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2.
Toxicol Sci ; 69(2): 391-9, 2002 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12377988

RESUMO

In developing exposure standards, an assumption is often made in the case of less-than-lifetime exposures that the probability of response depends on the cumulative exposure, i.e., the product of exposure concentration and duration. Over the last two decades, the general applicability of this assumption, referred to as Haber's Law, has begun to be questioned. This study examined the interaction of exposure concentration and duration on embryonic development during a portion of organogenesis. Embryos were exposed in whole embryo culture to various temperature-duration combinations and evaluated for alterations in development 24 h later. The specific purpose of the study was to assess whether the developmental responses followed Haber's Law, or whether an additional component of exposure was needed to model the relationship. The current study demonstrated that the response of the developing embryo to hyperthermia, with rare exception, was dependent on an additional component of exposure beyond the cumulative exposure. For the vast majority of the parameters measured in this study, the probability of an effect was greater at higher temperatures for short durations than at lower temperatures for long durations, given the same cumulative exposure. Thus, Haber's Law did not adequately describe the results of our study.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/fisiologia , Febre/fisiopatologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Embrião de Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez , Probabilidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Somitos/fisiologia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 274(1-3): 103-13, 2001 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11453286

RESUMO

The response from exposure to a toxic agent during development may vary depending on the dose, time of exposure and the mode of action. The mode of action and developmental stage sensitivity are established only for a limited number of chemical classes. Some aspects of developmental stage sensitivity that appear to affect the response to androgen agonists and antagonists are the levels and distribution of endogenous androgens and the androgen receptor at particular times during development. This information is summarized and discussed as it relates to two critical windows of development: the period of male reproductive tract differentiation, and the peripubertal period when male sexual maturation occurs. Developmental stage sensitivity and mode of action data for the androgen antagonist vinclozolin are reviewed. Vinclozolin acts by binding to and activating the androgen receptor and affects a number of endpoints of reproductive tract differentiation as well as pubertal maturation. Approaches to incorporating mode of action, developmental stage sensitivity, and dose/potency information into risk assessment, as well as the additional data needed for using mode of action information, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in risk assessment are discussed. These issues are also considered in the context of combining the risks of exposure to two or more chemicals with similar modes of action.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/toxicidade , Androgênios/agonistas , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento , Androgênios/fisiologia , Animais , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Mamíferos , Oxazóis/toxicidade , Receptores Androgênicos/fisiologia
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 120(1-3): 73-82, 2001 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11323164

RESUMO

A number of legislative and regulatory changes have occurred over the past 5 years to prompt the re-evaluation of the regulatory requirements for developmental toxicity testing and use of the data for risk assessment. In particular, passage of the 1996 Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in the United States required the USEPA to evaluate children's health risks in a more rigorous fashion, and to apply an additional 10-fold safety factor if data were inadequate or children appeared to be more sensitive than adults. A review of the testing protocols required by USEPA led to extension of the dosing period to term in the prenatal developmental toxicity study and the addition of endpoints to the 2-generation reproduction study protocol as indicators of possible neurologic, reproductive, or immune alterations. Revised testing guidelines for pesticides and toxic substances were published by USEPA in 1998, including a developmental neurotoxicity testing protocol. Further review for FQPA implementation resulted in the proposal for a core set of required toxicology studies, including routine developmental neurotoxicity, adult neurotoxicity, and adult immunotoxicity studies. In addition, development of new testing guidelines in several areas was recommended, these guidelines to be used in conjunction with or as follow-up when indicated from standard testing: developmental immunotoxicity, carcinogenesis, specialized neurotoxicity studies, endocrine disruptor studies, pharmacokinetics, and direct dosing of neonates. The impact of these efforts on the policies for toxicity testing of pesticides are discussed, and these issues are currently being reviewed on a broader scale, in particular, by evaluating the adequacy of the methods used for reference values (e.g. chronic RfD, RfC). Three major areas of focus for this review include life stages evaluated, endpoints assessed, and the duration of exposure used in various studies. A major focus of these efforts is to ensure that children's health risks are being adequately addressed in the risk assessment process.


Assuntos
Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxicologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados , Gravidez , Medição de Risco
6.
Toxicol Sci ; 61(1): 18-31, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11294970

RESUMO

Significant advancements have been made toward the use of all relevant scientific information in health risk assessments. This principle has been set forth in risk-assessment guidance documents of international agencies including those of the World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Health Canada. Improving the scientific basis of risk assessment is a leading strategic goal of the Society of Toxicology. In recent years, there has been a plethora of mechanistic research on modes of chemical toxicity that establishes mechanistic links between noncancer responses to toxic agents and subsequent overt manifestations of toxicity such as cancer. The research suggests that differences in approaches to assessing risk of cancer and noncancer toxicity need to be resolved and a common broad paradigm for dose-response assessments developed for all toxicity endpoints. In November 1999, a workshop entitled "Harmonization of Cancer and Noncancer Risk Assessment" was held to discuss the most critical issues involved in developing a more consistent and unified approach to risk assessment for all endpoints. Invited participants from government, industry, and academia discussed focus questions in the areas of mode of action as the basis for harmonization, common levels of adverse effect across toxicities for use in dose-response assessments, and scaling and uncertainty factors. This report summarizes the results of those discussions. There was broad agreement, albeit not unanimous, that current science supports the development of a harmonized set of principles that guide risk assessments for all toxic endpoints. There was an acceptance among the participants that understanding the mode of action of a chemical is ultimately critical for nondefault risk assessments, that common modes of action for different toxicities can be defined, and that our approach to assessing toxicity should be biologically consistent.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Substâncias Perigosas/farmacologia , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Medição de Risco , United States Environmental Protection Agency/normas , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Previsões , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Especificidade da Espécie , Estados Unidos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
7.
Reprod Toxicol ; 15(5): 467-78, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11780954

RESUMO

Enalapril is an antihypertensive drug of the class of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) used in pregnancy for treatment of pre-existing or pregnancy-induced hypertension. The use of ACE inhibitors (drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system) during the second and third trimester of pregnancy in humans is associated with specific fetal and neonatal injury. The syndrome, termed "ACEI fetopathy" in humans, does not appear to have a similar counterpart in experimental animals. The present paper reviews pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of enalapril that are physiologically important during pregnancy and intrauterine development in humans and in experimental animal species with the aim of better understanding the comparability of the manifestations of enalapril developmental toxicity in animals and humans. The human fetus is at a disadvantage with regard to in utero enalapril exposure in comparison to some of the animal species for which gestational pharmacokinetic data are available. Important reasons for the higher vulnerability of the human fetus are its accessibility by enalapril and the earlier (relative to animal species) intrauterine development of organ systems that are specific targets of ACEI pharmacologic effect (the kidney and the renin-angiotensin system). In humans, these systems develop prior to calcarial ossification at the end of first trimester of pregnancy. The specific pharmacodynamic action of enalapril on these systems during fetal life is the chief determinant of the etiology and pathogenesis of ACEI fetopathy in humans. In contrast, in most of the studied animal species, these target systems are not developed until close to term when the fetus is relatively more mature (and therefore less vulnerable), so that the window of vulnerability is narrower in comparison to the human. Among animal species, the best concordance in fetal pharmacodynamics to the human is seen in the rhesus monkey, but further studies are necessary to determine if similar developmental pathology is induced in this animal model upon repeated administration of the drug during the relevant period of intrauterine development. Animal-human concordance of developmental toxicity is least likely in the rat because of greater disparities in enalapril availability to the fetus and the relative development of the kidney and skeletal ossification compared to that in humans.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacocinética , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacocinética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Enalapril/efeitos adversos , Enalapril/farmacocinética , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Modelos Animais , Gravidez , Especificidade da Espécie
8.
Curr Protoc Toxicol ; Chapter 13: Unit13.1, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20960424

RESUMO

Teratology is the study of developmental processes to understand the causes and mechanisms of abnormal developmental outcomes. This unit provides an explanation of the basic principles of the field as a context for the more specialized protocol units to follow in the chapter.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Animais , Humanos , Teratologia/métodos
9.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 31(2 Pt 1): 190-9, 2000 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10854125

RESUMO

Biologically based dose-response (BBDR) modeling represents a novel approach for quantitative assessment of health risk by incorporating pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of a chemical and by relating the immediate cellular responses to a cascade of aberrant biological actions that leads to detectable adverse outcomes. The quantitative relationship of each of the intervening events can be described in mathematical forms that are amenable for adjustment and extrapolation over a range of doses and across species. A team of investigators at the Reproductive Toxicology Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has explored the feasibility of BBDR modeling by examining the developmental toxicity of a known teratogen, 5-fluorouracil. A panel of researchers from academic and industrial laboratories, biomathematical modelers, and risk assessment scientists was convened in a workshop to evaluate the approaches undertaken by the EPA team and to discuss the future prospects of BBDR modeling. This report summarizes the lessons learned from one approach to BBDR modeling and comments from the panelists: while it is possible to incorporate mechanistic information into quantitative dose-response models for the assessment of health risks, the process is enormously data-intensive and costly; in addition, the confidence of the model is directly proportional to our current understanding of basic biology and can be enhanced only through the ongoing novel discoveries. More importantly, the extent of "uncertainty" (inherent with the default assumptions associated with the NOAEL or benchmark approach) reducible by BBDR modeling requires further scrutiny and comparison.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos , Fluoruracila/toxicidade , Modelos Biológicos , Teratogênicos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Educação , Fluoruracila/farmacocinética , Humanos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Medição de Risco/métodos , Teratogênicos/farmacocinética , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
10.
Environ Health Perspect ; 108 Suppl 3: 451-5, 2000 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10852844

RESUMO

Several authors have considered the importance of exposure timing and how this affects the outcomes observed, but no one has systematically compiled preconceptional, prenatal, and postnatal developmental exposures and subsequent outcomes. Efforts were undertaken to examine the information available and to evaluate implications for risk assessment for several areas: a) respiratory and immune systems, b) reproductive system, c) nervous system, d) cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and general growth, and e) cancer. Major conclusions from a workshop on "Critical Windows of Exposure for Children's Health" included a) broad windows of sensitivity can be identified for many systems but detailed information is limited; b) cross-species comparisons of dose to target tissue and better data on the exposure-dose-outcome continuum are needed; c) increased interaction among scientific disciplines can further understanding by using laboratory animal results in designing epidemiological studies and human data to suggest specific laboratory studies on mechanisms and agent-target interactions; and d) thus far, only limited attention has been given to peripubertal/adolescent exposures, adult consequences of developmental exposures, and genome-environment interactions. More specific information on developmental windows will improve risk assessment by identifying the most sensitive window(s) for evaluation of dose-response relationships and exposure, evaluation of biological plausibility of research findings in humans, and comparison of data across species. In public health and risk management, information on critical windows may help identify especially susceptible subgroups for specific interventions.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Saúde Ambiental , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Teratogênicos/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Reprod Toxicol ; 13(1): 31-9, 1999.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10080297

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies strongly suggest that in utero exposure to hyperthermia results in developmental defects in humans. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and other species exposed to hyperthermia also exhibit a variety of developmental defects. Studies in our laboratory have focused on exposure to hyperthermia on Gestation Day (GD) 10 of rats in vivo or in vitro. Within 24 h after in vivo or in vitro exposure, delayed or abnormal CNS, optic cup, somite, and limb development can be observed. At birth, only rib and vertebral malformations are seen after hyperthermia on GD 10, and these have been shown to be due to alterations in somite segmentation. Unsegmented somites have been thought to result from a cell-cycle block in the presomitic mesoderm, from which somites emerge individually during normal development. In the present study, DNA fragmentation (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) catalyzed fluorescein-12-dUTP DNA end-labelling), indicative of apoptotic cell death, and changes in cell proliferation were examined in vitro in 37 degrees C control and heat treated (42 degrees C for 15 min) GD 10 CD rat embryos. Embryos were returned to 37 degrees C culture following exposure and evaluated 5, 8, or 18 h later. A temperature-related increase in TdT labelled cells was observed in the CNS, optic vesicle, neural tube, and somites. Increased cell death in the presomitic mesoderm also was evident. Changes in cell proliferation were examined using the cell-specific abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the quantification of mitotic figures. In neuroectodermal cells in the region of the optic cup, a change in the abundance of PCNA was not apparent, but a marked decrease in mitotic figures was observed. A significant change in cell proliferation in somites was not detected by either method. These results suggest that acute hyperthermia disrupts embryonic development through a combination of inappropriate cell death and/or altered cell proliferation in discrete regions of the developing rat embryo. Furthermore, postnatal vertebral and rib defects following disrupted somite development may be due, in part, to abundant cell death occurring in the presomitic mesoderm.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/patologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Hipertermia Induzida , Animais , Morte Celular , Divisão Celular , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , DNA/análise , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Nucleotidilexotransferase/metabolismo , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mitose , Gravidez , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/análise , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Toxicol Sci ; 43(2): 213-29, 1998 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9710963

RESUMO

This report presents the results of noncancer dose-response modeling for inhalation and oral exposures to nickel compounds using the NOAEL/LOAEL and benchmark dose (BMD) approaches. Several key issues associated with the implementation of the BMD approach were examined. Primary among them are difficulties associated with use of data for which the dose-response shape is poorly defined: nonuniqueness of maximum likelihood estimates and lower bounds equal to zero. In addition, several generalizable properties of the "hybrid approach" for modeling continuous endpoints were identified. A hybrid modeling approach allows one to consider "biological significance" on an individual (rather than group) basis; differences between individual- and group-based biological significance in the definition of benchmark response (BMR) levels are elucidated. In particular, it is shown that BMDs defined using group-based BMRs may be more like LOAELs than NOAELs. Application of cross-chemical and cross-endpoint comparisons suggest that, for chronic inhalation exposure, nickel sulfate appears to be as toxic or more toxic than nickel subsulfide and nickel oxide, although the high response rates for the latter two compounds at the lowest chronically administered concentration make such conclusions problematic. A nickel reference concentration could be derived based on the most sensitive benchmark concentration for chronic inhalation exposure to nickel sulfate, 1.7 x 10(-3) mg Ni/m3 for lung fibrosis in male rats. Analyses of oral studies of nickel sulfate and nickel chloride suggest that an appropriate basis for the nickel oral reference dose would be a BMD of 4-5 mg Ni/kg/day, based on increased prenatal mortality. (Uncertainty factors were not determined and neither an RfD nor an RfC was derived in this paper.) The BMD approach provides appropriate quantitative support for toxicological judgment; this paper addresses specific issues associated with the role of the BMD approach in noncancer risk assessment. Resolution of these and other issues may require the accumulation of a number of case studies such as the one presented here.


Assuntos
Níquel/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Níquel/administração & dosagem , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Medição de Risco
14.
Teratology ; 55(4): 249-92, 1997 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9216042

RESUMO

This paper presents the first version of an internationally-developed glossary of terms for structural developmental abnormalities in common laboratory animals. The glossary is put forward by the International Federation of Teratology Societies (IFTS) Committee on International Harmonization of Nomenclature in Developmental Toxicology, and represents considerable progress toward harmonization of terminology in this area. The purpose of this effort is to provide a common vocabulary that will reduce confusion and ambiguity in the description of developmental effects, particularly in submissions to regulatory agencies worldwide. The glossary contains a primary term or phrase, a definition of the abnormality, and notes, where appropriate. Selected synonyms or related terms, which reflect a similar or closely related concept, are noted. Nonpreferred terms are indicated where their usage may be incorrect. Modifying terms used repeatedly in the glossary (e.g., absent, branched) are listed and defined separately, instead of repeating their definitions for each observation. Syndrome names are generally excluded from the glossary, but are listed separately in an appendix. The glossary is organized into broad sections for external, visceral, and skeletal observations, then subdivided into regions, structures, or organs in a general overall head to tail sequence. Numbering is sequential, and not in any regional or hierarchical order. Uses and misuses of the glossary are discussed. Comments, questions, suggestions, and additions from practitioners in the field of developmental toxicology are welcomed on the organization of the glossary as well as on the specific terms and definitions. Updates of the glossary are planned based on the comments received.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório/anormalidades , Terminologia como Assunto , Animais , Mamíferos
17.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 4(3-4): 189-94, 1997 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21781821

RESUMO

Differences in susceptibility between individuals can lead to variability in response to chemical exposures which in turn modify the risk of illness. As a means of exploring the basis for such differences in susceptibility, a project was undertaken to determine what data were available on the range of response variability for several health effects: neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, pulmonary toxicity, and cancer. In addition, modeling approaches for characterizing response variability were examined and evaluated. The main goal of this effort was to determine whether human response variability was adequately accounted for in the current risk assessment procedures for human health effects. The conclusions of the project were that few data are available, both because variability has rarely been the primary focus of study, and because data are not usually reported in such a way that response variability can be determined. Several recommendations were made to facilitate better characterization of interindividual variability, including the study of variability in available human data (e.g. the NHANES database) and allowing greater access to raw data from epidemiologic studies. In addition, the identification of relevant biomarkers, improved understanding of sources of variability, interaction of chemical effects with other exposures or pre-existing disease, and retrospective evaluations of risk assessments were recommended. It is hoped that these recommendations will stimulate research on susceptibility and response variability and encourage the reporting of data in a way that facilitates analysis of interindividual variability in response.

20.
Drug Metab Rev ; 28(1-2): 85-103, 1996.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8744591

RESUMO

Risk assessment for developmental toxicity has become more defined over the last decade and the most recent EPA guidelines for developmental toxicity risk assessment were published in 1991. Development of approaches for risk assessment in this area have relied on building of consensus opinion among experts about the interpretation of developmental toxicity data. These discussions have aided in strengthening the scientific basis for risk assessment for developmental toxicity, including the default assumptions that must be used when more complete information on mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics are unavailable. Such discussions continue on both a national and international basis. The EPA risk assessment guidelines outlined several major areas of research needed to strengthen risk assessment for developmental toxicity and led to the formulation of hypotheses to be tested in focused research projects. Several major research efforts have focused on dose-related mechanisms and biologically based modeling of specific agents, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of pregnancy that can be scaled across species, and the influence of dose and duration of exposure on developmental outcomes, as well as the delineation of specific biomarkers of adverse developmental effects. Although such research initiatives will require a long-term effort, it is important that attention be focused now on those approaches that can improve the risk assessment process to avoid continued reliance on default approaches that have been used for the past 30 years or more. The impact of the EPA Guidelines for Developmental Toxicity Risk Assessment has been widespread. One of the main purposes for developing risk assessment guidelines by EPA was to communicate procedures to risk assessors inside the agency in an effort to promote consistency. In addition, the guidelines were to communicate to those outside the agency in private industry and other regulatory agencies how EPA would evaluate and interpret data. The developmental toxicity guidelines have standardized terminology used in developmental toxicity risk assessments. They also have influenced the revision of testing guidelines and the writing of new guidelines, such as the developmental neurotoxicity testing guidelines. More extensive use of developmental toxicity data within the RfD/RfC process was influenced by the guidelines, as well. More recently, the risk assessment guidelines have had a major impact on the harmonization of international testing and risk assessment guidelines through cooperative efforts with the World Health Organization under the auspices of the International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We foresee these types of interagency and international cooperative efforts continuing as we attempt to make more efficient use of the limited resources available for testing, risk assessment, and research to better understand and prevent developmental toxicity.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário e Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/induzido quimicamente , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
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