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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 147(3): 2049, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237816

RESUMO

Intracochlear electrocochleography (ECochG) is a potential tool for the assessment of residual hearing in cochlear implant users during implantation and acoustical tuning postoperatively. It is, however, unclear how these ECochG recordings from different locations in the cochlea depend on the stimulus parameters, cochlear morphology, implant design, or hair cell degeneration. In this paper, a model is presented that simulates intracochlear ECochG recordings by combining two existing models, namely a peripheral one that simulates hair cell activation and a three-dimensional (3D) volume-conduction model of the current spread in the cochlea. The outcomes were compared to actual ECochG recordings from subjects with a cochlear implant (CI). The 3D volume conduction simulations showed that the intracochlear ECochG is a local measure of activation. Simulations showed that increasing stimulus frequency resulted in a basal shift of the peak cochlear microphonic (CM) amplitude. Increasing the stimulus level resulted in wider tuning curves as recorded along the array. Simulations with hair cell degeneration resulted in ECochG responses that resembled the recordings from the two subjects in terms of CM onset responses, higher harmonics, and the width of the tuning curve. It was concluded that the model reproduced the patterns seen in intracochlear hair cell responses recorded from CI-subjects.

2.
Ear Hear ; 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In adult cochlear implant patients, conventional audiometry is used to measure postoperative residual hearing which requires active listening and patient feedback. However, audiological measurements in pediatric cochlear implant patients are both challenging as well as time consuming. Intracochlear electrocochleography (ECOG) offers an objective and a time-efficient method to measure frequency-specific cochlear microphonic or difference thresholds (CM/DIF) thresholds that closely approximate auditory thresholds in adult cochlear implant patients. The correlation between CM/DIF and behavioral thresholds has not been established in pediatric cochlear implant patients. In the present study, CM/DIF thresholds were compared with audiometric thresholds in pediatric cochlear implant patients with postoperative residual hearing. DESIGN: Thirteen (11 unilateral and 2 bilateral) pediatric cochlear implant patients (mean age = 9.2 years ± 5.1) participated in this study. Audiometric thresholds were estimated using conventional, condition play, or visual reinforcement audiometry. A warble tone stimulus was used to measure audiometric thresholds at 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. ECOG waveforms were elicited using 50-msec acoustic tone-bursts. The most apical intracochlear electrode was used as the recording electrode with an extra-cochlear ground electrode. The ECOG waveforms were analyzed to determine CM/DIF thresholds that were compared with pediatric cochlear implant patients' audiometric thresholds. RESULTS: The results show a significant correlation (r = 0.77, p < 0.01) between audiometric and CM/DIF thresholds over a frequency range of 125 to 2000 Hz in pediatric cochlear implant patients. Frequency-specific comparisons revealed a correlation of 0.82, 0.74, 0.69, 0.41, and 0.32 between the audiometric thresholds and CM/DIF thresholds measured at 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, respectively. An average difference of 0.4 dB (±14 dB) was measured between the audiometric and CM/DIF thresholds. CONCLUSIONS: Intracochlear ECOG can be used to measure CM/DIF thresholds in pediatric cochlear implant patients with residual hearing in the implanted ear. The CM/DIF thresholds are similar to the audiometric thresholds at lower test frequencies and offer an objective method to monitor residual hearing in difficult-to-test pediatric cochlear implant patients.

3.
Otol Neurotol ; 41(6): e680-e685, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine if changes in middle ear absorbance measured with wide-band tympanometry (WBT) occur following hearing-preservation cochlear implantation (CI). Such measures may provide insight into the mechanisms of acoustic hearing loss postimplantation. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical capsule report. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. DESIGN: WBT absorbance was measured bilaterally during pre- and postoperative clinical office visits in five unilaterally-implanted cochlear implant recipients. Pre- and postoperative WBT measures were compared within each subject in the implanted and contralateral, unimplanted ears. RESULTS: In general, WBT absorbance measurements show a broad spectral pattern including two or three distinct peaks measured over a frequency range of 226 to 8000 Hz. Grand average and linear mixed model comparisons between the pre- and postoperative WBT patterns show significantly reduced (p < 0.05) low-frequency absorbance in the implanted ears in the frequency region over 0.6 to 1.1 kHz, but not in the unimplanted ears. The maximum effect occurred at 1 kHz with absorbance decreasing from ∼0.8 to ∼0.5 after implantation. The limited data are consistent with expected relationships between WBT absorbance and air- and bone-conduction thresholds, assuming an increased air-bone gap reflects conductive hearing loss. CONCLUSION: Cochlear implantation can result in reduction of low-frequency acoustic absorbance as measured by WBT. WBT may be a useful and sensitive tool for monitoring the mechanical status of the middle and inner ears following cochlear implantation.

4.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(10): 1287-1291, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the use of multi-frequency intra-cochlear electrocochleography (ECOG) in monitoring and optimizing electrode placement during cochlear implant surgery. An acoustic pure tone complex comprising of 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz was used to elicit ECOG, or more specifically cochlear microphonics (CMs), responses from various locations in the cochlea. The most apical cochlear implant electrode was used as the recording electrode. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical capsule report. SETTING: Tertiary academic referral center. RESULTS: ECOG measurements were performed during cochlear implant surgery in an adult patient with significant residual acoustic hearing. The 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz CM tracings from the most apical electrode showed an amplitude peak at three different instances during the early phase of cochlear implant electrode insertion. These results are consistent with the tonotopic organization of the cochlea. During final electrode placement a slight advancement of the electrode array resulted in a correlated decrease in 250, 500, and/or 1000 Hz CM amplitude. The electrode array was retracted and repositioned which resulted in a recovery of CM amplitude. Intraoperative CM thresholds revealed a correlation of r = 0.87 with preoperative audiometric thresholds. CONCLUSION: We present a report on simultaneous multi-frequency ECOG monitoring during cochlear implant surgery. Multi-frequency ECOG can be used to differentiate between electrode trauma and the advancement of the apical electrode beyond the CM source in the cochlea.

5.
Otol Neurotol ; 40(5): e503-e510, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083085

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Electrocochleography (ECochG) recorded during cochlear implant (CI) insertion from the apical electrode in conjunction with postinsertion ECochG can identify electrophysiologic differences that exist between groups with and without a translocation of the array from the scala tympani (ST) into the scala vestibuli (SV). BACKGROUND: Translocation of the CI electrode from ST into SV can limit performance postoperatively. ECochG markers of trauma may be able to aid in the ability to detect electrode array-induced trauma/scalar translocation intraoperatively. METHODS: Twenty-one adult CI patients were included. Subjects were postoperatively parsed into two groups based on analysis of postoperative imaging: 1) ST (n = 14) insertion; 2) SV (n = 7) insertion, indicating translocation of the electrode. The ECochG response elicited from a 500 Hz acoustic stimulus was recorded from the lead electrode during insertion when the distal electrode marker was at the round window, and was compared to the response recorded from a basal electrode (e13) after complete insertion. RESULTS: No statistically significant change in mean ECochG magnitude was found in either group between recording intervals. There was a mean loss of preoperative pure-tone average of 52% for the nontranslocation group and 94% for the translocation group. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative intracochlear ECochG through the CI array provides a unique opportunity to explore the impact of the CI electrode on the inner ear. Specifically, a translocation of the array from ST to SV does not seem to change the biomechanics of the cochlear region that lies basal to the area of translocation in the acute period.


Assuntos
Cóclea/cirurgia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Eletrodos , Adulto , Audiometria de Resposta Evocada , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cóclea/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Monitorização Intraoperatória , Estudos Prospectivos , Rampa do Tímpano , Rampa do Vestíbulo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Otol Neurotol ; 39(8): e654-e659, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113557

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Electrocochleography (ECochG) patterns observed during cochlear implant (CI) electrode insertion may provide information about scalar location of the electrode array. BACKGROUND: Conventional CI surgery is performed without actively monitoring auditory function and potential damage to intracochlear structures. The central hypothesis of this study was that ECochG obtained directly through the CI may be used to estimate intracochlear electrode position and, ultimately, residual hearing preservation. METHODS: Intracochlear ECochG was performed on 32 patients across 3 different implant centers. During electrode insertion, a 50-ms tone burst stimulus (500 Hz) was delivered at 110 dB SPL. The ECochG response was monitored from the apical-most electrode. The amplitude and phase changes of the first harmonic were imported into an algorithm in an attempt to predict the intracochlear electrode location (scala tympani [ST], translocation from ST to scala vestibuli [SV], or interaction with basilar membrane). Anatomic electrode position was verified using postoperative computed tomography (CT) with image processing. RESULTS: CT analysis confirmed 25 electrodes with ST position and 7 electrode arrays translocating from ST into SV. The ECochG algorithm correctly estimated electrode position in 26 (82%) of 32 subjects while 6 (18%) electrodes were wrongly identified as translocated (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 77%, positive predictive value = 54%, and a negative predictive value = 100%). Greater hearing loss was observed postoperatively in participants with translocated electrode arrays (36 ±â€Š15 dB) when compared with isolated ST insertions (28 ±â€Š20 dB HL). This result, however, was not significant (p = 0.789). CONCLUSION: Intracochlear ECochG may provide information about CI electrode location and hearing preservation.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Resposta Evocada/métodos , Implante Coclear/métodos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Adulto , Cóclea/cirurgia , Implantes Cocleares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
7.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 18, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29434534

RESUMO

Objective: The aims of this study were: (1) To investigate the correlation between electrophysiological changes during cochlear implantation and postoperative hearing loss, and (2) to detect the time points that electrophysiological changes occur during cochlear implantation. Material and Methods: Extra- and intracochlear electrocochleography (ECoG) were used to detect electrophysiological changes during cochlear implantation. Extracochlear ECoG recordings were conducted through a needle electrode placed on the promontory; for intracochlear ECoG recordings, the most apical contact of the cochlear implant (CI) electrode itself was used as the recording electrode. Tone bursts at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 Hz were used as low-frequency acoustic stimuli and clicks as high-frequency acoustic stimuli. Changes of extracochlear ECoG recordings after full insertion of the CI electrode were correlated with pure-tone audiometric findings 4 weeks after surgery. Results: Changes in extracochlear ECoG recordings correlated with postoperative hearing change (r = -0.44, p = 0.055, n = 20). Mean hearing loss in subjects without decrease or loss of extracochlear ECoG signals was 12 dB, compared to a mean hearing loss of 22 dB in subjects with a detectable decrease or a loss of ECoG signals (p = 0.0058, n = 51). In extracochlear ECoG recordings, a mean increase of the ECoG signal of 4.4 dB occurred after opening the cochlea. If a decrease of ECoG signals occurred during insertion of the CI electrode, the decrease was detectable during the second half of the insertion. Conclusion: ECoG recordings allow detection of electrophysiological changes in the cochlea during cochlear implantation. Decrease of extracochlear ECoG recordings during surgery has a significant correlation with hearing loss 4 weeks after surgery. Trauma to cochlear structures seems to occur during the final phase of the CI electrode insertion. Baseline recordings for extracochlear ECoG recordings should be conducted after opening the cochlea. ECoG responses can be recorded from an intracochlear site using the CI electrode as recording electrode. This technique may prove useful for monitoring cochlear trauma intraoperatively in the future.

8.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 65(2): 327-335, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29346102

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Improper electrode placement during cochlear implant (CI) insertion can adversely affect speech perception outcomes. However, the intraoperative methods to determine positioning are limited. Because measures of electrode impedance can be made quickly, the goal of this study was to assess the relationship between CI impedance and proximity to adjacent structures. METHODS: An Advanced Bionics CI array was inserted into a clear, plastic cochlea one electrode contact at a time in a saline bath (nine trials). At each insertion depth, response to biphasic current pulses was used to calculate access resistance (Ra), polarization resistance (Rp), and polarization capacitance (Cp). These measures were correlated to actual proximity as assessed by microscopy using linear regression models. RESULTS: Impedance increased with insertion depth and proximity to the inner wall. Specifically, Ra increased, Cp decreased, and Rp slightly increased. Incorporating all impedance measures afforded a prediction model (r = 0.88) while optimizing for sub-mm positioning afforded a model with 78.3% specificity. CONCLUSION: Impedance in vitro greatly changes with electrode insertion depth and proximity to adjacent structures in a predicable manner. SIGNIFICANCE: Assessing proximity of the CI to adjacent structures is a significant first step in qualifying the electrode-neural interface. This information should aid in CI fitting, which should help maximize hearing and speech outcomes with a CI. Additionally, knowledge of the relationship between impedance and positioning could have utility in other tissue implants in the brain, retina, or spinal cord.


Assuntos
Cóclea/cirurgia , Implante Coclear/métodos , Implantes Cocleares , Impedância Elétrica , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
9.
Ear Hear ; 39(1): 124-130, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700446

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Monopolar stimulation of the most apical electrode produces the lowest pitch sensation in cochlear implants clinically. A phantom electrode that uses out-of-phase electrical stimulation between the most apical and the neighboring basal electrode can produce a lower pitch sensation than that associated with the most apical electrode. However, because of the absence of contacts beyond the apical tip of the array, the ability to assess the spread of electrical excitation associated with phantom stimulation is limited in the typical cochlear implant subject with no residual hearing. In the present study, the spread of electrical excitation associated with monopolar and phantom stimulation of the most apical electrode was assessed using electrical masking of acoustic thresholds in cochlear implant subjects with residual, low-frequency, acoustic hearing. DESIGN: Eight subjects with an Advanced Bionics cochlear implant and residual hearing in the implanted ear participated in this study (nine ears in total). Unmasked and masked thresholds for acoustic pure tones were measured at 125, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 2000 Hz in the presence of monopolar and phantom electrode stimulation presented at the apical-most end of the array. The current compensation for phantom electrode stimulation was fixed at 50%. The two electrical maskers were loudness balanced. Differences between the unmasked and masked acoustic thresholds can be attributed to (1) the electrical stimulus-induced interference in the transduction/conduction of the acoustic signal through cochlear periphery and the auditory nerve and/or (2) masking at the level of the central auditory system. RESULTS: The results show a significant elevation in pure-tone thresholds in the presence of the monopolar and phantom electrical maskers. The unmasked thresholds were subtracted from the masked thresholds to derive masking patterns as a function of the acoustic probe frequency. The masking patterns show that phantom stimulation was able to produce more masking than that associated with the monopolar stimulation of the most apical electrode. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that for some cochlear implant subjects, phantom electrode stimulation can shift the neural stimulation pattern more apically in the cochlea, which is consistent with reports that phantom electrode stimulation produces lower pitch sensations than those associated with monopolar stimulation of the most apical electrode alone.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Limiar Auditivo , Implantes Cocleares , Estimulação Elétrica , Mascaramento Perceptivo , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Cóclea/fisiologia , Surdez/fisiopatologia , Surdez/reabilitação , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Otol Neurotol ; 38(10): 1415-1420, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28953607

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Intraoperative, intracochlear electrocochleography (ECochG) will provide a means to monitor cochlear hair cell and neural response during cochlear implant (CI) electrode insertion. Distinct patterns in the insertion track can be characterized. BACKGROUND: Conventional CI surgery is performed without a means of actively monitoring cochlear hair cell and neural responses. Intracochlear ECochG obtained directly through the CI may be a source of such feedback. Understanding the patterns observed in the "insertion track" is an essential step toward refining intracochlear ECochG as a tool that can be used to assist in intraoperative decision making and prognostication of hearing preservation. METHODS: Intracochlear ECochG was performed in 17 patients. During electrode insertion, a 50-ms tone burst acoustic stimulus was delivered with a frequency of 500 Hz at 110 dB SPL. The ECochG response was monitored from the apical-most electrode. The amplitude of the first harmonic was plotted and monitored in near real time by the audiologist-surgeon team during CI electrode insertion. RESULTS: Three distinct patterns in first harmonic amplitude change were observed across subjects during insertion: Type A (52%), overall increase in amplitude from the beginning of insertion until completion; Type B (11%), a maximum amplitude at the beginning of insertion, with a decrease in amplitude as insertion progressed to completion; and Type C (35%), comparable amplitudes at the beginning and completion of the insertion with the maximum amplitude mid-insertion. CONCLUSION: Three ECochG patterns were observed during electrode advancement into the cochlea. Ongoing and future work will broaden our scope of knowledge regarding the relationship among these patterns, the presence of cochlear trauma, and functional outcomes related to hearing preservation.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Resposta Evocada/métodos , Implante Coclear/métodos , Monitorização Neurofisiológica Intraoperatória/métodos , Adulto , Criança , Cóclea/cirurgia , Implantes Cocleares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Front Neurosci ; 11: 337, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28674482

RESUMO

Although cochlear implants (CI) traditionally have been used to treat individuals with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, a recent trend is to implant individuals with residual low-frequency hearing. Patients who retain some residual acoustic hearing after surgery often can benefit from electro-acoustic stimulation (EAS) technologies, which combine conventional acoustic amplification with electrical stimulation. However, interactions between acoustic and electrical stimulation may affect outcomes adversely and are time-consuming and difficult to assess behaviorally. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using the Advanced Bionics HiRes90K Advantage implant electronics and HiFocus Mid Scala/1j electrode to measure electrocochleography (ECochG) responses in the presence of electrical stimulation to provide an objective estimate of peripheral physiologic EAS interactions. In general, electrical stimulation reduced ECochG response amplitudes to acoustic stimulation. The degree of peripheral EAS interaction varied as a function of acoustic pure tone frequency and the intra-cochlear location of the electrically stimulated electrode. Further development of this technique may serve to guide and optimize clinical EAS system fittings in the future.

12.
Front Neurosci ; 11: 210, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28458630

RESUMO

Although, cochlear implants (CI) traditionally have been used to treat individuals with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss, a recent trend is to implant individuals with residual low-frequency hearing. Notably, many of these individuals demonstrate an air-bone gap (ABG) in low-frequency, pure-tone thresholds following implantation. An ABG is the difference between audiometric thresholds measured using air conduction (AC) and bone conduction (BC) stimulation. Although, behavioral AC thresholds are straightforward to assess, BC thresholds can be difficult to measure in individuals with severe-to-profound hearing loss because of vibrotactile responses to high-level, low-frequency stimulation and the potential contribution of hearing in the contralateral ear. Because of these technical barriers to measuring behavioral BC thresholds in implanted patients with residual hearing, it would be helpful to have an objective method for determining ABG. This study evaluated an innovative technique for measuring electrocochleographic (ECochG) responses using the cochlear microphonic (CM) response to assess AC and BC thresholds in implanted patients with residual hearing. Results showed high correlations between CM thresholds and behavioral audiograms for AC and BC conditions, thereby demonstrating the feasibility of using ECochG as an objective tool for quantifying ABG in CI recipients.

13.
Otol Neurotol ; 38(6): e107-e113, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28498269

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Utilizing the cochlear implant to record electrophysiologic responses during device placement is a feasible and efficacious technique for monitoring near real-time cochlear physiology during and following electrode insertion. BACKGROUND: Minimizing intracochlear trauma during cochlear implantation has emerged as a highly researched area to help improve patient performance. Currently, conventional cochlear implant technology allows for the recording of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs). Acoustically evoked potentials may be more sensitive in detecting physiologic changes occurring as a result of electrode insertion. Electrocochleography obtained from within the cochlea allows hair cell and neural response monitoring along the cochlear spiral at locations where changes most likely would occur. METHODS: Intracochlear electrocochleography (ECochG) was recorded from the cochlear implant during surgery in 14 subjects. A long acquisition time (54.5 ms), capable of measuring potentials from the low frequency-serving apical region of the cochlea (125 and 500 Hz) was employed. Two distinct intracochlear processing methods were used and compared in obtaining electrophysiologic data. RESULTS: Measureable intracochlear ECochG responses were obtained from all 14 participants. The 1st harmonic distortions (cochlear microphonic and auditory nerve neurophonic) generally increased steadily with electrode insertion. Electrode and frequency scan following insertion revealed that response amplitude varied based on location of recording electrode and frequency of stimulation. Exquisite sensitivity to manipulation during round window muscle packing was demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Intracochlear ECochG recorded from the electrode array of the cochlear implant is a highly feasible technique that sheds light on cochlear micromechanics during cochlear implant electrode placement.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Resposta Evocada/métodos , Cóclea/fisiopatologia , Implante Coclear , Implantes Cocleares , Surdez/reabilitação , Células Ciliadas Auditivas/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Período Intraoperatório , Janela da Cóclea , Razão Sinal-Ruído
14.
Ear Hear ; 38(3): e161-e167, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27879487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether electrocochleography (ECoG) thresholds, especially cochlear microphonic and auditory nerve neurophonic thresholds, measured using an intracochlear electrode, can be used to predict pure-tone audiometric thresholds following cochlear implantation in ears with residual hearing. DESIGN: Pure-tone audiometric thresholds and ECoG waveforms were measured at test frequencies from 125 to 4000 Hz in 21 Advanced Bionics cochlear implant recipients with residual hearing in the implanted ear. The "difference" and "summation" responses were computed from the ECoG waveforms measured from two alternating phases of stimulation. The interpretation is that difference responses are largely from the cochlear microphonic while summating responses are largely from the auditory nerve neurophonic. The pure-tone audiometric thresholds were also measured with same equipment used for ECoG measurements. RESULTS: Difference responses were observed in all 21 implanted ears, whereas summation response waveforms were observed in only 18 ears. The ECoG thresholds strongly correlated (r = 0.87, n = 150 for difference response; r = 0.82, n = 72 for summation response) with audiometric thresholds. The mean difference between the difference response and audiometric thresholds was -3.2 (±9.0) dB, while the mean difference between summation response and audiometric thresholds was -14 (±11) dB. In four out of 37 measurements, difference responses were measured to frequencies where no behavioral thresholds were present. CONCLUSIONS: ECoG thresholds may provide a useful metric for the assessment of residual hearing in cochlear implant subjects for whom it is not possible to perform behavioral audiometric testing.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Resposta Evocada , Limiar Auditivo , Implantes Cocleares , Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Audiometria de Tons Puros , Estimulação Elétrica , Eletrodos , Audição/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/reabilitação , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
J Neurophysiol ; 114(1): 531-9, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25972580

RESUMO

The century-old duplex theory of sound localization posits that low- and high-frequency sounds are localized with two different acoustical cues, interaural time and level differences (ITDs and ILDs), respectively. While behavioral studies in humans and behavioral and neurophysiological studies in a variety of animal models have largely supported the duplex theory, behavioral sensitivity to ILD is curiously invariant across the audible spectrum. Here we demonstrate that auditory midbrain neurons in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) also encode ILDs in a frequency-invariant manner, efficiently representing the full range of acoustical ILDs experienced as a joint function of sound source frequency, azimuth, and distance. We further show, using Fisher information, that nominal "low-frequency" and "high-frequency" ILD-sensitive neural populations can discriminate ILD with similar acuity, yielding neural ILD discrimination thresholds for near-midline sources comparable to behavioral discrimination thresholds estimated for chinchillas. These findings thus suggest a revision to the duplex theory and reinforce ecological and efficiency principles that hold that neural systems have evolved to encode the spectrum of biologically relevant sensory signals to which they are naturally exposed.


Assuntos
Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Colículos Inferiores/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Acústica , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Chinchila , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Teoria da Informação , Masculino , Microeletrodos
16.
Otol Neurotol ; 36(4): 678-86, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25275868

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Bone-anchored hearing systems (BAHSs) provide sound location-dependent input to the normal ear for reducing the head shadow effect in the case of single-sided deafness (SSD). BACKGROUND: Patients with SSD can be fit with a BAHS positioned on the impaired side. Despite successful outcomes and some reports of spatial hearing capabilities, little data are available regarding the physiologic performance of BAHSs in response to free-field sounds. METHODS: Cochlear microphonics (CMs) were recorded from five chinchillas before and after destruction of one cochlea. A BAHS (Cochlear Baha) was fitted on the deafened side. CM measurements were made in response to tones, with and without the BAHS, to free-field sounds presented ipsilateral to the SSD, on the side of the normal ear, and along the midline. Stimuli were also presented directly through the BAHS and an earphone to generate sounds with interaural time and level differences approximating free-field sounds. RESULTS: With the BAHS, CM thresholds were decreased (re: no BAHS) by approximately 10 dB for sources ipsilateral to the SSD, approximately 14 dB for midline sources, and approximately 5 dB for sources contralateral to the SSD. Changes in CM amplitudes and thresholds were sound location dependent. CM amplitudes were modulated by interaural time and level differences generated by the linear interaction of BAHS and acoustic signals. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that BAHS can provide input to the normal ear that is modulated by sound location, which serves to reduce the head shadow effect and may also offer cues to sound location.


Assuntos
Condução Óssea/fisiologia , Surdez/cirurgia , Auxiliares de Audição , Animais , Audiometria de Resposta Evocada , Chinchila , Feminino , Testes Auditivos , Masculino , Localização de Som/fisiologia
17.
J Exp Biol ; 217(Pt 7): 1094-107, 2014 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24671963

RESUMO

Physiological and anatomical studies have suggested that alligators have unique adaptations for spatial hearing. Sound localization cues are primarily generated by the filtering of sound waves by the head. Different vertebrate lineages have evolved external and/or internal anatomical adaptations to enhance these cues, such as pinnae and interaural canals. It has been hypothesized that in alligators, directionality may be enhanced via the acoustic coupling of middle ear cavities, resulting in a pressure difference receiver (PDR) mechanism. The experiments reported here support a role for a PDR mechanism in alligator sound localization by demonstrating that (1) acoustic space cues generated by the external morphology of the animal are not sufficient to generate location cues that match physiological sensitivity, (2) continuous pathways between the middle ears are present to provide an anatomical basis for coupling, (3) the auditory brainstem response shows some directionality, and (4) eardrum movement is directionally sensitive. Together, these data support the role of a PDR mechanism in crocodilians and further suggest this mechanism is a shared archosaur trait, most likely found also in the extinct dinosaurs.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/fisiologia , Orelha Média/anatomia & histologia , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Membrana Timpânica/anatomia & histologia , Jacarés e Crocodilos/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Nervo Coclear/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Som
18.
Front Neural Circuits ; 8: 144, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25565971

RESUMO

The interaural level difference (ILD) cue to sound location is first encoded in the lateral superior olive (LSO). ILD sensitivity results because the LSO receives excitatory input from the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus and inhibitory input indirectly from the contralateral cochlear nucleus via glycinergic neurons of the ipsilateral medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). It is hypothesized that in order for LSO neurons to encode ILDs, the sound spectra at both ears must be accurately encoded via spike rate by their afferents. This spectral-coding hypothesis has not been directly tested in MNTB, likely because MNTB neurons have been mostly described and studied recently in regards to their abilities to encode temporal aspects of sounds, not spectral. Here, we test the hypothesis that MNTB neurons and their inputs from the cochlear nucleus and auditory nerve code sound spectra via discharge rate. The Random Spectral Shape (RSS) method was used to estimate how the levels of 100-ms duration spectrally stationary stimuli were weighted, both linearly and non-linearly, across a wide band of frequencies. In general, MNTB neurons, and their globular bushy cell inputs, were found to be well-modeled by a linear weighting of spectra demonstrating that the pathways through the MNTB can accurately encode sound spectra including those resulting from the acoustical cues to sound location provided by head-related directional transfer functions (DTFs). Together with the anatomical and biophysical specializations for timing in the MNTB-LSO complex, these mechanisms may allow ILDs to be computed for complex stimuli with rapid spectrotemporally-modulated envelopes such as speech and animal vocalizations and moving sound sources.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Corpo Trapezoide/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Animais , Vias Auditivas/fisiologia , Gatos , Nervo Coclear/fisiologia , Núcleo Coclear/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Neurológicos , Dinâmica não Linear , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Localização de Som/fisiologia
19.
Otol Neurotol ; 35(3): 470-5, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23988990

RESUMO

HYPOTHESIS: Active middle ear implant (AMEI) generated vibromechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain (ossicular chain vibroplasty [OCV]) or the round window (round window vibroplasty [RWV]) is not significantly affected by simulated middle ear effusion in a human temporal bone model. BACKGROUND: OCV and RWV may be employed for sensorineural, mixed, and conductive hearing losses. Although middle ear effusions may be encountered across patient populations, little is known about how effusions may affect AMEI vibromechanical efficiency. METHODS: Laser Doppler vibrometry of stapes velocities (SVs) were performed in a human temporal bone model of simulated effusion (N = 5). Baseline measurements to acoustic sinusoidal stimuli, OCV, and RWV (0.25-8 kHz) were made without effusion. The measurements were repeated with simulated middle ear effusion and compared with baseline measurements. Data were analyzed across 3 frequency bands: low (0.25-1 kHz), medium (1-3 kHz), and high (3-8 kHz). RESULTS: Acoustic stimulation with simulated middle ear effusion resulted in a significant (p < 0.001) frequency-dependent attenuation of SVs of 4, 10, and 7 dB (low, medium, and high ranges, respectively). OCV in simulated effusion resulted in attenuated SVs of 1, 5, and 14 dB (low, medium, and high) compared to without effusion; however, this attenuation was not significant (p = 0.07). Interestingly, in the setting of RWV, simulated effusion resulted in significantly (p = 0.001) increased SVs of 16, 11, and 8 dB (low, medium, and high). A 3-dB variance in AMEI efficiency was observed in repeated measurements in a single temporal bone. CONCLUSION: The efficiency of OCV was not significantly affected by the presence of a middle ear effusion. Improved efficiency, however, was observed with RWV.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva Condutiva-Neurossensorial Mista/fisiopatologia , Prótese Ossicular , Otite Média com Derrame/fisiopatologia , Osso Temporal/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Acústica , Perda Auditiva Condutiva-Neurossensorial Mista/cirurgia , Humanos , Otite Média com Derrame/cirurgia , Estribo/fisiopatologia , Osso Temporal/cirurgia
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 787: 273-82, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23716233

RESUMO

For over a century, the Duplex theory has posited that low- and ­high-frequency sounds are localized using two different acoustical cues, interaural time (ITDs) and level (ILDs) differences, respectively. Psychophysical data have generally supported the theory for pure tones. Anatomically, ITDs and ILDs are separately encoded in two parallel brainstem pathways. Acoustically ILDs are a function of location and frequency such that lower and higher frequencies exhibit smaller and larger ILDs, respectively. It is well established that neurons throughout the auditory neuraxis encode high-frequency ILDs. Acoustically, low-frequency ILDs are negligible (∼1­2 dB); however, humans are still sensitive to them and physiological studies often report low-frequency ILD-sensitive neurons. These ­latter findings are at odds with the Duplex theory. We suggest that these discrepancies arise from an inadequate characterization of the acoustical environment. We hypothesize that low-frequency ILDs become large and useful when sources are located near the head. We tested this hypothesis by making measurements of the ILDs in chinchillas as a function of source distance and the sensitivity to ILDs in 103 neurons in the inferior colliculus (IC). The ILD sensitivity of IC neurons was found to be frequency independent even though far-field acoustical ILDs were frequency dependent. However, as source distance was decreased, the magnitudes of low-frequency ILDs increased. Using information theoretic methods, we ­demonstrate that a population of IC neurons can encode the full range of acoustic ILDs across frequency that would be experienced as a joint function of source location and distance.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Colículos Inferiores/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Localização de Som/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica/métodos , Animais , Chinchila , Colículos Inferiores/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleo Olivar/fisiologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia
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