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1.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3480, 2024 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38347058

RESUMO

The ability to parse sound mixtures into coherent auditory objects is fundamental to cognitive functions, such as speech comprehension and language acquisition. Yet, we still lack a clear understanding of how auditory objects are formed. To address this question, we studied a speech-specific case of perceptual multistability, called verbal transformations (VTs), in which a variety of verbal forms is induced by continuous repetition of a physically unchanging word. Here, we investigated the degree to which auditory memory through sensory adaptation influences VTs. Specifically, we hypothesized that when memory persistence is longer, participants are able to retain the current verbal form longer, resulting in sensory adaptation, which in turn, affects auditory perception. Participants performed VT and auditory memory tasks on different days. In the VT task, Japanese participants continuously reported their perception while listening to a Japanese word (2- or 3-mora in length) played repeatedly for 5 min. In the auditory memory task, a different sequence of three morae, e.g., /ka/, /hi/, and /su/, was presented to each ear simultaneously. After some period (0-4 s), participants were visually cued to recall one of the sequences, i.e., in the left or right ear. We found that delayed recall accuracy was negatively correlated with the number of VTs, particularly under 2-mora conditions. This suggests that memory persistence is important for formation and selection of perceptual objects.


Assuntos
Percepção da Fala , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Sinais (Psicologia) , Cognição , Fala , Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Auditiva
2.
Cereb Cortex ; 33(19): 10441-10452, 2023 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37562851

RESUMO

Attention levels fluctuate during the course of daily activities. However, factors underlying sustained attention are still unknown. We investigated mechanisms of sustained attention using psychological, neuroimaging, and neurochemical approaches. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing gradual-onset, continuous performance tasks (gradCPTs). In gradCPTs, narrations or visual scenes gradually changed from one to the next. Participants pressed a button for frequent Go trials as quickly as possible and withheld responses to infrequent No-go trials. Performance was better for the visual gradCPT than for the auditory gradCPT, but the 2 were correlated. The dorsal attention network was activated during intermittent responses, regardless of sensory modality. Reaction-time variability of gradCPTs was correlated with signal changes (SCs) in the left fronto-parietal regions. We also used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure levels of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC). Glx levels were associated with performance under undemanding situations, whereas GABA levels were related to performance under demanding situations. Combined fMRI-MRS results demonstrated that SCs of the left PFC were positively correlated with neurometabolite levels. These findings suggest that a neural balance between excitation and inhibition is involved in attentional fluctuations and brain dynamics.


Assuntos
Ácido Glutâmico , Glutamina , Humanos , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 990565, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36248469

RESUMO

Autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) is a complex sensory-emotional experience characterized by pleasant tingling sensations initiating at the scalp. ASMR is triggered in some people (called ASMR-responders) by stimuli including whispering, personal attention, and crisp sounds (termed ASMR triggers). Since its inception, ASMR has been likened to synesthesia, but convincing empirical data directly linking ASMR with synesthesia is lacking. In this study, we examined whether the prevalence of synesthesia is indeed significantly higher in ASMR-responders than non-responders. A sample of working adults and students (N = 648) were surveyed about their experience with ASMR and common types of synesthesia. The proportion of synesthetes who were classified as ASMR-responders was 52%, whereas 22% of ASMR-responders were also synesthetes. These results suggest that: (1) over half of those identifying as synesthetes also experience ASMR, and (2) that synesthesia is up to four times as common among ASMR-responders as among non-responders (22% vs. 5%). Findings also suggest a prevalence rate for ASMR of approximately 20%. Overall, the co-occurrence of ASMR and synesthesia lends empirical support to the idea that ASMR may be driven by synesthetic mechanisms, but future research would benefit from examining how ASMR and synesthesia are different, as well as similar.

4.
Front Neurosci ; 16: 816735, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368290

RESUMO

Achievement of task performance is required to maintain a constant level of attention. Attentional level fluctuates over the course of daily activities. However, brain dynamics leading to attentional fluctuation are still unknown. We investigated the underlying mechanisms of sustained attention using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were scanned with fMRI while performing an auditory, gradual-onset, continuous performance task (gradCPT). In this task, narrations gradually changed from one to the next. Participants pressed a button for frequent Go trials (i.e., male voices) as quickly as possible and withheld responses to infrequent No-go trials (i.e., female voices). Event-related analysis revealed that frontal and temporal areas, including the auditory cortex, were activated during successful and unsuccessful inhibition of predominant responses. Reaction-time (RT) variability throughout the auditory gradCPT was positively correlated with signal changes in regions of the dorsal attention network: superior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule. Energy landscape analysis showed that task-related activations could be clustered into different attractors: regions of the dorsal attention network and default mode network. The number of alternations between RT-stable and erratic periods increased with an increase in transitions between attractors in the brain. Therefore, we conclude that dynamic transitions between brain states are closely linked to auditory attentional fluctuations.

5.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(6): 1140-1152, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176602

RESUMO

Frisson is characterised by tingling and tickling sensations with positive or negative feelings. However, it is still unknown what factors affect the intensity of frisson. We conducted experiments on the stimulus characteristics and individual's mood states and personality traits. Participants filled out self-reported questionnaires, including the Profile of Mood States, Beck Depression Inventory, and Big Five Inventory. They continuously indicated the subjective intensity of frisson throughout a 17-min experiment while listening to binaural brushing and tapping sounds through headphones. In the interviews after the experiments, participants reported that tingling and tickling sensations mainly originated on their ears, neck, shoulders, and back. Cross-correlation results showed that the intensity of frisson was closely linked to the acoustic features of auditory stimuli, including their amplitude, spectral centroid, and spectral bandwidth. This suggests that proximal sounds with dark and compact timbre trigger frisson. The peak of correlation between frisson and the acoustic feature was observed 2 s after the acoustic feature changed, suggesting that bottom-up auditory inputs modulate skin-related modalities. We also found that participants with anxiety were sensitive to frisson. Our results provide important clues to understanding the mechanisms of auditory-somatosensory interactions.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Som , Estimulação Acústica , Ansiedade , Emoções , Humanos , Sensação
6.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(4): 705-715, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103992

RESUMO

Sustained attention plays an important role in adaptive behaviours in everyday activities. As previous studies have mostly focused on vision, and attentional resources have been thought to be specific to sensory modalities, it is still unclear how mechanisms of attentional fluctuations overlap between visual and auditory modalities. To reduce the effects of sudden stimulus onsets, we developed a new gradual-onset continuous performance task (gradCPT) in the auditory domain and compared dynamic fluctuation of sustained attention in vision and audition. In the auditory gradCPT, participants were instructed to listen to a stream of narrations and judge the gender of each narration. In the visual gradCPT, they were asked to observe a stream of scenery images and indicate whether the scene was a city or mountain. Our within-individual comparison revealed that auditory and visual attention are similar in terms of the false alarm rate and dynamic properties including fluctuation frequency. Absolute timescales of the fluctuation in the two modalities were comparable, notwithstanding the difference in stimulus onset asynchrony. The results suggest that fluctuations of visual and auditory attention are underpinned by common principles and support models with a more central, modality-general controller.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8171, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424307

RESUMO

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and individuals with schizophrenia have impaired social and communication skills. They also have altered auditory perception. This study investigated autistic traits and schizotypy in a non-clinical population as well as the excitation-inhibition (EI) balance in different brain regions and their auditory multistable perception. Thirty-four healthy participants were assessed by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ). The EI balance was evaluated by measuring the resting-state concentrations of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and ϒ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in vivo by using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To observe the correlation between their traits and perception, we conducted an auditory streaming task and a verbal transformation task, in which participants reported spontaneous perceptual switching while listening to a sound sequence. Their AQ and SPQ scores were positively correlated with the Glx/GABA ratio in the auditory cortex but not in the frontal areas. These scores were negatively correlated with the number of perceptual switches in the verbal transformation task but not in the auditory streaming task. Our results suggest that the EI balance in the auditory cortex and the perceptual formation of speech are involved in autistic traits and schizotypy.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Auditivo/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Criança , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Esquizofrenia , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/metabolismo , Aprendizagem Verbal , Adulto Jovem
8.
Front Psychol ; 11: 316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194479

RESUMO

Auditory frisson is the experience of feeling of cold or shivering related to sound in the absence of a physical cold stimulus. Multiple examples of frisson-inducing sounds have been reported, but the mechanism of auditory frisson remains elusive. Typical frisson-inducing sounds may contain a looming effect, in which a sound appears to approach the listener's peripersonal space. Previous studies on sound in peripersonal space have provided objective measurements of sound-inducing effects, but few have investigated the subjective experience of frisson-inducing sounds. Here we explored whether it is possible to produce subjective feelings of frisson by moving a noise sound (white noise, rolling beads noise, or frictional noise produced by rubbing a plastic bag) stimulus around a listener's head. Our results demonstrated that sound-induced frisson can be experienced stronger when auditory stimuli are rotated around the head (binaural moving sounds) than the one without the rotation (monaural static sounds), regardless of the source of the noise sound. Pearson's correlation analysis showed that several acoustic features of auditory stimuli, such as variance of interaural level difference (ILD), loudness, and sharpness, were correlated with the magnitude of subjective frisson. We had also observed that the subjective feelings of frisson by moving a musical sound had increased comparing with a static musical sound.

9.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14548, 2018 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30267021

RESUMO

Perceptual organisation must select one interpretation from several alternatives to guide behaviour. Computational models suggest that this could be achieved through an interplay between inhibition and excitation across competing types of neural population coding for each interpretation. Here, to test for such models, we used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure non-invasively the concentrations of inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and excitatory glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in several brain regions. Human participants first performed auditory and visual multistability tasks that produced spontaneous switching between percepts. Then, we observed that longer percept durations during behaviour were associated with higher GABA/Glx ratios in the sensory area coding for each modality. When participants were asked to voluntarily modulate their perception, a common factor across modalities emerged: the GABA/Glx ratio in the posterior parietal cortex tended to be positively correlated with the amount of effective volitional control. Our results provide direct evidence implicating that the balance between neural inhibition and excitation within sensory regions resolves perceptual competition. This powerful computational principle appears to be leveraged by both audition and vision, implemented independently across modalities, but modulated by an integrated control process.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/análise , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/análise , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibição Neural , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
10.
Conscious Cogn ; 59: 104-111, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29366542

RESUMO

Volitional control has been related to the excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) ratio of glutamate-glutamine to γ-aminobutyric acid concentration in the different parts of the frontal cortex. Yet, how the neurochemical balance in each of the brain areas modulates volitional control remains unclear. Here, participants performed an auditory Go/No-Go task with and without task-irrelevant face distractors. Neurochemical balance was measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy at rest. Participants with higher E/I ratios in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) showed less control over No-Go cues under no distraction, whereas participants with higher E/I ratios in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were more prompted to make speeded Go responses under distraction. Therefore, the neurochemical balance in the DLPFC and ACC may be involved in the control over task-relevant and -irrelevant cues respectively.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Inibição Psicológica , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Volição/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Neuroscience ; 389: 152-160, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479403

RESUMO

Age-related changes in auditory and visual perception have an impact on the quality of life. It has been debated how perceptual organization is influenced by advancing age. From the neurochemical perspective, we investigated age effects on auditory and visual bistability. In perceptual bistability, a sequence of sensory inputs induces spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects. We used different modality tasks of auditory streaming and visual plaids. Young and middle-aged participants (20-60years) were instructed to indicate by a button press whenever their perception changed from one stable state to the other. The number of perceptual switches decreased with participants' ages. We employed magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure non-invasively concentrations of the inhibitory neurotransmitter (γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA) in the brain regions of interest. When participants were asked to voluntarily modulate their perception, the amount of effective volitional control was positively correlated with the GABA concentration in the auditory and motion-sensitive areas corresponding to each sensory modality. However, no correlation was found in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, effective volitional control was reduced with advancing age. Our results suggest that sequential scene analysis in auditory and visual domains is influenced by both age-related and neurochemical factors.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Volição/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28044011

RESUMO

We perceive the world as stable and composed of discrete objects even though auditory and visual inputs are often ambiguous owing to spatial and temporal occluders and changes in the conditions of observation. This raises important questions regarding where and how 'scene analysis' is performed in the brain. Recent advances from both auditory and visual research suggest that the brain does not simply process the incoming scene properties. Rather, top-down processes such as attention, expectations and prior knowledge facilitate scene perception. Thus, scene analysis is linked not only with the extraction of stimulus features and formation and selection of perceptual objects, but also with selective attention, perceptual binding and awareness. This special issue covers novel advances in scene-analysis research obtained using a combination of psychophysics, computational modelling, neuroimaging and neurophysiology, and presents new empirical and theoretical approaches. For integrative understanding of scene analysis beyond and across sensory modalities, we provide a collection of 15 articles that enable comparison and integration of recent findings in auditory and visual scene analysis.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção Auditiva , Conscientização , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Percepção , Percepção Visual , Animais , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28044020

RESUMO

Multistability in perception is a powerful tool for investigating sensory-perceptual transformations, because it produces dissociations between sensory inputs and subjective experience. Spontaneous switching between different perceptual objects occurs during prolonged listening to a sound sequence of tone triplets or repeated words (termed auditory streaming and verbal transformations, respectively). We used these examples of auditory multistability to examine to what extent neurochemical and cognitive factors influence the observed idiosyncratic patterns of switching between perceptual objects. The concentrations of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain regions were measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, while personality traits and executive functions were assessed using questionnaires and response inhibition tasks. Idiosyncratic patterns of perceptual switching in the two multistable stimulus configurations were identified using a multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. Intriguingly, although switching patterns within each individual differed between auditory streaming and verbal transformations, similar MDS dimensions were extracted separately from the two datasets. Individual switching patterns were significantly correlated with Glx and GABA concentrations in auditory cortex and inferior frontal cortex but not with the personality traits and executive functions. Our results suggest that auditory perceptual organization depends on the balance between neural excitation and inhibition in different brain regions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.


Assuntos
Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28044021

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that interindividual variability can be a rich source of information regarding the mechanism of human visual perception. In this study, we examined the mechanisms underlying interindividual variability in the perception of visual motion, one of the fundamental components of visual scene analysis, by measuring neurotransmitter concentrations using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. First, by psychophysically examining two types of motion phenomena-motion assimilation and contrast-we found that, following the presentation of the same stimulus, some participants perceived motion assimilation, while others perceived motion contrast. Furthermore, we found that the concentration of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate-glutamine (Glx) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 46) was positively correlated with the participant's tendency to motion assimilation over motion contrast; however, this effect was not observed in the visual areas. The concentration of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid had only a weak effect compared with that of Glx. We conclude that excitatory process in the suprasensory area is important for an individual's tendency to determine antagonistically perceived visual motion phenomena.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.


Assuntos
Individualidade , Percepção de Movimento , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Neurosci ; 36(34): 8895-901, 2016 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559171

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Selective attention plays an important role in identifying transient objects in a complex visual scene. Attentional control ability varies with observers. However, it is unclear what neural mechanisms are responsible for individual differences in attentional control ability. The present study used the following attentional blink paradigm: when two targets are to be identified in rapid serial visual presentation, the processing of the first target interrupts the identification of the second one appearing within 500 ms after the first-target onset. It has been assumed that the reduction of the second-target accuracy is mainly due to a transient inhibition of attentional reorienting from the first to the second target, which is modulated by the GABA system. Using magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we investigated whether individual variation of attentional blink magnitude is associated with GABA concentrations in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC), right posterior-parietal cortex (PPC), and visual cortex (VC) of humans. GABA concentrations in the PFC were related negatively to attentional blink magnitude and positively to the first-target accuracy. GABA concentrations in the PPC were positively correlated with attentional blink magnitude. However, GABA concentrations in the VC did not contribute to attentional blink magnitude and first-target accuracy. Our results suggest that frontoparietal inhibitory mechanisms are closely linked with individual differences in attentional processing and that functional roles of the GABAergic system in selective attention differ between the PFC and PPC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Selective attention is the process of picking up task-relevant information in the environment. Attentional blink reflects time constraints of visual attention. It has been assumed that attentional blink is induced by the inhibition of attentional reorienting to other objects. This study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy to noninvasively measure concentrations of GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, in the human brain. We show that a neural interaction between GABA concentrations in the prefrontal and posterior parietal regions accounts for the interindividual variability of attentional blink magnitude. Our results provide direct evidence that the GABAergic system in the frontoparietal networks is responsible for temporal aspects of attentional control ability.


Assuntos
Intermitência na Atenção Visual/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/metabolismo , Individualidade , Lobo Parietal/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Ácido Glutâmico/metabolismo , Glutamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0154810, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135945

RESUMO

Multi-stability refers to the phenomenon of perception stochastically switching between possible interpretations of an unchanging stimulus. Despite considerable variability, individuals show stable idiosyncratic patterns of switching between alternative perceptions in the auditory streaming paradigm. We explored correlates of the individual switching patterns with executive functions, personality traits, and creativity. The main dimensions on which individual switching patterns differed from each other were identified using multidimensional scaling. Individuals with high scores on the dimension explaining the largest portion of the inter-individual variance switched more often between the alternative perceptions than those with low scores. They also perceived the most unusual interpretation more often, and experienced all perceptual alternatives with a shorter delay from stimulus onset. The ego-resiliency personality trait, which reflects a tendency for adaptive flexibility and experience seeking, was significantly positively related to this dimension. Taking these results together we suggest that this dimension may reflect the individual's tendency for exploring the auditory environment. Executive functions were significantly related to some of the variables describing global properties of the switching patterns, such as the average number of switches. Thus individual patterns of perceptual switching in the auditory streaming paradigm are related to some personality traits and executive functions.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Psychol ; 6: 827, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26124741

RESUMO

It has been argued that attentional processing of visual stimuli is facilitated by a voluntary action that triggers the stimulus onset. However, the relationship between action-induced facilitation of attention and the neural substrates has not been well established. The present study investigated whether the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA) system is involved in this facilitation effect. A rapid serial visual presentation paradigm was used to assess the dynamics of transient attention in humans. Participants were instructed to change a digit stream to a letter stream by pressing a button and specifying successive targets of four letters. Pupil dilation was measured as an index of LC-NA function. Accuracy of target identification was better when the temporal delay between participants' key press and target onset was 800 ms than when targets appeared just after the key press or when targets appeared without key press. Accuracy of target identification was positively correlated with both the peak amplitude of pupil dilation and the pupil size at the time of the key press. These results indicate that target identification in the visual task is closely linked to pupil dilation. We conclude that the LC-NA system plays an important role in the facilitation of transient attention driven by voluntary action.

18.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0126511, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25974269

RESUMO

Working memory is linked to the functions of the frontal areas, in which neural activity is mediated by dopaminergic and serotonergic tones. However, there is no consensus regarding how the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems influence working memory subprocesses. The present study used an imaging genetics approach to examine the interaction between neurochemical functions and working memory performance. We focused on functional polymorphisms of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met and serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) -1438G/A genes, and devised a delayed recognition task to isolate the encoding, retention, and retrieval processes for visual information. The COMT genotypes affected recognition accuracy, whereas the HTR2A genotypes were associated with recognition response times. Activations specifically related to working memory were found in the right frontal and parietal areas, such as the middle frontal gyrus (MFG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). MFG and ACC/IPL activations were sensitive to differences between the COMT genotypes and between the HTR2A genotypes, respectively. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that stronger connectivity in the ACC-MFG and ACC-IFG networks is related to better task performance. The behavioral and fMRI results suggest that the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems play different roles in the working memory subprocesses and modulate closer cooperation between lateral and medial frontal activations.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Memória de Curto Prazo , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/genética , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Genótipo , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Neurosci ; 8: 170, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25009456

RESUMO

The perceptual organization of auditory scenes is a hard but important problem to solve for human listeners. It is thus likely that cues from several modalities are pooled for auditory scene analysis, including sensory-motor cues related to the active exploration of the scene. We previously reported a strong effect of head motion on auditory streaming. Streaming refers to an experimental paradigm where listeners hear sequences of pure tones, and rate their perception of one or more subjective sources called streams. To disentangle the effects of head motion (changes in acoustic cues at the ear, subjective location cues, and motor cues), we used a robotic telepresence system, Telehead. We found that head motion induced perceptual reorganization even when the acoustic scene had not changed. Here we reanalyzed the same data to probe the time course of sensory-motor integration. We show that motor cues had a different time course compared to acoustic or subjective location cues: motor cues impacted perceptual organization earlier and for a shorter time than other cues, with successive positive and negative contributions to streaming. An additional experiment controlled for the effects of volitional anticipatory components, and found that arm or leg movements did not have any impact on scene analysis. These data provide a first investigation of the time course of the complex integration of sensory-motor cues in an auditory scene analysis task, and they suggest a loose temporal coupling between the different mechanisms involved.

20.
PLoS One ; 8(3): e59074, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23516600

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated that the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) affects the recognition of facial expressions and attention to them. However, the relationship between 5-HTTLPR and the perceptual detection of others' facial expressions, the process which takes place prior to emotional labeling (i.e., recognition), is not clear. To examine whether the perceptual detection of emotional facial expressions is influenced by the allelic variation (short/long) of 5-HTTLPR, happy and sad facial expressions were presented at weak and mid intensities (25% and 50%). Ninety-eight participants, genotyped for 5-HTTLPR, judged whether emotion in images of faces was present. Participants with short alleles showed higher sensitivity (d') to happy than to sad expressions, while participants with long allele(s) showed no such positivity advantage. This effect of 5-HTTLPR was found at different facial expression intensities among males and females. The results suggest that at the perceptual stage, a short allele enhances the processing of positive facial expressions rather than that of negative facial expressions.


Assuntos
Emoções , Expressão Facial , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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