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BMJ ; 384: e077039, 2024 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38302129


OBJECTIVE: To explore how the number and type of breast cancers developed after screen detected atypia compare with the anticipated 11.3 cancers detected per 1000 women screened within one three year screening round in the United Kingdom. DESIGN: Observational analysis of the Sloane atypia prospective cohort in England. SETTING: Atypia diagnoses through the English NHS breast screening programme reported to the Sloane cohort study. This cohort is linked to the English Cancer Registry and the Mortality and Birth Information System for information on subsequent breast cancer and mortality. PARTICIPANTS: 3238 women diagnosed as having epithelial atypia between 1 April 2003 and 30 June 2018. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and type of invasive breast cancers detected at one, three, and six years after atypia diagnosis by atypia type, age, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: There was a fourfold increase in detection of atypia after the introduction of digital mammography between 2010 (n=119) and 2015 (n=502). During 19 088 person years of follow-up after atypia diagnosis (until December 2018), 141 women developed breast cancer. Cumulative incidence of cancer per 1000 women with atypia was 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.28 to 2.69), 14.2 (10.3 to 19.1), and 45.0 (36.3 to 55.1) at one, three, and six years after atypia diagnosis, respectively. Women with atypia detected more recently have lower rates of subsequent cancers detected within three years (6.0 invasive cancers per 1000 women (95% confidence interval 3.1 to 10.9) in 2013-18 v 24.3 (13.7 to 40.1) in 2003-07, and 24.6 (14.9 to 38.3) in 2008-12). Grade, size, and nodal involvement of subsequent invasive cancers were similar to those of cancers detected in the general screening population, with equal numbers of ipsilateral and contralateral cancers. CONCLUSIONS: Many atypia could represent risk factors rather than precursors of invasive cancer requiring surgery in the short term. Women with atypia detected more recently have lower rates of subsequent cancers detected, which might be associated with changes to mammography and biopsy techniques identifying forms of atypia that are more likely to represent overdiagnosis. Annual mammography in the short term after atypia diagnosis might not be beneficial. More evidence is needed about longer term risks.

Neoplasias da Mama , Medicina Estatal , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Prospectivos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mamografia/métodos , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento
Cancer Med ; 12(16): 17184-17192, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37455592


BACKGROUND/AIM: Clotting factors promote cancer development. We investigated if coagulation proteins promote proliferation and migration in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and whether their direct inhibitors can attenuate these effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DLD-1 and SW620 cells were treated with tissue factor (0, 50, 100 and 500 pg/mL ± 10 µg/mL 10H10 [anti-tissue factor antibody]), thrombin (0.0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 U/mL ± 0.5 µM dabigatran [thrombin inhibitor]) and Factor Xa, FXa (0.0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 U/mL ± 100 ng/mL rivaroxaban [FXa inhibitor]) and their effects on proliferation and migration were quantified using the PrestoBlue® and transwell migration assays, respectively. RESULTS: Thrombin increased proliferation from 48 h treatment compared to its control (48 h 6.57 ± 1.36 u vs. 2.42 ± 0.13 u, p = 0.001, 72 h 9.50 ± 1.54 u vs. 4.50 ± 0.47 u, p = 0.004 and 96 h 10.77 ± 1.72 u vs. 5.57 ± 0.25 u, p = 0.008). This increase in proliferation was attenuated by dabigatran at 72 h (2.23 ± 0.16 u vs. 3.26 ± 0.43 u, p = 0.04). Tissue factor (0 pg/mL 20.7 ± 1.6 cells/view vs. 50 pg/mL 32.4 ± 1.9 cells/view, p = 0.0002), FXa (0.0 U/mL 8.9 ± 1.1 cells/view vs. 10.0 U/mL 17.7 ± 1.7 cells/view, p < 0.0001) and thrombin (0.0 U/mL 8.9 ± 1.3 cells/view vs. 10.0 U/mL 20.2 ± 2.0 cells/view, p < 0.0001) all increased migration compared to their controls. However, their direct inhibitors did not attenuate these increases. CONCLUSION: Thrombin, FXa and TF all increase migration in CRC in vitro. Thrombin induced increase in proliferation is abrogated by dabigatran. Dabigatran may have potential as an anti-cancer therapy in CRC.

Neoplasias Colorretais , Dabigatrana , Humanos , Dabigatrana/farmacologia , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Trombina/metabolismo , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacologia , Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/farmacologia , Tromboplastina/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e036072, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514570


OBJECTIVE: Internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals have published breast cancer research gaps that are informing research funding priorities in the UK and worldwide. We aimed to determine the breast cancer research priorities of the public to compare with those identified by clinicians and scientists. DESIGN: We conducted a qualitative study and thematic analysis using 'listening events' where patients with breast cancer and public representatives used a patient's breast cancer journey to identify research themes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Female participants were recruited from attendees at participating hospitals and support groups in the northwest of England, including patients, their family and friends as well as staff at a local retail centre. INTERVENTION: A framework approach was used to analyse transcribed discussions until thematic saturation was reached. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Breast cancer research priorities were identified from participant discussions and compared with the published gaps identified by scientists and healthcare professionals. RESULTS: Thematic saturation was reached after 27 female participants participated in listening events. Our participants consistently focused on improved methods of dissemination of information and improving education on the signs and symptoms of breast cancer. This was not highlighted by scientists or healthcare professionals. There was strong emphasis on quality of life-related issues such as side effects of treatment. There was some agreement between the priorities deduced by our study and those of the professionals in the areas of screening, prevention and breast reconstruction. CONCLUSION: Our study identified some research themes that were not identified by scientists and healthcare professionals in two earlier landmark studies. This highlights the importance of including patients and public representatives when setting research priorities. The results should be used to guide investigators when planning future studies and for funding bodies in allocating resources for future projects.

Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido
Anticancer Res ; 38(5): 2635-2642, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29715083


BACKGROUND/AIM: Tissue factor (TF) expression increases cancer stem cell (CSC) activity in breast and lung cancer. There are ongoing studies focused on targeting CSCs via anti-TF treatment, for breast and lung cancer therapy. Herein, the aim was to determine whether targeting TF could have an anti-CSC therapeutic role in colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of colonosphere-forming efficiency (CFE) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression level was used to quantify CSC activity in two CRC cell lines, after TF knockdown (TFKD) or TF over-expression (TFOE). RESULTS: TFKD resulted in increased levels of ALDH in SW620 (1.31±0.04-fold, p<0.001) and DLD-1 (1.63±0.14-fold, p=0.04) cells. CFE was increased in SW620 (1.21±0.23% vs. 2.03±0.29%, p=0.01) and DLD-1 (0.41±0.12% vs. 0.68±0.9%, p=0.01) cells. Conversely, TFOE decreased ALDH expression (0.72±0.04-fold, p=0.001) and CFE (0.33±0.05% vs. 0.66±0.14%, p=0.006) in DLD-1, but had no impact on SW620 cells. CONCLUSION: In the examined CRC cell lines, TF expression was inversely related to CSC activity suggesting that anti-TF therapies may not have a role in CRC treatment.

Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Tromboplastina/fisiologia , Aldeído Desidrogenase/análise , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Divisão Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Vetores Genéticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares , Tromboplastina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tromboplastina/genética