAMP technique was employed to amplify the ORF1ab gene and the results were analyzed using a Gemini XPS fluorescence reader. RESULTS: The RT-LAMP-CRISPR/Cas12 assay showed 100% concordance compared to RT-PCR. The RT-PCR presented a detection limit of 0.01 PFU/mL and the CRISPR/Cas12 system showed a limit of 15.6 PFU/mL. The RT-PCR sensitivity was approximately 8 RNA copies/µL and CRISPR/Cas12 at 84 RNA copies/µL. CONCLUSION: The RT-LAMP-CRISPR/Cas12a assay offered a promising alternative for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 and reinforces that CRISPR-based diagnostic techniques can be an alternative for fast and accurate assays.

14.
Viruses ; 15(6)2023 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37376536

RESUMO

The Americas, particularly Brazil, were greatly impacted by the widespread Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in 2015 and 2016. Efforts were made to implement genomic surveillance of ZIKV as part of the public health responses. The accuracy of spatiotemporal reconstructions of the epidemic spread relies on the unbiased sampling of the transmission process. In the early stages of the outbreak, we recruited patients exhibiting clinical symptoms of arbovirus-like infection from Salvador and Campo Formoso, Bahia, in Northeast Brazil. Between May 2015 and June 2016, we identified 21 cases of acute ZIKV infection and subsequently recovered 14 near full-length sequences using the amplicon tiling multiplex approach with nanopore sequencing. We performed a time-calibrated discrete phylogeographic analysis to trace the spread and migration history of the ZIKV. Our phylogenetic analysis supports a consistent relationship between ZIKV migration from Northeast to Southeast Brazil and its subsequent dissemination beyond Brazil. Additionally, our analysis provides insights into the migration of ZIKV from Brazil to Haiti and the role Brazil played in the spread of ZIKV to other countries, such as Singapore, the USA, and the Dominican Republic. The data generated by this study enhances our understanding of ZIKV dynamics and supports the existing knowledge, which can aid in future surveillance efforts against the virus.


Assuntos
Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Humanos , Zika virus/genética , Brasil/epidemiologia , Filogenia , América/epidemiologia
15.
Viruses ; 15(6)2023 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37376620

RESUMO

Brazil is one of the countries that experienced an epidemic of microcephaly and other congenital manifestations related to maternal Zika virus infection which can result in Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). Since the Zika virus can modulate the immune system, studying mothers' and children's immune profiles become essential to better understanding CZS development. Therefore, we investigated the lymphocyte population profile of children who developed CZS and their mothers' immune response in this study. The study groups were formed from the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) (CZS+ group) result. To evaluate the lymphocyte population profile, we performed phenotyping of peripheral lymphocytes and quantification of serum cytokine levels. The immunophenotyping and cytokine profile was correlated between CSZ+ children and their mothers. Both groups exhibited increased interleukin-17 levels and a reduction in the subpopulation of CD4+ T lymphocytes. In contrast, the maternal group showed a reduction in the population of B lymphocytes. Thus, the development of CZS is related to the presence of an inflammatory immune profile in children and their mothers characterized by Th17 activation.


Assuntos
Microcefalia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Criança , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Mães , Brasil/epidemiologia
16.
J Glob Health ; 13: 06015, 2023 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37166260

RESUMO

Background: There is limited data on the prevalence and risk factors for long COVID and few prospective studies with appropriate control groups and adequate sample sizes. We performed a prospective study to determine the prevalence and risk factors for long COVID. Methods: We recruited individuals aged ≥15 years who were clinically suspected of having an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection from September 2020 to April 2021. We collected nasopharyngeal swabs three to five days following symptom onset for analysing using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We also collected clinical and sociodemographic characteristics from both SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative participants using structured questionnaires. We followed-up the participants via telephone interview to assess early outcomes and persistent symptoms. For COVID-19 cases, 5D-3L EuroQol questionnaire was used to assess the impact of symptoms on quality of life. Results: We followed 814 participants (412 COVID-19 positive and 402 COVID-19 negative persons). Most (n = 741/814) had mild symptoms. Both groups had similar sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, except for the hospitalization rate (15.8% in the COVID-19 positive vs 1.5% in the COVID-19 negative group). One month after disease onset, 122/412 (29.6%) individuals in the COVID-19 positive (long COVID) and 24 (6%) in the COVID-19 negative group reported residual symptoms. In the long COVID group, fatigue, olfactory disorder, and myalgia were the most frequent symptoms in the acute phase. Compared to recovered individuals, older age and having more than five symptoms during the acute phase were risk factors for long COVID. Quality of life was evaluated in 102 out of 122 cases of long COVID, with 57 (55.9%) reporting an impact in at least one dimension of the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 Level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire. Conclusions: In this prospective study consisting predominantly of individuals with mild disease, the persistence of symptoms after an acute respiratory illness was associated with a diagnosis of COVID-19. Polysymptomatic acute disease and older age were risk factors for long COVID.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome Pós-COVID-19 Aguda , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos de Coortes , Qualidade de Vida , Prevalência , Grupos Controle , Fatores de Risco
17.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 56: e05982022, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37222351

RESUMO

Differential diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from other febrile diseases is one of several challenges imposed by the pandemic. We present a case of severe malaria and COVID-19 coinfection in a non-malaria-endemic region. A 44-year-old female with malaise, fever, hypotension, jaundice, and enlarged liver and spleen was admitted to the intensive care unit. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were positive. Rapid tests, microscopy, and quantitative PCR were positive for Plasmodium vivax. Cytokine storm profiles were identified. We could not determine whether the severe vivax malaria in our patient was triggered by COVID-19 coinfection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Coinfecção , Malária , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Brasil , SARS-CoV-2 , Diagnóstico Diferencial
18.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36673140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-collected saliva samples can increase the diagnostic efficiency and benefit healthcare workers, patient care, and infection control. This study evaluated the performance of self-collected saliva samples compared to nasopharyngeal swabs using three commercial kits for the qualitative detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Matched nasopharyngeal and saliva samples were collected from 103 patients with either asymptomatic or symptomatic COVID-19. Both samples were evaluated using three commercial kits (TaqCheck, Allplex, and TaqPath). To evaluate sample stability, viral RNA extraction was performed in the presence or absence of an RNA-stabilizing solution. Storage conditions, including the duration, temperature, and stability after freezing and thawing of the samples, were also evaluated. RESULTS: All the saliva samples showed 100% concordance with the nasopharyngeal swab results using TaqCheck and Allplex kits, and 93% using TaqPath kit. No difference was observed in the samples that used the RNA-stabilizing solution compared to the group without the solution. The Ct values of the freeze-thawed samples after 30 days were higher than those on day 0; however, the results were consistent the fresh samples. CONCLUSION: The high concordance of SARS-CoV-2 detection via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in matched saliva and nasopharyngeal samples using different commercial assays reinforces the concept that self-collected saliva samples are non-invasive, rapid, and reliable for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 infection.

19.
Viruses ; 15(1)2023 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36680261

RESUMO

The immunological mechanisms involved in the development of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) have yet to be fully clarified. This study aims to assess the immuno-inflammatory profile of mothers and their children who have been diagnosed with CZS. Blood samples, which were confirmed clinically using the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), were collected from children with CZS and their mothers (CZS+ group). Samples were also collected from children who did not develop CZS and had a negative PRNT result and from their mothers (CZS- group). The data demonstrated a correlation between the leukocyte profile of CZS+ children and their mothers, more evident in monocytes. Monocytes from mothers of CZS+ children showed low expression of HLA and elevated hydrogen peroxide production. CZS+ children presented standard HLA expression and a higher hydrogen peroxide concentration than CZS- children. Monocyte superoxide dismutase activity remained functional. Moreover, when assessing the monocyte polarization, it was observed that there was no difference in nitrite concentrations; however, there was a decrease in arginase activity in CZS+ children. These data suggest that ZIKV infection induces a maternal immuno-inflammatory background related to the child's inflammatory response after birth, possibly affecting the development and progression of congenital Zika syndrome.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Gravidez , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Imunidade , Brasil
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 56: e0598, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1441085

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Differential diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from other febrile diseases is one of several challenges imposed by the pandemic. We present a case of severe malaria and COVID-19 coinfection in a non-malaria-endemic region. A 44-year-old female with malaise, fever, hypotension, jaundice, and enlarged liver and spleen was admitted to the intensive care unit. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were positive. Rapid tests, microscopy, and quantitative PCR were positive for Plasmodium vivax. Cytokine storm profiles were identified. We could not determine whether the severe vivax malaria in our patient was triggered by COVID-19 coinfection.

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