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1.
NEJM Evid ; 3(2): EVIDra2300273, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320493

RESUMO

Maternal Cardiovascular Health Post-DobbsPregnancy is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States. In the post-Dobbs era, many pregnant patients at highest risk no longer have access to abortion, which has been a crucial component of standard medical care.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Saúde Materna
2.
JAMA ; 331(7): 559-560, 2024 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252432

RESUMO

This Viewpoint evaluates Texas' proposals to define the scope of the life exception for the state's abortion ban and argues that these approaches do not allow physicians to follow the national standards of care, avoid criminal liability, or have sufficient notice of what the law permits.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo , Responsabilidade Legal , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Responsabilidade Social
3.
J Law Med Ethics ; 51(3): 658-660, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38088600

RESUMO

Decision making during reproduction is complex for a variety of medical and social reasons. Anyone who has had a conversation with a family member about the "best time" to have a baby can attest to this - there is no "best time" or "best way." Multiple pressures from any number of sources combine in a minefield of hazards made ever more complicated by restrictive laws in the US. Add to this a screening result of potential chromosomal aneuploidy and decision making becomes ever more complex. Societal stigma and lack of adequate and accurate information during counseling certainly plays a role in the high number of terminations in the setting of diagnosed chromosomal aneuploidy, yet other factors also push families in this direction including medical considerations and the abysmal lack of social support programs.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Família , Humanos , Aconselhamento , Tomada de Decisões , Aneuploidia
4.
Clin Obstet Gynecol ; 66(2): 261-266, 2023 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37227276

RESUMO

Case law and statutory provisions ensure marital rules of paternity apply when artificial insemination is associated with the pregnancy. Virtually all jurisdictions in the United States provide for gamete donors to remain anonymous. Much of this has been challenged with access to donor information via 23 and me. A breach of trust and a number of lawsuits involving physician provider(s) have resulted. We provide case law examples related to artificial insemination and the identification of the sperm donor. Proposed future legislation to protect patients and offspring from harm in relation to the process of donor sperm inseminations is provided.


Assuntos
Criminosos , Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga , Medicina Reprodutiva , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sêmen , Inseminação Artificial/métodos
6.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 29(9): 1099-1103, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691546

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The objective of this case series is to evaluate the rates of ureteral injury at the time of laparoscopic hysterectomy among high-volume fellowship-trained surgeons. DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was performed, evaluating laparoscopic hysterectomy cases between 2009 and 2019 performed exclusively by fellowship-trained surgeons. SETTING: Division of Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery (MIGS) at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Brigham and Women's Faulkner Hospital, a Harvard Medical School teaching hospital in Boston. PATIENTS: All patients undergoing laparoscopic hysterectomy by one of 5 surgeons with fellowship training in MIGS. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 5160 cases were handled by MIGS surgeons between 2009 and 2019 at our institution. Of these cases, 2345 were laparoscopic hysterectomy cases with available intraoperative and postoperative documentation. Most patients had undergone previous surgeries, and the most common indications for hysterectomy included uterine myomas, pelvic pain/endometriosis, and abnormal uterine bleeding. At the time of hysterectomy, 1 ureteral injury (0.04%) was noted. No additional delayed ureteral injuries were observed. Most patients were discharged home the same day (64.9%) and did not have any postoperative complications (63.9%) as designated by the Clavien-Dindo classification. CONCLUSION: Ureteral injury, although rare, is more prevalent in gynecologic surgery than in other surgical disciplines that have some focus on the pelvis. No study to date has evaluated the effect of surgical training and volume on rates of ureteral injuries. This study retrospectively examined ureteral injury rates for one group of high-volume fellowship-trained surgeons and found their rates to be lower than the national average. Proposals are presented for optimizing training and delivery of gynecologic surgical care to minimize complications.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Laparoscopia , Cirurgiões , Bolsas de Estudo , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
AMA J Ethics ; 23(4): E364-368, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950833

RESUMO

Advocates have long suggested making shackling incarcerated people during childbirth illegal. Yet exceptions would likely still allow prison personnel to implement restraint and leave clinicians no course for freeing a patient. This article argues that clinicians' assessments of laboring individuals' clinical needs must be prioritized, ethically and legally. This article also explains that, without strong policies in place, some clinicians will not feel empowered to demand that a patient be freed during labor. Beyond prohibiting restraint of laboring individuals, health care organizations must support clinicians seeking to execute their ethical duties to care well and justly for patients. Toward this end, this article proposes a model policy.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Parto , Prisioneiros , Restrição Física , Parto Obstétrico/ética , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prisões/ética , Prisões/legislação & jurisprudência , Restrição Física/ética
8.
Obstet Gynecol ; 137(4): 657-661, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706362

RESUMO

In this commentary, we describe historical and other influences that drive "double discrimination" in gynecologic surgery-lower pay in the area of surgery that boasts the largest proportion of female surgeons and is focused on female patients and explore how it results in potentially lower quality care. Insurers reimburse procedures for women at a lower rate than similar procedures for men, although there is no medically justifiable reason for this disparity. The wage gap created by lower reimbursement rates disproportionately affects female surgeons, who are disproportionately represented among gynecologic surgeons. This contributes to a large wage gap in surgery for women. Finally, poor reimbursement for gynecologic surgery pushes many obstetrics and gynecology surgeons to preferentially perform obstetric services, resulting in a high prevalence of low-volume gynecologic surgeons, a metric that is closely tied to higher complication rates. Creating equity in reimbursement for gynecologic surgery is one important and ethically required step forward to gender equity in medicine for patients and surgeons.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Salários e Benefícios , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/normas , Humanos , Médicas , Estados Unidos
10.
Surg Endosc ; 34(7): 2980-2986, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adnexal surgery is believed to be more complex in patients with prior hysterectomy; however, there is little data regarding surgical outcomes. Understanding of individualized risks improves counseling, informed consent, and preoperative planning. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study with a control group; we evaluated 744 patients undergoing laparoscopic adnexal surgery at an academic tertiary care center from 2011 to 2015. Comparisons were made using Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Wilcoxon-rank sum tests. We used log-binomial regression to calculate risk ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Patients with prior hysterectomy were more likely to have intraoperative or postoperative complications at the time of laparoscopic adnexal surgery when compared to patients without prior hysterectomy [17.7% vs. 10.2%, p = 0.02, risk ratio (RR) 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.7]. Patients with prior hysterectomy were four times more likely to have intraoperative complications (3.2% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.047, RR 4.0, 95% CI 1.1-14.7), and five times more likely to have conversion to laparotomy (5.6% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.004, RR 5.0, 95% CI 1.8-14.0). Patients with prior hysterectomy were more likely to need additional procedures, including lysis of adhesions (69.4% vs. 26.0%, p < 0.001), ureterolysis (15.3% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001), and cystoscopy (28.2% vs. 8.1%, p < 0.001). They had longer operative time [101.5 min (IQR 59.5-135.0) vs. 78.0 min (IQR 53.0-109.0, p < 0.001)], and were less likely to have outpatient surgery (56.5% vs. 84.8%, p < 0.01). Postoperative complications were also more common (15.3% vs. 9.4%, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with prior hysterectomy were 70% more likely to have a complication at the time of laparoscopic adnexal surgery than patients without hysterectomy. Increased risk of complications in subsequent adnexal surgery may influence the informed consent process or decisions regarding ovarian conservation. Awareness of potential need for additional surgical procedures may guide availability of equipment, choice of operating site, or referral to an advanced pelvic surgeon.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Anexos/cirurgia , Histerectomia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Anexos Uterinos/cirurgia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta , Feminino , Humanos , Histerectomia/métodos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aderências Teciduais/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureter/cirurgia
11.
Obstet Gynecol Surv ; 74(12): 679-692, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881092

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Few gynecologic surgeons understand the mechanism by which surgical instruments are approved for human use and marketing or do they appreciate the central role they play in postmarket surveillance and reporting after instruments have come to market. OBJECTIVE: Using the experience with the uterine morcellator, this review will detail the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) system for approving surgical instruments and the potential pitfalls of this process. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Literature review and public documents from the FDA. RESULTS: The FDA 510(k) approval process for surgical instruments relies largely on postmarket surveillance as exemplified by the uterine power morcellator, which was approved before sufficient evidence was available regarding its potential harms. CONCLUSIONS: The current system currently transfers the responsibility of ensuring safety and efficacy to the public, patients, and providers. To minimize potential harm, the FDA needs to incorporate a greater standard of evidence into its framework for the approval and regulation of medical devices. The burden of these requirements should be borne at least in part by the companies bringing equipment to market. RELEVANCE: It is incumbent on all surgeons to be vigilant in their objective critical assessment of new instrumentation and report their outcomes after they come to market.


Assuntos
Aprovação de Equipamentos , Ginecologia/instrumentação , Morcelação/instrumentação , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Morcelação/efeitos adversos , Morcelação/história , Inoculação de Neoplasia , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Medição de Risco/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 49(3): 10-13, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269250

RESUMO

The majority of obstetrician-gynecologists in practice operate very infrequently. Most residents graduate with strong surgical skill sets, given residency requirements. Nonetheless, their practices become dominated by obstetrics, and their gynecologic surgical skills deteriorate. While cesarean sections are surgical in nature, the skill sets needed in these surgeries differ from the skills used in general gynecologic surgery. As gynecology has taken a back seat to obstetrics in our specialty, not only surgical skills but also diagnostic and management skills have deteriorated.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Competência Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
13.
J Minim Invasive Gynecol ; 26(2): 279-287, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243685

RESUMO

It is becoming increasingly clear that surgeon volume affects surgical outcomes. High-volume surgeons demonstrate reduced perioperative complications, shorter operative times, and reduced blood loss during multiple modalities of benign gynecologic surgery. Furthermore, high-volume surgeons consistently demonstrate higher rates of minimally invasive approaches, low rates of conversion to laparotomy, and lower per-procedure case costs. It is suggested that surgeons who have completed postresidency training have improved surgical outcomes, although these data are limited. Surgical exposure in obstetrics and gynecology residency is varied and does not consistently meet demonstrated surgical learning curves. Deficiencies in residency surgical training may be related to the volume-outcome relationship. We suggest reforming residency surgical training and tracking postresidency practice to provide optimal surgical care. Additionally, surgeons may have an ethical obligation to inform patients of their surgical volume and outcomes, with options for referrals if needed.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia , Ginecologia/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Curva de Aprendizado , Obstetrícia/educação , Cirurgiões/educação , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/ética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Ginecologia/ética , Humanos , Obstetrícia/ética , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Cirurgiões/ética , Estados Unidos
14.
AMA J Ethics ; 20(7): E637-642, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007024

RESUMO

Best practices for teaching morally and spiritually charged topics, such as abortion, to those early in their medical training are elusive at best, especially in our current political climate. Here we advocate that our duty as educators requires that we explore these topics in a supportive environment. In particular, we must model respectful discourse for our learners in these difficult areas.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/educação , Aborto Induzido/ética , Educação Médica/ética , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/educação , Filosofia Médica , Religião e Medicina , Competência Clínica , Currículo/normas , Humanos , Estudantes de Medicina
15.
Eur Radiol ; 28(7): 3009-3017, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate clarity and usefulness of MRI reporting of uterine fibroids using a structured disease-specific template vs. narrative reporting for planning of fibroid treatment by gynaecologists and interventional radiologists. METHODS: This is a HIPAA-compliant, IRB-approved study with waiver of informed consent. A structured reporting template for fibroid MRIs was developed in collaboration between gynaecologists, interventional and diagnostic radiologists. The study population included 29 consecutive women who underwent myomectomy for fibroids and pelvic MRI prior to implementation of structured reporting, and 42 consecutive women with MRI after implementation of structured reporting. Subjective evaluation (on a scale of 1-10, 0 not helpful; 10 extremely helpful) and objective evaluation for the presence of 19 key features were performed. RESULTS: More key features were absent in the narrative reports 7.3 ± 2.5 (range 3-12) than in structured reports 1.2 ± 1.5 (range 1-7), (p < 0.0001). Compared to narrative reports, gynaecologists and radiologists deemed structured reports both more helpful for surgical planning (p < 0.0001) (gynaecologists: 8.5 ± 1.2 vs. 5.7 ± 2.2; radiologists: 9.6 ± 0.6 vs. 6.0 ± 2.9) and easier to understand (p < 0.0001) (gynaecologists: 8.9 ± 1.1 vs. 5.8 ± 1.9; radiologists: 9.4 ± 1.3 vs. 6.3 ± 1.8). CONCLUSION: Structured fibroid MRI reports miss fewer key features than narrative reports. Moreover, structured reports were described as more helpful for treatment planning and easier to understand. KEY POINTS: • Structured reports missed only 1.2 ± 1.5 out of 19 key features, as compared to narrative reports that missed 7.3 ± 2.5 key features for planning of fibroid treatment. • Structured reports were more helpful and easier to understand by clinicians. • Structured template can provide essential information for fibroids treatment planning.


Assuntos
Leiomioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomioma/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Miomectomia Uterina/métodos , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia
16.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 47 Suppl 3: S2-S5, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171884

RESUMO

Respect for autonomy is a central value in reproductive ethics, but it can be a challenge to fulfill and is sometimes an outright puzzle to understand. If a woman requests the transfer of two, three, or four embryos during fertility treatment, is that request truly autonomous, and do clinicians disrespect her if they question that decision or refuse to carry it out? Add a commitment to justice to the mix, and the challenge can become more complex still. Is it unfair for insurance policies to exclude from coverage the costs of giving fertility to those who lack it or restoring fertility in those who have lost it? What does "just reproduction" look like in the face of multifarious understandings of both justice and autonomy and in light of increasingly complex and costly reproductive technologies? In today's dialogue about reproduction, medicine, and ethics in the United States, old ethical issues-such as whether women ought to be allowed to access pregnancy termination-are more contested than they have been in decades, while new technologies-like those used to edit the genes of human embryos-suggest that our species could face unprecedented questions about who should exist. As we considered the discussions accompanying these issues and contemplated a special report responding to them, we found ourselves consistently circling back to two ethical commitments: respect for autonomy and the pursuit of justice. As one of the nine essays in this collection asks, why should certain women receive help to establish a pregnancy while others are thrown in jail when they miscarry or their child is stillborn? Respect for autonomy is required where individuals have the ability to make fully informed and voluntary choices. Yet does respecting autonomy require acceding to all the choices of patients or consumers of medical care? We consider these and related questions in this special report from the Hastings Center Report.


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Justiça Social , Bioética , Feminino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
17.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 47 Suppl 3: S50-S56, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171893

RESUMO

As a gynecologic surgeon with a focus on infertility, I frequently hold complex discussions with patients, exploring with them the risks and benefits of surgical options. In the past, we physicians may have expected our patients to simply defer to our expertise and choose from the options we presented. In our contemporary era, however, patients frequently request options not favored by their physicians and even some they've found themselves online. In reproductive endocrinology and infertility, the range of options that may be offered or that patients may themselves seek out is continuously widening. Physicians certainly seek to find the option that will result in the best outcome for their patients, but the information to guide us in achieving the best outcome can be vague or conflicting. Add to this the financial and emotional pressures bearing on patients seeking assisted reproduction. In this essay, I explore the extent to which clinicians in reproductive medicine should follow patient requests with which they disagree or instead try to persuade the patient to do something else or simply refuse outright to meet the request. And if persuasion is to be used, what would be legitimate methods? Clearly, coercion is unacceptable, but the line between persuasion and coercion can be elusive. At what point can or should clinicians resist such requests-and to what degree?


Assuntos
Autonomia Pessoal , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Reprodução , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Pré-Seleção do Sexo
18.
AMA J Ethics ; 19(7): 663-674, 2017 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28813239

RESUMO

Counseling patients regarding the benefits, harms, and dilemmas of genetic testing is one of the greatest ethical challenges facing reproductive medicine today. With or without test results, clinicians grapple with how to communicate potential genetic risks as patients weigh their reproductive options. Here, we consider a case of a woman with a strong family history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). She is early in her pregnancy and unsure about learning her own genetic status. We address the ethical ramifications of each of her options, which include genetic testing, genetic counseling, and termination versus continuation of the pregnancy. Our analysis foregrounds clinicians' role in helping to ensure autonomous decision making as the patient reflects on these clinical options in light of her goals and values.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Ética Médica , Aconselhamento Genético/ética , Testes Genéticos/ética , Gestantes , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
19.
Nat Rev Urol ; 14(6): 359-372, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467398

RESUMO

Endometriosis predominantly affects the pelvic reproductive organs but can also affect the urinary tract. A number of theories for the pathogenesis of endometriosis have been suggested, but the exact mechanisms remain elusive. Endometriotic lesions can be found on both the ureter and bladder, and the optimal therapeutic approach depends on the extent, depth, and location of these lesions. Medical approaches, including hormonal therapies such as GnRH agonists and oral contraceptives, tend to be a temporary measure, but can be useful in a preoperative setting or if the patient is unsuitable for surgery, and are also useful as a postoperative treatment. If surgical resection is deemed appropriate, laparoscopic management with or without robotic assistance of urological endometriosis is feasible and advisable. Newer techniques, such as nerve-sparing surgery, might help to decrease the risk of urinary complications following resection of deeply infiltrating endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Endometriose/terapia , Doenças Urológicas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Urológicas/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Cistoscopia , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Urológicas/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Agentes Urológicos/uso terapêutico
20.
J Surg Educ ; 73(2): 258-63, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26597729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a teaching and assessment tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot tying. DESIGN AND SETTING: We designed an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) tool that includes a procedure-specific checklist (PSC) and global rating scale (GRS) to assess laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying performance. Obstetrics and Gynecology residents at our institution were videotaped while performing a laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying task at a surgical simulation workshop. A total of 2 expert reviewers assessed resident performance using the OSATS tool during live performance and 1 month later using the videotaped recordings. OSATS scores were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Data are presented as median scores (interquartile range [IQR]). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed using a Spearman correlation and are presented as an r correlation coefficient and p value. An r ≥ 0.8 was considered as a high correlation. After testing, we received feedback from residents and faculty to improve the OSATS tool as part of an iterative design process. PARTICIPANTS: In all, 14 of 21 residents (66.7%) completed the study, with 9 junior residents and 5 senior residents. RESULTS: Junior residents had a lower score on the PSC than senior residents did; however, this was not statistically significant (median = 6.0 [IQR: 4.0-10.0] and median = 13.0 [IQR: 10.0-13.0]; p = 0.09). There was excellent intrarater reliability with our OSATS tool (for PSC component, r = 0.88 for Rater 1 and 0.93 for Rater 2, both p < 0.0001; for GRS component, r = 0.85 for Rater 1 and 0.88 for Rater 2, both p ≤ 0.0002). The PSC also has high interrater reliability during live evaluation (r = 0.92; p < 0.0001), and during the videotape scoring with r = 0.77 (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our OSATS tool may be a useful assessment and teaching tool for laparoscopic suturing and intracorporeal knot-tying skills. Overall, good intrarater reliability was demonstrated, suggesting that this tool may be useful for longitudinal assessment of surgical skills.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Ginecologia/educação , Laparoscopia/educação , Obstetrícia/educação , Técnicas de Sutura/educação , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Treinamento por Simulação , Gravação de Videoteipe
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