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Food Microbiol ; 115: 104309, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37567615


Penicillium camemberti is a domesticated species adapted to the dairy environment, which is used as adjunct cultures to ripen soft cheeses. A recent population genomics analysis on P. camemberti revealed that P. camemberti is a clonal lineage with two varieties almost identical genetically but with contrasting phenotypes in terms of growth, color, mycotoxin production and inhibition of contaminants. P. camemberti variety camemberti is found on Camembert and Brie cheeses, and P. camemberti variety caseifulvum is mainly found on other cheeses like Saint-Marcellin and Rigotte de Condrieu. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of water activity (aw) reduced by sodium chloride (NaCl) and the increase of carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressure, on conidial germination and growth of two varieties of P. camemberti: var. Camemberti and var. Caseifulvum. Mathematical models were used to describe the responses of P. camemberti strains to both abiotic factors. The results showed that these genetically distant strains had similar responses to increase in NaCl and CO2 partial pressure. The estimated cardinal values were very close between the strains although all estimated cardinal values were significantly different (Likelihood ratio tests, pvalue = 0.05%). These results suggest that intraspecific variability could be more exacerbated during fungal growth compared with conidial germination, especially in terms of macroscopic morphology. Indeed, var. Caseifulvum seemed to be more sensitive to an increase of CO2 partial pressure, as shown by the fungal morphology, with the occurrence of irregular outgrowths, while the morphology of var. Camemberti remains circular. These data could make it possible to improve the control of fungal development as a function of salt and carbon dioxide partial pressure. These abiotic factors could serve as technological barriers to prevent spoilage and increase the shelf life of cheeses. The present data will allow more precise predictions of fungal proliferation as a function of salt and carbon dioxide partial pressure, which are significant technological hurdles in cheese production.

Queijo , Penicillium , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos , Dióxido de Carbono , Queijo/microbiologia
Food Microbiol ; 115: 104324, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37567633


In dairy industry, filamentous fungi are used as adjunct cultures in fermented products for their technological properties but they could also be responsible for food spoilage and mycotoxin production. The consumer demands about free-preservative products has increased in recent years and lead to develop alternative methods for food preservation. Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) can inhibit fungal growth and therefore increase the food product shelf-life. This study aimed to evaluate radial growth as a function of CO2 and more particularly carbonic acid for fourteen adjuncts and/or fungal spoiler isolated from dairy products or dairy environment by using predictive mycology tools. The impact of the different chemical species linked to CO2 (notably carbonic acid) were study because it was reported previously that undissociated carbonic acid impacted bacterial growth and bicarbonates ions were involved in modifications of physiological process of fungal cells. A significant diversity in the responses of selected strains was observed. Mucor circinelloides had the fastest growth rates (µ > 11 mm. day-1) while Bisifusarium domesticum, Cladosporium herbarum and Penicillium bialowiezense had the slowest growth rates (µ < 1 mm. day-1). Independently of the medium pH, the majority of strains were sensitive to total carbonic acid. In this case, it was not possible to conclude if CO2 active form was gaseous or aqueous so modeling were performed as a function of CO2 percentage. Only Geotrichum candidum and M. circinelloides strains were sensitive to undissociated carbonic acid. Among the fourteen strains, P. bialowiezense was the less sensitive strain to CO2, no growth was observed at 50% of CO2 only for this strain. M. lanceolatus was the less sensitive strain to CO2, the CO250 which reduce the growth rates by 50% was estimated at 138% of CO2. Low CO2 percentage improved the growth of Penicillium expansum, Penicillium roqueforti and Paecilomyces niveus. Mathematical models (without and with optimum) were suggested to describe the impact of CO2 percentage or undissociated carbonic acid concentration on fungal growth rate.

Dióxido de Carbono , Ácido Carbônico , Dióxido de Carbono/farmacologia , Fungos , Laticínios/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos
Food Microbiol ; 114: 104289, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37290872


The growth of six bacterial species (Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, Bacillus cereus, Paenibacillus spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Pseudomonas fragi) was studied in various gas compositions. Growth curves were obtained at various oxygen concentrations (between 0.1 and 21%), or various carbon dioxide concentrations (between 0 and 100%). Decreasing the O2 concentration from 21% to about 3-5% has no effect on the bacterial growth rates, which are only affected by low oxygen levels. For each strain studied, the growth rate decreased linearly with carbon dioxide concentration, except for L. mesenteroides which remained insensible to this gas. Conversely, the most sensitive strain was totally inhibited by 50% of carbon dioxide in the gas phase at 8 °C. Predictive models were fitted, and the parameters characterizing the inhibitory effect of these two gases were estimated. This study provides new tools to help the food industry design suitable packaging for MAP storage.

Dióxido de Carbono , Embalagem de Alimentos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Oxigênio/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos , Bacillus cereus , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana