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1.
Eur Psychiatry ; 67(1): e21, 2024 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38418416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with a psychotic disorder, rates of substance use (tobacco, cannabis, and alcohol) are higher compared to the general population. However, little is known about associations between substance use and self-reported aspects of social functioning in patients with a psychotic disorder. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 281 community-dwelling patients with a psychotic disorder, linear regression models were used to assess associations between substance use (tobacco, cannabis, or alcohol) and self-reported aspects of social functioning (perceived social support, stigmatization, social participation, or loneliness) adjusting for confounders (age, gender, and severity of psychopathology). RESULTS: Compared to nonsmokers, both intermediate and heavy smokers reported lower scores on loneliness (E = -0.580, SE = 0.258, p = 0.025 and E = -0.547, SE = 0,272, p = 0.046, respectively). Daily cannabis users reported less social participation deficits than non-cannabis users (E = -0.348, SE = 0.145, p = 0.017). Problematic alcohol use was associated with more perceived social support compared to non-alcohol use (E = 3.152, SE = 1.102, p = 0.005). Polysubstance users reported less loneliness compared to no users (E = -0.569, SE = 0.287, p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: Substance use in patients with psychosis is associated with more favorable scores on various self-reported aspects of social functioning.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Autorrelato , Interação Social , Estudos Transversais , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Etanol
2.
Internet Interv ; 35: 100717, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328276

RESUMO

Background: Temstem is a smartphone app developed with and for clinical voice hearing individuals with the aim to reduce their voice hearing distress and improve social functioning. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with adult outpatients suffering from distressing and frequent auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) was conducted. Participants were randomized to unguided 'Temstem+AVH monitoring' or unguided 'AVH monitoring only' (control condition). Assessments were performed at baseline, post-intervention (week 5-6), and follow-up (week 9-10). Primary outcomes were voice hearing distress and social functioning, as measured with Experience Sampling Method (ESM), consisting of multiple daily questionnaires during six days. In addition, voices and mood were self-monitored with help of a daily reflective questionnaire. Analyses were linear regression models (intention-to-treat). Results: 44 Participants were allocated to Temstem and 45 to the control condition. No significant differences between the groups were found on both primary outcomes. Conclusion: Our results do not support the effectiveness of stand-alone use of Temstem versus symptom monitoring on voice hearing distress or social functioning in voice hearing individuals. In order to potentially improve effectiveness of an mHealth tool in a population of people with frequent and distressing voices, we recommend to involve persons with lived experience in all stages of development and research; to thoroughly test the (technological) usability before performing an RCT; to test whether guidance of a therapist is needed to optimize effectiveness; and to provide prompts to remind the user to actually use the tool.

3.
Psychol Med ; 53(6): 2317-2327, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34664546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits may be characteristic for only a subgroup of first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the link with clinical and functional outcomes is less profound than previously thought. This study aimed to identify cognitive subgroups in a large sample of FEP using a clustering approach with healthy controls as a reference group, subsequently linking cognitive subgroups to clinical and functional outcomes. METHODS: 204 FEP patients were included. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed using baseline brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS). Cognitive subgroups were compared to 40 controls and linked to longitudinal clinical and functional outcomes (PANSS, GAF, self-reported WHODAS 2.0) up to 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: Three distinct cognitive clusters emerged: relative to controls, we found one cluster with preserved cognition (n = 76), one moderately impaired cluster (n = 74) and one severely impaired cluster (n = 54). Patients with severely impaired cognition had more severe clinical symptoms at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up as compared to patients with preserved cognition. General functioning (GAF) in the severely impaired cluster was significantly lower than in those with preserved cognition at baseline and showed trend-level effects at 6- and 12-month follow-up. No significant differences in self-reported functional outcome (WHODAS 2.0) were present. CONCLUSIONS: Current results demonstrate the existence of three distinct cognitive subgroups, corresponding with clinical outcome at baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up. Importantly, the cognitively preserved subgroup was larger than the severely impaired group. Early identification of discrete cognitive profiles can offer valuable information about the clinical outcome but may not be relevant in predicting self-reported functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Cognição , Análise por Conglomerados , Testes Neuropsicológicos
4.
Front Psychiatry ; 14: 1134071, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38268558

RESUMO

Background: The highly recurrent nature of Major Depressive Disorder is a major contributor to disability and health care costs. Several studies indicate that recurrence may be prevented with Preventive Cognitive Therapy (PCT). This study is the first to perform an economic evaluation of PCT in comparison with care as usual for recurrently depressed patients who experienced two or more depressive episodes and remitted after receiving Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Methods: An economic evaluation from the societal perspective was performed alongside a randomized trial (N = 214). Health-related quality of life (QALYs), depression-free days, health care utilization, and productivity losses were measured between randomization and 15 months follow-up. The costs were indexed to the reference year 2014. Results: QALY gains did not differ significantly between the groups (p = 0.69). Depression-free days were higher after PCT (p = 0.02). Societal costs of PCT were 10,417 euro and for care as usual 9,545 euro per person. We found a 47% likelihood that PCT led to additional QALYs at higher costs, and there was a 26% likelihood that PCT led to fewer QALYs at higher costs. When depression-free days was used as an outcome, we found PCT had a 72% likelihood of leading to more depression-free days at higher costs than care as usual and a 27% likelihood of leading to more depression-free days at lower societal costs. Limitations: The 15-month follow-up might be too short to draw long-term conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of the PCT. The data collected for this study is part of an RCT to examine the effectiveness of adding PCT to care as usual. Therefore, the study was powered primarily to detect an effect in time to relapse/recurrences. Conclusion: The economic evaluation is slightly in favour of the PCT condition when depression-free days is used as an outcome. PCT is not cost-effective given the high costs per additional QALYs from the societal perspective when QALYs are the effect measure. Clinical trial registration: https://www.onderzoekmetmensen.nl/en, identifier NL2482.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 950, 2022 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35549681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with a severe mental illness (SMI) increasingly receive ambulatory forms of care and support. The trend of deinstitutionalization accelerated in the Netherlands from 2008 and onwards without sufficient understanding of its consequences. The study protocol herein focuses on deinstitutionalization from the perspective of adults with an SMI living within the community in Amsterdam and aims at delivering better insight into, amongst others, their recovery, quality of life, societal participation and needs for care and support. METHODS: A cohort design will be used. A representative sample of community-dwelling adults with an SMI, including those in care (n = 650) and not in care (n = 150), will be followed over time. During a two-year time period, participants will be interviewed twice using a wide-ranging set of validated instruments. Interview data will be matched with administrative data about the care process, as retrieved from their patient files. Primary outcomes are changes over time in recovery, societal participation and quality of life, controlled for the occurrence of adverse life-events during follow-up. Additionally, prevalence estimates of and associations between social functioning, safety and discrimination, substance use and health indicators will be investigated. DISCUSSION: The study protocol aims at delivering a comprehensive insight into the needs of community-dwelling adults with an SMI based on which ambulatory care and support can best be provided to optimally promote their social recovery and well-being.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Desinstitucionalização , Humanos , Vida Independente , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
6.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 16(2): 139-146, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754470

RESUMO

AIM: There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal timing of discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs for patients with first episode psychosis. Although most guidelines recommend maintenance therapy for at least 1 or 2 years after reaching remission, study results indicate that early discontinuation may be beneficial for at least a subsample of patients. To date, little is known about which medication strategies are applied in patients recovering from a first psychotic episode. In this study, we examined the beliefs and practices of clinicians on medication discontinuation. METHODS: We performed a survey among 50 experienced Dutch psychiatrists to assess how often specific treatment strategies have been applied in the past 12 months, as well as their knowledge and expectations with respect to medication discontinuation. RESULTS: Psychiatrists estimated that, after remission, they continued medication at the same dose for at least 12 months in 51.2% of cases, continued in a reduced dose in 33.8% of cases and discontinued medication in 9.1% of cases after 4.4 months of remission on average. Although the medication is discontinued in only a relatively small proportion of patients, almost half of all clinicians (45.9%) used this strategy at least once in the past 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is substantial practice variation in antipsychotic medication strategies after remission from a first psychotic episode. Future research on long-term effects of early medication discontinuation can guide clinicians in making evidence-based decisions when treating first-episode patients.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos , Psiquiatria , Transtornos Psicóticos , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Indução de Remissão , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(1)2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936243

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine satisfaction with pharmacologic treatment in patients who received antipsychotic polypharmacy compared to antipsychotic monotherapy.Methods: This longitudinal cohort study was conducted in two mental health care institutes in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, among a randomly selected sample of in- and outpatients with a severe mental illness. Analyses were performed on data collected in 2011 for 185 patients who were diagnosed with schizophrenia or unspecified psychosis according to DSM-IV criteria. The outcome measure was the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, version II. One-way analyses of covariance were performed to examine differences in treatment satisfaction between patients who received antipsychotic polypharmacy compared to antipsychotic monotherapy while controlling for the effects of clozapine, antipsychotic dose, and use of long-acting injectable antipsychotics.Results: Twenty percent of patients in this sample received 2 antipsychotic agents; in half of those patients, this involved a combination with clozapine. Polypharmacy resulted in less satisfaction with side effects compared to monotherapy (P = .002). No difference was found in perceived effectiveness (P = .168) or overall medication satisfaction (P = .379).Conclusions: These results confirm that antipsychotic polypharmacy is common in a random in- and outpatient sample. Patients who receive 2 antipsychotic agents are just as positive about the effectiveness and ease of use of and overall satisfaction with their medication compared to those who receive antipsychotic monotherapy. They are, however, less satisfied with perceived side effects of their medication, which may indicate that side effect profiles of antipsychotic combinations are less favorable.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Satisfação do Paciente , Polimedicação , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Dual Diagn ; 17(4): 333-343, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Economic evaluations of interventions for dual diagnosis patients are scarce. A recent randomized controlled trial has supported the effectiveness of the Self-wise, Otherwise, Streetwise (SOS) training to reduce victimization in dual diagnosis patients. The purpose of the current study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of the SOS training as an add-on to care as usual (CAU). METHODS: We performed an economic evaluation from a societal perspective alongside the SOS trial. Participants were 250 dual diagnosis patients recruited at three locations from a large urban psychiatric service in the Netherlands. The main outcomes were treatment response for victimization and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Both costs and effects were measured across a 14-month follow-up. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between CAU + SOS and CAU in total costs (mean difference €4,859; 95% CI [-€4,795 to €14,513]) and QALY gains (mean difference 0.0012; 95% CI [-0.05 to 0.05]). Significantly more participants in CAU + SOS achieved treatment response for victimization compared to CAU (68% vs. 54%; mean difference 0.14; 95% CI [0.02 to 0.26]). The cost-effectiveness analysis indicated an 83% likelihood that CAU + SOS resulted in a higher treatment response rate for victimization at higher costs compared to CAU. The cost-utility analysis indicated that adding SOS-training to CAU is probably not cost-effective at conventional willingness-to-pay levels for QALYs. CONCLUSIONS: At a societal willingness-to-pay of €38,000 or more per extra treatment responder, adding SOS-training to usual care is probably more attractive than usual care alone with regard to cost-effectiveness. This is a considerable willingness to pay. However, the direct costs of offering the SOS training are expected to be minor. Our findings should be interpreted with caution due to the short follow-up period and absence of data on potential reductions in police and judicial costs other than prison costs.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Humanos , Países Baixos
10.
J Pers Disord ; 35(3): 373-392, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682194

RESUMO

The authors present an economic evaluation performed alongside a randomized controlled trial of mentalization-based treatment in a day hospital setting (MBT-DH) versus specialist treatment as usual (S-TAU) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) with a 36-month follow-up period. Ninety-five patients from two Dutch treatment institutes were randomly assigned. Societal costs were compared with the proportion of BPD remissions and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) measured using the five-dimensional EuroQol instrument. The incremental societal costs for one additional QALY could not be calculated. The costs for one additional BPD remission with MBT-DH are approximately €29,000. There was a 58% likelihood that MBT-DH leads to more remitted patients at additional costs compared with S-TAU, and a 35% likelihood that MBT-DH leads to more remissions at lower costs. MBT-DH is not cost-effective compared with S-TAU with QALYs as the outcome, and slightly more cost-effective than S-TAU at 36 months with BPD symptoms as the outcome.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Mentalização , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Seguimentos , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida
11.
Trials ; 21(1): 147, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medication is effective for symptomatic treatment in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. After symptom remission, continuation of antipsychotic treatment is associated with lower relapse rates and lower symptom severity compared to dose reduction/discontinuation. Therefore, most guidelines recommend continuation of treatment with antipsychotic medication for at least 1 year. Recently, however, these guidelines have been questioned as one study has shown that more patients achieved long-term functional remission in an early discontinuation condition-a finding that was not replicated in another recently published long-term study. METHODS/DESIGN: The HAMLETT (Handling Antipsychotic Medication Long-term Evaluation of Targeted Treatment) study is a multicenter pragmatic single-blind randomized controlled trial in two parallel conditions (1:1) investigating the effects of continuation versus dose-reduction/discontinuation of antipsychotic medication after remission of a first episode of psychosis (FEP) on personal and social functioning, psychotic symptom severity, and health-related quality of life. In total 512 participants will be included, aged between 16 and 60 years, in symptomatic remission from a FEP for 3-6 months, and for whom psychosis was not associated with severe or life-threatening self-harm or violence. Recruitment will take place at 24 Dutch sites. Patients are randomized (1:1) to: continuation of antipsychotic medication until at least 1 year after remission (original dose allowing a maximum reduction of 25%, or another antipsychotic drug in similar dose range); or gradual dose reduction till eventual discontinuation of antipsychotics according to a tapering schedule. If signs of relapse occur in this arm, medication dose can be increased again. Measurements are conducted at baseline, at 3, and 6 months post-baseline, and yearly during a follow-up period of 4 years. DISCUSSION: The HAMLETT study will offer evidence to guide patients and clinicians regarding questions concerning optimal treatment duration and when to taper off medication after remission of a FEP. Moreover, it may provide patient characteristics associated with safe dose reduction with a minimal risk of relapse. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.3, October 2018. The study is active and currently recruiting patients (since September 2017), with the first 200 participants by the end of 2019. We anticipate completing recruitment in 2022 and final assessments (including follow-up 3.5 years after phase one) in 2026. TRIAL REGISTRATION: European Clinical Trials Database, EudraCT number 2017-002406-12. Registered 7 June 2017.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antipsicóticos/normas , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(6): 521-529, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008635

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The optimization of long-term outcomes is an important goal in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Offering subsequent preventive cognitive therapy (PCT) to patients who responded to acute cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) may reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence. METHOD: Therefore, a multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted comparing the addition of eight weekly sessions of PCT to care as usual (CAU) versus CAU alone in patients with a history of depression in remission following treatment with CBT. A total of 214 recurrently depressed patients who remitted following treatment with CBT were randomized to PCT (n = 107) or CAU (n = 107). Primary outcome was time to relapse/recurrence over 15 months and was assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I). Secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms measured by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report and number and severity of relapses/recurrences measured by the SCID-I. RESULTS: Over the 15-month follow-up, the addition of PCT significantly delayed time to relapse/recurrence relative to CAU alone, hazard ratio = 1.807 (number needed to treat = 8.1), p = .02, 95% CI [1.029, 3.174]. No significant differences were found between the conditions on number or severity of relapses/recurrences and residual symptoms. CONCLUSION: Adding PCT was significantly more effective than CAU alone in delaying time to relapse/recurrence of depression over a period of 15 months among CBT responders. After response on CBT, therapists should consider providing PCT to recurrently depressed patients. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211882, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30763360

RESUMO

Childhood abuse is a major public health problem that has been linked to depression in adulthood. Although different types of childhood abuse often co-occur, few studies have examined their unique impact on negative mental health outcomes. Most studies have focused solely on the consequences of childhood physical or sexual abuse; however, it has been suggested that childhood emotional abuse is more strongly related to depression. It remains unclear which underlying psychological processes mediate the effect of childhood emotional abuse on depressive symptoms. In a cross-sectional study in 276 female college students, multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine whether childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, and sexual abuse were independently associated with depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems. Subsequently, OLS regression analyses were used to determine whether emotion dysregulation and interpersonal problems mediate the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and depressive symptoms. Of all types of abuse, only emotional abuse was independently associated with depressive symptoms, emotion dysregulation, and interpersonal problems. The effect of childhood emotional abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion dysregulation and the following domains of interpersonal problems: cold/distant and domineering/controlling. The results of the current study indicate that detection and prevention of childhood emotional abuse deserves attention from Child Protective Services. Finally, interventions that target emotion regulation skills and interpersonal skills may be beneficial in prevention of depression.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Addiction ; 114(4): 730-740, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with co-occurring substance use and other mental disorders are vulnerable to crime victimization, yet no evidence-based preventive interventions exist. Our aim was to test the efficacy of a new intervention, Self-wise, Other-wise, Streetwise training (SOS training), to prevent victimization in these dual-diagnosis patients as an add-on to care as usual. DESIGN: Multi-site single-blind parallel randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Three sites within one psychiatric service in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Adult in-patients and out-patients with dual diagnosis (n = 250), who were predominantly male (70.4%), aged on average 42.1 years, and diagnosed with 3.7 DSM-IV disorders. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Care as usual, consisting of pharmacotherapy combined with individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy and/or supportive counselling (n = 125) was compared with care as usual plus SOS training: a 6-week, 12-session manualized group training focused on enhancing emotion regulation skills, conflict resolution skills and street skills (n = 125). MEASUREMENTS: Victimization was assessed with the Safety Monitor, the Dutch equivalent of the International Crime Victims Survey, in a face-to-face assessment. The primary outcome measure was treatment response (yes/no), with 'yes' defined as reporting at least a 50% reduction in the number of past-year victimization incidents at the 14-month follow-up compared with baseline. Analyses were performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. FINDINGS: The proportion of participants achieving treatment response for total victimization was 54.0% in the control group and 67.6% in the experimental group, a significant difference [odds ratio (OR) = 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-3.11, P = 0.042]. Treatment response for violent victimization was achieved by 68.7% of the control group and 79.3% of the experimental group (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 0.91-3.34, P = 0.092). With a Bayes factor of 2.26, this result was inconclusive. CONCLUSIONS: Among dual-diagnosis patients, care as usual plus Self-wise, Other-wise, Streetwise training was more effective in preventing victimization than care as usual alone.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Regulação Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Método Simples-Cego , Habilidades Sociais
15.
Front Psychiatry ; 10: 855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31920734

RESUMO

Aims: We aimed to identify baseline predictors of mortality in patients with a severe mental illness (SMI) over a 6-year period and to describe mortality rates as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). We hypothesised that cardiovascular diseases, older age, cigarette smoking, more severe psychiatric symptoms and more severe psychotropic side effects, and alcohol or drug use were independent risk factors for mortality. Method: Medical examinations were conducted at baseline in a cohort of 322 SMI patients. SMRs were estimated after 6 years and an evaluation was made of the impact of a wide range of variables on survival time. Results: Almost 11% of the SMI patients had died at the end of the study period. All-cause SMRs were 4.51 (95% CI 3.07-5.95) for all SMI patients (4.89, 95% CI 2.97-6.80 for men, and 3.94, 95% CI 1.78-6.10 for women). Natural causes accounted for 86% of excess mortality and unnatural causes for 14%. Cardiovascular disease was a major contributor to this excess mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that premature death was associated with a longer history of tobacco use (HR: 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.03) and more severe symptoms of disorganisation (HR: 2.36, 95% CI 2.21-2.52). Conclusions: The high SMR and the incidence of cardiovascular disease-related death in SMI patients in our study justify concern. This study underscores the urgent need for interventions to reduce excess mortality in patients with SMI.

16.
PLoS One ; 13(11): e0206495, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Remitted patients with a history of several previous major depressive episodes have a higher risk of relapse/recurrence than patients with fewer previous episodes, and the probability of another episode increases progressively with each successive episode. This study examines the association between the number of previous episodes and modifiable vulnerability factors in remitted patients with recurrent depression. METHODS: Patients with recurrent depression (DSM-IV-diagnosed) who were in remission (N = 214) were recruited between September 2011 and July 2016. The association was examined between the number of previous episodes and the following factors: i.e. interpersonal functioning, daily stress, sense of mastery, coping and dysfunctional beliefs. RESULTS: A history of more previous episodes was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems (P < .001), daily stress (P = .04) and a lower sense of mastery (P = .05). Interpersonal problems were most strongly associated with more previous episodes in a Generalized Linear Regression model. In the domain of interpersonal problems, the subscales that showed the strongest relationship were domineering/controlling, vindictive/self-centred, socially inhibited and self-sacrificing. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a history of more depressive episodes reported higher levels of interpersonal problems, daily stress and a lower sense of mastery. Future studies should examine these factors in a longitudinal cohort and look at whether the effect of interventions to prevent relapse can be explained by targeting these psychological factors. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register: 2599.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
17.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 95: 35-42, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352668

RESUMO

Integrating substance use disorder treatment with psychiatric treatment is considered more favourable then treating these disorders parallel or sequential, but the evidence base is inconclusive. We examined the effectiveness of Integrated Dual Diagnosis Treatment (IDDT) on substance use in severe mental illness outpatients with substance use disorders. IDDT is a collaborative, multidisciplinary team approach in which motivational interviewing is a key element. In addition, we also examined the effects of IDDT implementation on skills and knowledge of mental health care professionals. A randomized controlled stepped-wedge cluster trial was performed in 6 functional assertive cummunity treatment teams. We included 37 clinicians who were given a three-day IDDT training. Our primary outcome was days of substance use at follow up, 12 months after IDDT implementation. This was assessed in 154 included patients and was measured with the Measurement in the Addiction for Triage and Evaluation. After implementation of IDDT we found a reduction in the number of days patients used alcohol or drugs, but no improvements on other secondary outcomes such as psychopathology, functioning, therapeutic alliance or motivation to change. Also, IDDT training did not seem to improve clinicians' knowledge, attitudes and motivational interviewing skills. Effects on our secondary outcomes may have been limited by the absence of a training effect in our clinicians. Our study clearly underlines the complexity of disseminating IDDT and in particular motivational interviewing.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adulto , Competência Clínica , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Entrevista Motivacional/normas , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Aliança Terapêutica
18.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 64(6): 521-527, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical recovery is often defined as remission of symptoms. Personal recovery is described as growing beyond the catastrophic effects of mental illness, sometimes despite ongoing symptoms. AIMS: To examine the relationship between the severity of clinical symptom domains and personal recovery in patients with severe mental illness (SMI). METHODS: Symptom severity and personal recovery of 105 outpatients with SMI at Mentrum, part of Arkin Institute for Mental Health in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, were assessed using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded Version (BPRS-E) and the Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM). Correlation and regression analyses were used to investigate the associations. RESULTS: The multiple regression analysis showed that only affective symptoms significantly predicted personal recovery, whereas neither positive nor negative symptom severity added to the explained variance in the model. CONCLUSION: The association between affective symptoms and personal recovery in patients with SMI implies that treatment of affective symptoms may advance personal recovery, and/or support of personal recovery may improve mood, whereas focussing on treatment of psychotic symptoms might not be the key to personal recovery. More research is needed to elucidate causal interrelations.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtornos Mentais , Recuperação da Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica Breve , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Poder Psicológico
19.
Psychol Med ; 48(15): 2522-2529, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29478425

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Day hospital mentalization-based treatment (MBT-DH) is a promising treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD) but its evidence base is still limited. This multi-site randomized trial compared the efficacy of MBT-DH delivered by a newly set-up service v. specialist treatment as usual (S-TAU) tailored to the individual needs of patients, and offered by a well-established treatment service. METHODS: Two mental healthcare institutes in The Netherlands participated in the study. Patients who met DSM-IV criteria for BPD and had a score of ⩾20 on the borderline personality disorder severity index (BPDSI) were randomly allocated to MBT-DH (N = 54) or S-TAU (N = 41). The primary outcome variable was the total score on the BPDSI. Secondary outcome variables included symptom severity, quality of life, and interpersonal functioning. Data were collected at baseline and every 6 months until 18-month follow-up, and were analyzed using multilevel analyses based on intention-to-treat principles. RESULTS: Both treatments were associated with significant improvements in all outcome variables. MBT-DH was not superior to S-TAU on any outcome variable. MBT-DH was associated with higher acceptability in BPD patients compared v. S-TAU, reflected in significantly higher early drop-out rates in S-TAU (34%) v. MBT-DH (9%). CONCLUSIONS: MBT-DH delivered by a newly set-up service is as effective as specialist TAU in The Netherlands in the treatment of BPD at 18-month follow-up. Further research is needed to investigate treatment outcomes in the longer term and the cost-effectiveness of these treatments.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Hospital Dia/métodos , Mentalização , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 18(1): 29, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychiatric patients are at high risk of becoming victim of a violent crime compared to the general population. Although most research has focused on patients with severe mental illness, depressed patients have been demonstrated to be prone to victimization as well. Victimization is associated with more severe symptomatology, decreased quality of life, and high risk of revictimization. Hence, there is a strong need for interventions that focus on preventing violent revictimization. Since emotion dysregulation is associated with both victimization and depression, we developed an internet-based Emotion Regulation Training (iERT) to reduce revictimization in depressed patients. This study aims to evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of iERT added to Treatment As Usual (TAU) in reducing incidents of violent revictimization among depressed patients with a recent history of victimization. Furthermore, this study aims to examine secondary clinical outcomes, and moderators and mediators that may be associated with treatment outcomes. METHODS: In a multicenter randomized controlled trial with parallel group design, patients with a major depressive disorder and a history of violent victimization over the past three years (N = 200) will be allocated to either TAU + iERT (N = 100) or TAU only (N = 100), based on computer-generated stratified block randomization. Assessments will take place at baseline, 8 weeks, 14 weeks, and 6 months after start of treatment, and 12, 24, and 36 months after baseline. The primary outcome measure is the total number of violent victimization incidents at 12 months after baseline, measured with the Safety Monitor: an adequate self-report questionnaire that assesses victimization over the preceding 12 months. Secondary outcome measures and mediators include emotion dysregulation and depressive symptomatology. An economic evaluation with the societal perspective will be performed alongside the trial. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to examine the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at reducing violent revictimization in depressed patients. If effective, iERT can be implemented in mental health care, and contribute to the well-being of depressed patients. Furthermore, the results will provide insight into underlying mechanisms of revictimization. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is registered at the Netherlands Trial Register ( NTR5822 ). Date of registration: 4 April 2016.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Internet , Terapia Assistida por Computador , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/terapia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Projetos de Pesquisa
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