Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 591
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Sci ; 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38429886

RESUMO

Advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction cancers (GC/GEJCs) harbor diverse molecular signatures, highlighting the need for intricate evaluations to identify potential therapeutic targets. Although whole-transcriptome sequencing (WTS) has emerged as a useful tool for understanding these molecular intricacies, its clinical implications have yet to be fully elucidated. This study evaluated the correlation between immunohistochemistry (IHC) and WTS, compared their clinical significance, and identified potential therapeutic targets undetectable through IHC alone. We enrolled 140 patients with advanced GC/GEJC and assessed them using IHC for six pivotal biomarkers: claudin-18 (CLDN18), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), multiple receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Concurrently, WTS was employed as part of the analyses in MONSTAR-SCREEN-2, a multicenter multiomics study. IHC analysis revealed 16.4% HER2, 39.3% CLDN18 (2+/3 + ≥75%), and 15.8% PD-L1 (combined positive score ≥ 10) positivity, among other molecular markers. Significant correlations were observed between IHC and WTS for all six pivotal biomarkers. Among nineteen HER2 IHC-positive patients treated with anti-HER2 therapeutics, ERBB2 status in WTS was significantly associated with progression-free survival (ERBB2-high vs. -low: median 9.0 vs. 5.6 months, log-rank p = 0.046). IHC-based molecular profiling revealed significantly high expression of CLDN18 in RTK-negative patients, with 78.4% positive for either CLDN18 or PD-L1. Additionally, WTS revealed elevated expression of pivotal biomarkers in patients displaying negative targetable biomarkers via IHC. Our findings highlighted the significant correlation between IHC and WTS, reinforcing the clinical utility of WTS. A subset with IHC-negative but WTS-positive status may benefit from specific biomarker-targeted therapies.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(5)2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38474007

RESUMO

Pendrin and prestin are evolutionary-conserved membrane proteins that are essential for normal hearing. Dysfunction of these proteins results in hearing loss in humans, and numerous deafness-associated pendrin and prestin variants have been identified in patients. However, the pathogenic impacts of many of these variants are ambiguous. Here, we report results from our ongoing efforts to experimentally characterize pendrin and prestin variants using in vitro functional assays. With previously established fluorometric anion transport assays, we determined that many of the pendrin variants identified on transmembrane (TM) 10, which contains the essential anion binding site, and on the neighboring TM9 within the core domain resulted in impaired anion transport activity. We also determined the range of functional impairment in three deafness-associated prestin variants by measuring nonlinear capacitance (NLC), a proxy for motor function. Using the results from our functional analyses, we also evaluated the performance of AlphaMissense (AM), a computational tool for predicting the pathogenicity of missense variants. AM prediction scores correlated well with our experimental results; however, some variants were misclassified, underscoring the necessity of experimentally assessing the effects of variants. Together, our experimental efforts provide invaluable information regarding the pathogenicity of deafness-associated pendrin and prestin variants.


Assuntos
Surdez , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Humanos , Transportadores de Sulfato , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ânions/metabolismo
3.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X241238843, 2024 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477254

RESUMO

Neurovascular coupling (NVC) is the functional hyperemia of the brain responding to local neuronal activity. It is mediated by astrocytes and affected by subcortical ascending pathways in the cortex that convey information, such as sensory stimuli and the animal condition. Here, we investigate the influence of the raphe serotonergic system, a subcortical ascending arousal system in animals, on the modulation of cortical NVC and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Raphe serotonergic neurons were optogenically activated for 30 s, which immediately awakened the mice from non-rapid eye movement sleep. This caused a biphasic cortical hemodynamic change: a transient increase for a few seconds immediately after photostimulation onset, followed by a large progressive decrease during the stimulation period. Serotonergic neuron activation increased intracellular Ca2+ levels in cortical pyramidal neurons and astrocytes, demonstrating its effect on the NVC components. Pharmacological inhibition of cortical neuronal firing activity and astrocyte metabolic activity had small hypovolemic effects on serotonin-induced biphasic CBF changes, while blocking 5-HT1B receptors expressed primarily in cerebral vasculature attenuated the decreasing CBF phase. This suggests that serotonergic neuron activation leading to animal awakening could allow the NVC to exert a hyperemic function during a biphasic CBF response, with a predominant decrease in the cortex.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 25(3)2024 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38338691

RESUMO

Tight junction (TJ) protein cingulin (CGN) and transcription factor forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) contribute to the development of various cancers. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have a potential therapeutic role for some cancers. HDAC inhibitors affect the expression of both CGN and FOXO1. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms of CGN and FOXO1 are unknown in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and normal human lung epithelial (HLE) cells. In the present study, to investigate the effects of CGN and FOXO1 on the malignancy of NSCLC, we used A549 cells as human lung adenocarcinoma and primary human lung epithelial (HLE) cells as normal lung tissues and performed the knockdown of CGN and FOXO1 by siRNAs. Furthermore, to investigate the detailed mechanisms in the antitumor effects of HDAC inhibitors for NSCLC via CGN and FOXO1, A549 cells and HLE cells were treated with the HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and Quisinostat (JNJ-2648158). In A549 cells, the knockdown of CGN increased bicellular TJ protein claudin-2 (CLDN-2) via mitogen-activated protein kinase/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (MAPK/AMPK) pathways and induced cell migration, while the knockdown of FOXO1 increased claudin-4 (CLDN-4), decreased CGN, and induced cell proliferation. The knockdown of CGN and FOXO1 induced cell metabolism in A549 cells. TSA and Quisinostat increased CGN and tricellular TJ protein angulin-1/lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) in A549. In normal HLE cells, the knockdown of CGN and FOXO1 increased CLDN-4, while HDAC inhibitors increased CGN and CLDN-4. In conclusion, the knockdown of CGN via FOXO1 contributes to the malignancy of NSCLC. Both HDAC inhibitors, TSA and Quisinostat, may have potential for use in therapy for lung adenocarcinoma via changes in the expression of CGN and FOXO1.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Proteína Forkhead Box O1 , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas , Humanos , Células A549 , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
5.
bioRxiv ; 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328051

RESUMO

Pendrin and prestin are evolutionary conserved membrane proteins that are essential for normal hearing. Pendrin is an anion transporter required for normal development and maintenance of ion homeostasis in the inner ear, while prestin is a voltage-dependent motor responsible for cochlear amplification essential for high sensitivity and frequency selectivity of mammalian hearing. Dysfunction of these proteins result in hearing loss in humans, and numerous deafness-associated pendrin and prestin variants have been identified in patients. However, the pathogenic impacts of many of these variants are ambiguous. Here we report results from our ongoing efforts in experimentally characterizing pendrin and prestin variants using in vitro functional assays, providing invaluable information regarding their pathogenicity.

6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 12(2)2024 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) combinations represent an emerging treatment strategies in cancer. However, their efficacy in microsatellite stable (MSS) or mismatch repair-proficient (pMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC) is variable. Here, a multiomic characterization was performed to identify predictive biomarkers associated with patient response to ICI combinations in MSS/pMMR CRC for the further development of ICI combinations. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing, RNA sequencing, and multiplex fluorescence immunohistochemistry of tumors from patients with MSS/pMMR CRC, who received regorafenib plus nivolumab (REGONIVO) or TAS-116 plus nivolumab (TASNIVO) in clinical trials were conducted. Twenty-two and 23 patients without prior ICI from the REGONIVO and TASNIVO trials were included in this study. A biomarker analysis was performed using samples from each of these studies. RESULTS: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition pathway and genes related to cancer-associated fibroblasts were upregulated in the REGONIVO responder group, and the G2M checkpoint pathway was upregulated in the TASNIVO responder group. The MYC pathway was upregulated in the REGONIVO non-responder group. Consensus molecular subtype 4 was significantly associated with response (p=0.035) and longer progression-free survival (p=0.006) in the REGONIVO trial. CD8+ T cells, regulatory T cells, and M2 macrophages density was significantly higher in the REGONIVO trial responders than in non-responders. Mutations in the POLE gene and patient response were significantly associated in the TASNIVO trial; however, the frequencies of other mutations or tumor mutational burden were not significantly different between responders and non-responders in either trial. CONCLUSIONS: We identified molecular features associated with the response to the REGONIVO and TASNIVO, particularly those related to tumor microenvironmental factors. These findings are likely to contribute to the development of biomarkers to predict treatment efficacy for MSS/pMMR CRC and future immunotherapy combinations for treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Nivolumabe , Humanos , Nivolumabe/farmacologia , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Multiômica , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Biomarcadores
7.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 16: 17588359241229432, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38405034

RESUMO

Background: Docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) combination chemotherapy has been established as one of the standard neoadjuvant therapies for locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, little is known about prognostic factors in patients with residual pathological disease after neoadjuvant DCF followed by surgery for locally advanced ESCC who are candidates for adjuvant nivolumab. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate prognostic factors in patients with residual pathological disease after neoadjuvant DCF chemotherapy followed by surgery for locally advanced ESCC. Design: This was a retrospective cohort study. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients who received neoadjuvant DCF followed by surgery for locally advanced ESCC between June 2014 and January 2020 at the National Cancer Center Hospital East. Results: Among a total of 210 patients, 45 patients (21.4%) achieved a pathological complete response. The 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was significantly lower in patients with residual pathological disease than in those with a pathological complete response [53.5% versus 74.5%; hazard ratio (HR): 2.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-3.77, p = 0.01]. In patients with residual pathological disease (n = 165), multivariate analysis revealed that pathological node positivity (HR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.92-6.71, p < 0.01), supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (HR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.19-3.90, p = 0.01), and lymphovascular invasion (HR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.14-3.17, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with poor DFS. Conclusion: In this largest-to-date cohort study, patients with residual pathological disease after neoadjuvant DCF followed by surgery for locally advanced ESCC had a poor prognosis. In these patients, pathological node positivity, including supraclavicular lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion were considered significant prognostic factors.

8.
Cancer Sci ; 2024 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342100

RESUMO

Despite continuing advances in the development of effective new therapies, including immunotherapies, the prognosis of pancreatic cancer remains extremely poor. Gap junction proteins have become attractive targets for potential cancer therapy. However, the role of gap junction beta-4 (GJB4) protein remains unexplored in pancreatic cancer. Through bioinformatic analyses we discovered pancreatic cancer tissues showed higher levels of GJB4 transcripts compared to normal pancreatic tissues and this had a negative effect on overall survival in patients that had pancreatic cancer. The high expression of nuclear GJB4 was identified as a negative prognostic factor in such patients. Knockdown of GJB4 in cultured pancreatic cancer cells resulted in G0 /G1 arrest followed by decreased cell proliferation and suppression of metastatic potential. The overexpression of GJB4 accelerated cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in a SUIT-2 cell line, whereas MET inhibitor canceled the acceleration. GJB4 suppression with siRNA significantly inhibited tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Mechanistically, suppression of GJB4 inhibited MET-AKT activities. Such data suggest that targeting the GJB4-MET axis could represent a promising new therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

9.
Esophagus ; 21(2): 102-110, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has a poor prognosis, with limited second-line systemic therapy options, and represents an increasing disease burden in Japan. In the phase 3 RATIONALE-302 study, the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 antibody, tislelizumab, significantly improved overall survival (OS) versus chemotherapy as second-line treatment for advanced/metastatic ESCC. Here, we report the Japanese patient subgroup results. METHODS: Patients with advanced/metastatic ESCC, with disease progression during/after first-line systemic therapy were randomized 1:1 to open-label tislelizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks or investigator's choice of chemotherapy (paclitaxel/docetaxel). Efficacy and safety were assessed in all randomized Japanese patients. RESULTS: The Japanese subgroup comprised 50 patients (n = 25 per arm). Tislelizumab improved OS versus chemotherapy (median: 9.8 vs. 7.6 months; HR 0.59; 95% CI 0.31, 1.12). Among patients with programmed death-ligand 1 score ≥ 10%, median OS was 12.5 months with tislelizumab (n = 10) versus 2.9 months with chemotherapy (n = 6) (HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.09, 1.03). Tislelizumab improved progression-free survival versus chemotherapy (median: 3.6 vs. 1.7 months, respectively; HR 0.50; 95% CI 0.27, 0.95). Objective response rate was greater with tislelizumab (32.0%) versus chemotherapy (20.0%), and responses were more durable (median duration of response: 8.8 vs. 2.6 months, respectively). Fewer patients experienced ≥ grade 3 treatment-related adverse events with tislelizumab (24.0%) versus chemotherapy (47.8%). Tislelizumab demonstrated an improvement in health-related quality of life versus chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: As second-line therapy for advanced/metastatic ESCC, tislelizumab improved OS versus chemotherapy, with a favorable safety profile, in the Japanese patient subgroup, consistent with the overall population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03430843.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Humanos , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago/tratamento farmacológico , Japão/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38217766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power formulas, namely, SRK/T, Haigis, Barrett Universal II, Barrett True-K for keratoconus, Kane formula, and Kane formula for keratoconus, for cataract with keratoconus in Japanese eyes. SETTING: Five surgical sites in Japan. DESIGN: A retrospective case series. METHODS: Eyes with keratoconus undergoing cataract surgery were included. Postoperative refraction was compared with the prediction by the formulas. Visual acuity, manifest spherical equivalent, prediction error (PE), and mean absolute errors (MAEs) were determined 1 month postoperatively. The PE within 0.50 diopter (D), 1.00 D, and 2.00 D were compared between IOL formulas. Subgroup analysis based on the steepest keratometry (stage 1, ≤ 48 D; stage 2, > 48 D and ≤ 53 D; and stage 3, > 53 D) was performed. The relationship between PE and preoperative biometric data were assessed. RESULTS: Fifty eyes were included. The MAE of the Barrett True-K for keratoconus, Kane keratoconus, and Kane formulas were significantly lower than that of Haigis. A statistically significant difference in the prediction accuracy within ± 0.50 D was found between Kane keratoconus and Haigis. The prediction accuracy of the Barrett True-K for keratoconus, SRK/T, and Kane within ± 1.00 D was statistically significant compared with that of Haigis. In stage 3, the Barrett True-K for keratoconus had a significantly lower MAE than SRK/T and Haigis. CONCLUSION: Keratoconus-specific formulas were more accurate than existing formulas in Japanese eyes. The Barrett True-K formula for keratoconus had higher prediction accuracy in severe keratoconus.

11.
Tissue Barriers ; : 2304443, 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38225862

RESUMO

It is known that there are abnormalities of tight junction functions, cell migration and mitochondrial metabolism in human endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma. In this study, we investigated the effects of growth factors and their inhibitors on the epithelial permeability barrier, cell migration and mitochondrial metabolism in 2D and 2.5D cultures of human endometrioid endometrial carcinoma Sawano cells. We also investigated the changes of bicellular and tricellular tight junction molecules and ciliogenesis induced by these inhibitors. The growth factors TGF-ß and EGF affected the epithelial permeability barrier, cell migration and expression of bicellular and tricellular tight junction molecules in 2D and 2.5D cultures of Sawano cells. EW-7197 (a TGF-ß receptor inhibitor), AG1478 (an EGFR inhibitor) and SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) affected the epithelial permeability barrier, cell migration and mitochondrial metabolism and prevented the changes induced by TGF-ß and EGF in 2D and 2.5D cultures. EW-7197 and AG1478 induced ciliogenesis in 2.5D cultures. In conclusion, TGF-ß and EGF promoted the malignancy of endometrial cancer via interplay among the epithelial permeability barrier, cell migration and mitochondrial metabolism. EW-7197 and AG1478 may be useful as novel therapeutic treatments options for endometrial cancer.

12.
Sci Adv ; 9(50): eadh9069, 2023 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38091397

RESUMO

Radiotherapy (RT) combined with immunotherapy is promising; however, the immune response signature in the clinical setting after RT remains unclear. Here, by integrative spatial and single-cell analyses using multiplex immunostaining (CODEX), spatial transcriptome (VISIUM), and single-cell RNA sequencing, we substantiated the infiltration of immune cells into tumors with dynamic changes in immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive gene expression after RT. In addition, our comprehensive analysis uncovered time- and cell type-dependent alterations in the gene expression profile after RT. Furthermore, myeloid cells showed prominent up-regulation of immune response-associated genes after RT. Notably, a subset of infiltrating tumor-associated myeloid cells showing PD-L1 positivity exhibited significant up-regulation of immunostimulatory (HMGB1 and ISG15), immunosuppressive (SIRPA and IDO1), and protumor genes (CXCL8, CCL3, IL-6, and IL-1AB), which can be targets of immunotherapy in combination with PD-L1. These datasets will provide information on the RT-induced gene signature to seek an appropriate target for personalized immunotherapy combined with RT and guide the timing of combination therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas do Esôfago , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Esofágicas/genética , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Imunossupressores
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(11)2023 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38004009

RESUMO

Insufficient evidence exists regarding the efficacy of Janus kinase inhibitors (JAKis), a class of targeted synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (tsDMARDs), in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD). Herein, we present a case of RA-ILD refractory to previous treatments that exhibited favorable response to upadacitinib. A 69-year-old man, former smoker, was diagnosed with RA-ILD based on persistent symmetric polyarthritis, elevated C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, reduced diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume (DLCO 69.9%), and bilateral ground-glass attenuation with traction bronchiectasis, predominantly in the lower lung lobe. Initial treatment with oral prednisolone and methotrexate was started; however, the patient showed worsening dyspnea, chest high-resolution computed tomography abnormalities, and decreased pulmonary function. The dose of prednisolone was increased, and methotrexate was shifted to tacrolimus; however, tacrolimus was eventually discontinued because of renal dysfunction. Subsequent treatment changes included abatacept followed by intravenous cyclophosphamide, but ILD activity continued to worsen and met the criteria of progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Approximately 4.5 years after the RA diagnosis, dyspnea, radiological abnormalities, and DLCO improved following treatment switch to upadacitinib, one of JAKis. JAKi therapy may have potential as a treatment option for refractory RA-ILD.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais , Masculino , Humanos , Idoso , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Tacrolimo/uso terapêutico , Artrite Reumatoide/complicações , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Prednisolona/uso terapêutico , Dispneia
14.
Ophthalmic Res ; 66(1): 1402-1405, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38016429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe a simple technique for the implantation of toric intraocular lenses (IOLs) with increased stability during ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) removal. METHODS: The technique was performed on 20 eyes with 20 patients (mean age: 77.9 ± 9.21 years). The patients had cataract surgery with implantation of a single-piece, acrylic IOL (AcrySof Toric IOL, SN6A; Alcon Laboratories, Inc.). The intraoperative IOL rotation during OVD removal, rotational error of toric IOL axis at 30 min and 24 h after surgery, and mean preoperative and postoperative IOP were evaluated. Images were captured before and after removal of OVD from surgical video, and used to evaluate intraoperative IOL rotation. RESULTS: The mean amount of IOL rotation during OVD removal with the current technique was 0.88 ± 0.93°, which was less than the 10.25 ± 5.50° previously reported for the conventional technique. The rotational error of toric IOL axis at 30 min and 24 h were 3.90 ± 3.71 and 3.05 ± 3.22°, respectively. The mean preoperative IOP and postoperative IOP were 13.84 ± 2.39 and 14.15 ± 4.68 mm Hg, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: With the current technique, the toric IOL is stable during OVD removal and repositioning of the IOL during surgery is less likely to be required.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Catarata , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Humanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Implante de Lente Intraocular/métodos , Acuidade Visual , Facoemulsificação/métodos , Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Refração Ocular
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(40): e35216, 2023 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37800820

RESUMO

To investigate sex differences in the titles and lifestyles of Japanese ophthalmologists, we evaluated work places and private lives. Retrospective cross-sectional study. The study included 1721 members (1344 males and 377 females) of the Japanese Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery. An online, anonymized questionnaire was distributed to the society members. The questionnaire included 40 questions to collect data on profiles, lifestyles, job title, families, spouses, children, household chores, child-rearing, and work satisfaction. In total, 219 members (144 males and 75 females; 53.4 ±â€…1.0 and 51.3 ±â€…9.9 years old, respectively) completed the questionnaire. The job title, working time, annual income, marriage rate, and the number of children significantly differed between male and female respondents. Female respondents had greater responsibilities toward house chores, child care, and nursing, whereas several male doctors had spouses who did not work or worked for shorter times, earned a lower income, and contributed greater toward family responsibilities. Female respondents changed their job titles after having children more frequently than male respondents. Both males and females had limited time available for community activities and volunteer work. There were no significant differences in daily sleep duration. Both sexes were equally satisfied with their career choice of ophthalmology; however, fewer females recommended ophthalmology as a career for students and children compared to males. There are significant sex differences among ophthalmologists in Japan in terms of family responsibilities; this topic has received insufficient attention.


Assuntos
Catarata , Oftalmologia , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Japão , Caracteres Sexuais , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estilo de Vida , Satisfação no Emprego
16.
Cell Stem Cell ; 30(10): 1315-1330.e10, 2023 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802037

RESUMO

COVID-19 is linked to endotheliopathy and coagulopathy, which can result in multi-organ failure. The mechanisms causing endothelial damage due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain elusive. Here, we developed an infection-competent human vascular organoid from pluripotent stem cells for modeling endotheliopathy. Longitudinal serum proteome analysis identified aberrant complement signature in critically ill patients driven by the amplification cycle regulated by complement factor B and D (CFD). This deviant complement pattern initiates endothelial damage, neutrophil activation, and thrombosis specific to organoid-derived human blood vessels, as verified through intravital imaging. We examined a new long-acting, pH-sensitive (acid-switched) antibody targeting CFD. In both human and macaque COVID-19 models, this long-acting anti-CFD monoclonal antibody mitigated abnormal complement activation, protected endothelial cells, and curtailed the innate immune response post-viral exposure. Collectively, our findings suggest that the complement alternative pathway exacerbates endothelial injury and inflammation. This underscores the potential of CFD-targeted therapeutics against severe viral-induced inflammathrombotic outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Fator D do Complemento , Células Endoteliais , Haplorrinos
17.
Cancers (Basel) ; 15(17)2023 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686580

RESUMO

We previously showed that upregulation of adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1) in vascular endothelial cells promotes tumor angiogenesis. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the role of stromal AEBP1/ACLP expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that ACLP is abundantly expressed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in primary OSCC tissues and that upregulated expression of ACLP is associated with disease progression. Analysis using CAFs obtained from surgically resected OSCCs showed that the expression of AEBP1/ACLP in CAFs is upregulated by co-culture with OSCC cells or treatment with TGF-ß1, suggesting cancer-cell-derived TGF-ß1 induces AEBP1/ACLP in CAFs. Collagen gel contraction assays showed that ACLP contributes to the activation of CAFs. In addition, CAF-derived ACLP promotes migration, invasion, and in vivo tumor formation by OSCC cells. Notably, tumor stromal ACLP expression correlated positively with collagen expression and correlated inversely with CD8+ T cell infiltration into primary OSCC tumors. Boyden chamber assays suggested that ACLP in CAFs may attenuate CD8+ T cell migration. Our results suggest that stromal ACLP contributes to the development of OSCCs, and that ACLP is a potential therapeutic target.

18.
Neurosci Lett ; 814: 137465, 2023 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37659700

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated the presence of a default mode network (DMN) which shows greater activity during rest, and an executive network (EN) which is activated during cognitive tasks. DMN and EN are thought to have competing functions. However, recent studies reported that the two networks show coactivation during some cognitive tasks. To clarify how DMN works and how DMN interacts with EN for cognitive control, we recorded EEG activities in the medial prefrontal (anterior DMN: aDMN), posterior cingulate/precuneus (posterior DMN: pDMN), and lateral prefrontal (EN) areas in the monkey. As cognitive tasks, we employed a monkey-monkey competitive video game (GAME) and a delayed-response (DR) task. We focused on theta oscillation because of its importance in cognitive control. We also examined theta band connectivity among the three network areas using the Granger causality analysis. DMN and EN were found to work cooperatively in both tasks. In all the three network areas, we found GAME-task-related, but no DR-task-related, increase in theta power from the resting level, maybe because of the higher cognitive demand associated with the GAME task performance. The information flow conveyed by the theta oscillation was directed more to aDMN than from aDMN for both tasks. The GAME-task-related increase in theta power in aDMN is supposed to be supported by more information flow conveyed by the theta oscillation from EN and pDMN.


Assuntos
Rede de Modo Padrão , Giro do Cíngulo , Neuroimagem , Lobo Parietal , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
19.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291772, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37729184

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have attracted attention as a novel therapeutic target to augment the clinical efficacy of immunotherapy. We conducted phase Ia and Ib trials to examine the safety and efficacy of the anti-CCR4 antibody, KW-0761 (mogamulizumab), which may eliminate effector Tregs (eTregs). We herein overviewed the results of these trials, presented cases with a durable clinical response, and investigated factors associated with the clinical effects of KW-0761. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with CCR4-negative solid cancers were enrolled in the phase Ia and Ib trials on KW-0761. An integral analysis of safety, clinical responses, prognosis, blood laboratory data, and cancer testis antigen-specific immune responses was performed. RESULTS: Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 21 (42.9%) out of 49 patients, all of which were manageable. A partial response and stable disease were observed in 1 and 9 patients, respectively. A durable clinical response was noted in 2 esophageal and 2 lung cancer patients. eTreg depletion in peripheral blood was confirmed in most patients, and eTreg depletion was sustained during the KW-0761 treatment. High lymphocyte levels at baseline and 2 weeks after the initiation of KW-0761 were associated with a favorable clinical outcome. CONCLUSIONS: A durable clinical response was noted in some patients, and high lymphocyte levels before treatment initiation may be a biomarker for the efficacy of KW-0761. The synergistic effect of KW-0761 for depleting Tregs and other immunotherapies is expected in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Humanos , Masculino , Imunoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
20.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 16017, 2023 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37749105

RESUMO

The PI3K-Akt-mTOR (PAM) pathway is implicated in tumor progression in many tumor types, including metastatic gastric cancer (GC). The initial promise of PAM inhibitors has been unrealized in the clinic, presumably due, in part, to the up-regulation of Akt signaling that occurs when the pathway is inhibited. Here we present that DIACC3010 (formerly M2698), an inhibitor of two nodes in the PAM pathway, p70S6K and Akt 1/3, blocks the pathway in in vitro and in vivo preclinical models of GC while providing a mechanism that inhibits signaling from subsequent Akt up-regulation. Utilizing GC cell lines and xenograft models, we identified potential markers of DIACC3010-sensitivity in Her2-negative tumors, i.e., PIK3CA mutations, low basal pERK, and a group of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). The combination of DIACC3010 and trastuzumab was evaluated in Her2-positive cell lines and models. Potential biomarkers for the synergistic efficacy of the combination of DIACC3010 + trastuzumab also included DEGs as well as a lack of up-regulation of pERK. Of 27 GC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models tested in BALB/c nu/nu mice, 59% were sensitive to DIACC3010 + trastuzumab. Of the 21 HER2-negative PDX models, DIACC3010 significantly inhibited the growth of 38%. Altogether, these results provide a path forward to validate the potential biomarkers of DIACC3010 sensitivity in GC and support clinical evaluation of DIACC3010 monotherapy and combination with trastuzumab in patients with HER2- negative and positive advanced GCs, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Gástricas , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases , Inibidores da Angiogênese , Modelos Animais de Doenças
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...