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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2024 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38832750

RESUMO

Dimerized quantum magnets are exotic crystalline materials where Bose-Einstein condensation of magnetic excitations can happen. However, known dimerized quantum magnets are limited to only a few oxides and halides. Here, we unveil 9 dimerized quantum magnets and 11 conventional antiferromagnets in ternary metal borides MTB4 (M = Sc, Y, La, Ce, Lu, Mg, Ca, and Al; T = V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni), where T atoms are arranged in structural dimers. Quantum magnetism in these compounds is dominated by strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions between Cr (Cr and Mn for M = Mg and Ca) atoms within the dimers, with much weaker interactions between the dimers. These systems are proposed to be close to a quantum critical point between a disordered singlet spin-dimer phase, with a spin gap, and the ordered conventional Néel AFM phase. They greatly enrich the materials inventory that allows investigations of the spin-gap phase. Conventional antiferromagnetism in these compounds is dominated by ferromagnetic Mn (Fe for M = Mg and Ca) interactions within the dimers. The predicted stable and nonmagnetic (NM) YFeB4 phase is synthesized and characterized, providing a scarce candidate to study Fe dimers and Fe ladders in borides. The identified quantum, conventional, and NM systems provide a platform with abundant possibilities to tune the magnetic exchange coupling by doping and study the unconventional quantum phase transition and conventional magnetic transitions. This work opens new avenues for studying novel magnetism in borides arising from spin dimers and establishes a theoretical workflow for future searches for dimerized quantum magnets in other families of materials.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2024 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606803

RESUMO

The low-temperature modification of ß-Ag2Se has proven to be useful as a near-room-temperature thermoelectric material. Over the past years, research has been devoted to interstitial, vacancy, and substitutional doping into the parent ß-Ag2Se structure, aiming at tuning the material's charge and heat transport properties to enhance thermoelectric performance. The transformation of ß-Ag2Se into α-Ag2Se at ∼134 °C and the low solubility of dopants are the main obstacles for the doping approach. Herein, we report a facile, safe, scalable, and cost-effective benchtop approach to successfully produce metal-doped ß-Ag2Se. The doped materials display a remarkable enhancement of thermoelectric performance with a record-high peak zT of 1.30 at 120 °C and an average zT of ∼1.15 in the 25-120 °C range for 0.2 at. % Zn-doped Ag2Se. The enhancement in zT is attributed to point defects created by Zn doping into Ag vacancies/interstitials, which enhances the scattering of phonons and tunes the charge carrier properties, leading to the significant suppression of thermal conductivity. The simplicity of the synthetic method developed herein and the high performance of the final products provide an avenue to produce high-quality Ag2Se-based thermoelectric materials.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 63(5): 2443-2453, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38252972

RESUMO

[Fe(en)(tren)][FeSe2]2 (en = ethylenediamine, C2H8N2, tren = tris(2-aminoethyl)amine, C6H18N4) has been synthesized by a mixed-ligand solvothermal method. Its crystal structure contains heteroleptic [Fe(en)(tren)]2+ complexes with distorted octahedral coordination, incorporated between 1D-FeSe2 chains composed of edge-sharing FeSe4 tetrahedra. The twisted octahedral coordination environment of the Fe-amine complex leads to partial dimerization of Fe-Fe distances in the FeSe2 chains so that the FeSe4 polyhedra deviate strongly from the regular tetrahedral geometry. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy reveals oxidation states of +3 for the Fechain atoms and +2 for the Fecomplex atoms. The close proximity of Fe atoms in the chains promotes ferromagnetic nearest neighbor interactions, as indicated by a positive Weiss constant, θ = +53.8(6) K, derived from the Curie-Weiss fitting. Magnetometry and heat capacity reveal two consecutive magnetic transitions below 10 K. DFT calculations suggest that the ordering observed at 4 K is due to antiferromagnetic intrachain interactions in the 1D-FeSe2 chains. The combination of two different ligands creates an asymmetric coordination environment that induces changes in the structure of the Fe-Se fragments. This synthetic strategy opens new ways to explore the effects of ligand field strength on the structure of both Fe-amine complexes and surrounding Fe-Se chains.

4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(41): 22762-22775, 2023 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37813388

RESUMO

The inertness of elemental selenium is a significant obstacle in the synthesis of selenium-containing materials at low reaction temperatures. Over the years, several recipes have been developed to overcome this hurdle; however, most of the methods are associated with the use of highly toxic, expensive, and environmentally harmful reagents. As such, there is an increasing demand for the design of cheap, stable, and nontoxic reactive selenium precursors usable in the low-temperature synthesis of transition metal selenides with vast applications in nanotechnology, thermoelectrics, and superconductors. Herein, a novel synthetic route has been developed for activating elemental selenium by using a solvothermal approach. By comprehensive 77Se NMR, Raman, and infrared spectroscopies and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we show that the activated Se solution contained HSe-, [Se-Se]2-, and Se2- ions, as well as dialkyl selenide (R2Se) and dialkyl diselenide (R-Se-Se-R) species in dynamic equilibrium. This also corresponded to the first observation of naked Se22- in solution. The versatility of the developed Se precursor was demonstrated by the successful synthesis of (i) the polycrystalline room-temperature modification of the ß-Ag2Se thermoelectric material; (ii) large single crystals of superconducting ß-FeSe; (iii) CdSe nanocrystals with different particle sizes (3-10 nm); (iv) nanosheets of PtSe2; and (v) mono- and dibenzyl selenides and diselenides at room temperature. The simplicity and diversity of the developed Se activation method holds promise for applied and fundamental research.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(27): 14660-14669, 2023 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37378579

RESUMO

Boron monoxide (BO), prepared by the thermal condensation of tetrahydroxydiboron, was first reported in 1955; however, its structure could not be determined. With the recent attention on boron-based two-dimensional materials, such as borophene and hexagonal boron nitride, there is renewed interest in BO. A large number of stable BO structures have been computationally identified, but none are supported by experiments. The consensus is that the material likely forms a boroxine-based two-dimensional material. Herein, we apply advanced 11B NMR experiments to determine the relative orientations of B(B)O2 centers in BO. We find that the material is composed of D2h-symmetric O2B-BO2 units that organize to form larger B4O2 rings. Further, powder diffraction experiments additionally reveal that these units organize to form two-dimensional layers with a random stacking pattern. This observation is in agreement with earlier density functional theory (DFT) studies that showed B4O2-based structures to be the most stable.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 62(26): 10141-10151, 2023 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37343078

RESUMO

A series of Yb-substituted Zintl phases in the Ca3-xYbxAlSb3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.81(1)) system has been synthesized by initial arc melting and post-heat treatment, and their isotypic crystal structures were characterized by both powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. All four title compounds adopted the Ca3AlAs3-type structure (space group Pnma, Pearson code oP28, Z = 4). The overall structure can be described as a combination of the 1-dimensional (1D) infinite chain of ∞1[Al(Sb2Sb2/2)] formed by two vertices sharing [AlSb4] tetrahedral moieties and three Ca2+/Yb2+ mixed sites located in between these 1D chains. The charge balance and the resultant independency of the 1D chains in the title system were explained by the Zintl-Klemm formalism [Ca2+/Yb2+]3[(4b-Al1-)(1b-Sb2-)2(2b-Sb1-)2/2]. A series of DFT calculations proved that (1) the band overlap between the d-orbital states from two types of cations and the p-orbital states from Sb at the high symmetry Γ point implied a heavily doped degenerate semiconducting behavior of the quaternary Ca2YbAlSb3 model and (2) the site preference of Yb for the M1 site was due to the electronic-factor criterion based on the Q values of each atomic site. The electron localization function calculations also proved that the two different shapes of lone pairs of the Sb atoms─the "umbrella-shape" and the "C-shape"─are determined by local geometry and the coordination environment on the anionic frameworks. Thermoelectric measurements of the quaternary title compound Ca2.19(1)Yb0.81AlSb3 showed an approximately two times larger ZT value than that of ternary Ca3AlSb3 at 623 K due to increased electrical conductivity and ultralow thermal conductivity originated from Yb substitution for Ca.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(12): 15498-15508, 2023 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36940316

RESUMO

A simple and effective preparation of solution-processed chalcogenide thermoelectric materials is described. First, PbTe, PbSe, and SnSe were prepared by gram-scale colloidal synthesis relying on the reaction between metal acetates and diphenyl dichalcogenides in hexadecylamine solvent. The resultant phase-pure chalcogenides consist of highly crystalline and defect-free particles with distinct cubic-, tetrapod-, and rod-like morphologies. The powdered PbTe, PbSe, and SnSe products were subjected to densification by spark plasma sintering (SPS), affording dense pellets of the respective chalcogenides. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the SPS-derived pellets exhibit fine nano-/micro-structures dictated by the original morphology of the key constituting particles, while the powder X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy analyses confirm that the SPS-derived pellets are phase-pure materials, preserving the structure of the colloidal synthesis products. The resultant solution-processed PbTe, PbSe, and SnSe exhibit low thermal conductivity, which might be due to the enhanced phonon scattering developed over fine microstructures. For undoped n-type PbTe and p-type SnSe samples, an expected moderate thermoelectric performance is achieved. In contrast, an outstanding figure-of-merit of 0.73 at 673 K was achieved for undoped n-type PbSe outperforming, the majority of the optimized PbSe-based thermoelectric materials. Overall, our findings facilitate the design of efficient solution-processed chalcogenide thermoelectrics.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 145(8): 4638-4646, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36787623

RESUMO

The zinc-antimony phase space has been heavily investigated due to the structural complexity and abundance of high-performing thermoelectric materials. Consequentially, the desire to use zinc and antimony as framework elements to encage rattling cations and achieve phonon-glass-electron-crystal-type properties has remained an enticing goal with only two alkali metal clathrates to date, Cs8Zn18Sb28 and K58Zn122Sb207. Guided by Zintl electron-counting predictions, we explored the Ba-Zn-Pn (Pn = As, Sb) phase space proximal to the expected composition of the type-I clathrate. In situ powder X-ray diffraction studies revealed two "hidden" compounds which can only be synthesized in a narrow temperature range. The ex situ synthesis and crystal growth unveiled that instead of type-I clathrates, compositionally close but structurally different new clathrate-like compounds formed, Ba2Zn5As6 and Ba2Zn5Sb6. These materials crystallize in a unique structure, in the orthorhombic space group Pmna with the Wyckoff sequence i2h6gfe. Single-phase synthesis enabled the exploration of their transport properties. Rattling of the Ba cations in oversized cages manifested low thermal conductivity, which, coupled with the high Seebeck coefficients observed, are prerequisites for a promising thermoelectric material. Potential for further optimization of the thermoelectric performance by aliovalent doping was computationally analyzed.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(24)2022 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36556609

RESUMO

Thin-film thermoelectrics (TEs) with a thickness of a few microns present an attractive opportunity to power the internet of things (IoT). Here, we propose screen printing as an industry-relevant technology to fabricate TE thin films from colloidal PbSe quantum dots (QDs). Monodisperse 13 nm-sized PbSe QDs with spherical morphology were synthesized through a straightforward heating-up method. The cubic-phase PbSe QDs with homogeneous chemical composition allowed the formulation of a novel ink to fabricate 2 µm-thick thin films through robust screen printing followed by rapid annealing. A maximum Seebeck coefficient of 561 µV K-1 was obtained at 143 °C and the highest electrical conductivity of 123 S m-1 was reached at 197 °C. Power factor calculations resulted in a maximum value of 2.47 × 10-5 W m-1 K-2 at 143 °C. To the best of our knowledge, the observed Seebeck coefficient value is the highest reported for TE thin films fabricated by screen printing. Thus, this study highlights that increased Seebeck coefficients can be obtained by using QD building blocks owing to quantum confinement.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 61(42): 16699-16706, 2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217744

RESUMO

We integrate a deep machine learning (ML) method with first-principles calculations to efficiently search for the energetically favorable ternary compounds. Using La-Si-P as a prototype system, we demonstrate that ML-guided first-principles calculations can efficiently explore crystal structures and their relative energetic stabilities, thus greatly accelerate the pace of material discovery. A number of new La-Si-P ternary compounds with formation energies less than 30 meV/atom above the known ternary convex hull are discovered. Among them, the formation energies of La5SiP3 and La2SiP phases are only 2 and 10 meV/atom, respectively, above the convex hull. These two compounds are dynamically stable with no imaginary phonon modes. Moreover, by replacing Si with heavier-group 14 elements in the eight lowest-energy La-Si-P structures from our ML-guided predictions, a number of low-energy La-X-P phases (X = Ge, Sn, Pb) are predicted.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 51(43): 16748-16756, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285871

RESUMO

The solvothermal synthetic exploration of the Bi-S-halogen phase space resulted in the synthesis of two bismuth sulfohalides with common structural motifs. Bi13S18I2 was confirmed to have the previously reported composition and crystal structure. In contrast, the bromide analogue was shown to have a formula of neither Bi19S27Br3 nor Bi13S18Br2, in contrast to the previous reports. The composition, refined from single crystal X-ray diffraction and confirmed by elemental analysis, high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction, and total scattering, is close to Bi13S17Br3 due to the partial S/Br substitution in the framework. Bi13S18I2 and Bi13S17Br3 are n-type semiconductors with similar optical bandgaps of ∼0.9 eV but different charge and heat transport properties. Due to the framework S/Br disorder, Bi13S17Br3 exhibits lower thermal and electrical conductivities than the iodine-containing analogue. The high Seebeck coefficients and ultralow thermal conductivities indicate that the reported bismuth sulfohalides are promising platforms to develop novel thermoelectric materials.

14.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 58(55): 7622-7625, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712888

RESUMO

A series of novel semiconductors AAe6Si12P20X (A = Na, K, Rb, Cs; Ae = Sr, Ba; X = Cl, Br, I) is reported. Their crystal structures feature a tetrahedral Si-P framework with large zeolite-like pores hosting two types of cations, monoatomic A+ and unprecedented octahedral X@Ae611+. Mixing of the A and Ba cations was detected by single crystal X-ray diffraction and confirmed by multinuclear solid state NMR. The reported compounds are highly stable semiconductors with a bandgap range from 1.4 to 2.0 eV.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 144(25): 11283-11295, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35700396

RESUMO

A novel mixed-valent hybrid chiral and polar compound, Fe7As3Se12(en)6(H2O), has been synthesized by a single-step solvothermal method. The crystal structure consists of 1D [Fe5Se9] chains connected via [As3Se2]-Se pentagonal linkers and charge-balancing interstitial [Fe(en)3]2+ complexes (en = ethylenediamine). Neutron powder diffraction verified that interstitial water molecules participate in the crystal packing. Magnetic polarizability of the produced compound was confirmed by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectroscopy. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy showed the presence of mixed-valent Fe2+/Fe3+ in the Fe-Se chains. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal strong antiferromagnetic nearest neighbor interactions within the chains with no apparent magnetic ordering down to 2 K. Hidden short-range magnetic ordering below 70 K was found by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, showing that a fraction of the Fe3+/Fe2+ in the chains are magnetically ordered. Nevertheless, complete magnetic ordering is not achieved even at 6 K. Analysis of XAS spectra demonstrates that the fraction of Fe3+ in the chain increases with decreasing temperature. Computational analysis points out several competing ferrimagnetic ordered models within a single chain. This competition, together with variation in the Fe oxidation state and additional weak intrachain interactions, is hypothesized to prevent long-range magnetic ordering.

16.
JACS Au ; 2(4): 875-885, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35557749

RESUMO

Herein, we describe the synthesis of a toroidal Au10 cluster stabilized by N-heterocyclic carbene and halide ligands via reduction of the corresponding NHC-Au-X complexes (X = Cl, Br, I). The significant effect of the halide ligands on the formation, stability, and further conversions of these clusters is presented. While solutions of the chloride derivatives of Au10 show no change even upon heating, the bromide derivative readily undergoes conversion to form a biicosahedral Au25 cluster at room temperature. For the iodide derivative, the formation of a significant amount of Au25 was observed even upon the reduction of NHC-Au-I. The isolated bromide derivative of the Au25 cluster displays a relatively high (ca. 15%) photoluminescence quantum yield, attributed to the high rigidity of the cluster, which is enforced by multiple CH-π interactions within the molecular structure. Density functional theory computations are used to characterize the electronic structure and optical absorption of the Au10 cluster. 13C-Labeling is employed to assist with characterization of the products and to observe their conversions by NMR spectroscopy.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 61(16): 6160-6174, 2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412816

RESUMO

A set of three Cr-dimer compounds, Cr2Q2(en)4X2 (Q: S, Se; X: Br, Cl; en: ethylenediamine), with monoatomic chalcogenide bridges have been synthesized via a single-step solvothermal route. Chalcogenide linkers mediate magnetic exchange between Cr3+ centers, while bidentate ethylenediamine ligands complete the distorted octahedral coordination of Cr centers. Unlike the compounds previously reported, none of the chalcogenide atoms are connected to extra ligands. Magnetic susceptibility studies indicate antiferromagnetic coupling between Cr3+ centers, which are moderate in Cr2Se2(en)4X2 and stronger in Cr2S2(en)4Cl2. Fitting the magnetic data requires a biquadratic exchange term. High-frequency EPR spectra showing characteristic signals due to coupled S = 1 spin states could be interpreted in terms of the "giant spin" Hamiltonian. A fourth compound, Cr2Se8(en)4, has a single diatomic Se bridge connecting the two Cr3+ centers and shows weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions. This work demonstrates the tunability in strength and type of exchange interactions between metal centers by manipulating the interatomic distances and number of bridging chalcogenide linkers.

18.
Inorg Chem ; 61(10): 4257-4269, 2022 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35225605

RESUMO

A series of solid solutions, CuFe2-xCoxGe2 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0), have been synthesized by arc-melting and characterized by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, magnetic measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electronic band structure calculations. All compounds crystallize in the CuFe2Ge2 structure type, which can be considered as a three-dimensional framework built of fused MGe6 octahedra and MGe5 trigonal bipyramids (M = Fe and Co), with channels filled by rows of Cu atoms. As the Co content (x) increases, the unit cell volume decreases in an anisotropic fashion: the b and c lattice parameters decrease while the a parameter increases. The changes in all the parameters are nearly linear, thus following Vegard's law. CuFe2Ge2 exhibits two successive antiferromagnetic (AFM) orderings, corresponding to the formation of a commensurate AFM structure, followed by an incommensurate AFM structure observed at lower temperatures. As the Co content increases, the AFM ordering temperature (TN) gradually decreases, and only one AFM transition is observed for x ≥ 0.2. The magnetic behavior of unsubstituted CuFe2Ge2 was found to be sensitive to the preparation method. The temperature-dependent zero-field 57Fe Mössbauer spectra reveal two hyperfine split components that evolve in agreement with the two consecutive AFM orderings observed in magnetic measurements. In contrast, the field-dependent spectra obtained for fields ≥2 T reveal a parallel arrangement of the moments associated with the two crystallographically unique metal sites. Electronic band structure calculations and chemical bonding analysis reveal a mix of strong M-M antibonding and non-bonding states at the Fermi level, in support of the overall AFM ordering observed in zero field. The substitution of Co for Fe reduces the population of the M-M antibonding states and the overall density of states at the Fermi level, thus suppressing the TN value.

19.
Chemistry ; 28(5): e202103761, 2022 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757673

RESUMO

A novel transition metal chalcohalide [Cr7 S8 (en)8 Cl2 ]Cl3 ⋅ 2H2 O, with [Cr7 S8 ]5+ dicubane cationic clusters, has been synthesized by a low temperature solvothermal method, using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylenediamine (en) solvents. Ethylenediamine ligand exhibits bi- and monodentate coordination modes; in the latter case ethylenediamine coordinates to Cr atoms of adjacent clusters, giving rise to a 2D polymeric structure. Although magnetic susceptibility shows no magnetic ordering down to 1.8 K, a highly negative Weiss constant, θ=-224(2) K, obtained from Curie-Weiss fit of inverse susceptibility, suggests strong antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions between S=3/2 Cr(III) centers. Due to the complexity of the system with (2S+1)7 =16384 microstates from seven Cr3+ centers, a simplified model with only two exchange constants was used for simulations. Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations yielded the two exchange constants to be J1 =-21.4 cm-1 and J2 =-30.2 cm-1 , confirming competing AFM coupling between the shared Cr3+ center and the peripheral Cr3+ ions of the dicubane cluster. The best simulation of the experimental data was obtained with J1 =-20.0 cm-1 and J2 =-21.0 cm-1 , in agreement with the slightly stronger AFM exchange within the triangles of the peripheral Cr3+ ions as compared to the AFM exchange between the central and peripheral Cr3+ ions. This compound is proposed as a synthon towards magnetically frustrated systems assembled by linking dicubane transition metal-chalcogenide clusters into polymeric networks.

20.
Inorg Chem ; 61(1): 533-541, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34905342

RESUMO

Three new antimonide Zintl phases, RbGaSb2, CsGaSb2, and CsInSb2, were discovered during exploration of corresponding A-M-Sb (A = Rb, Cs; M = Ga, In) ternary systems while searching for new clathrates. The AGaSb2 phases crystallize in the tetragonal space group P42/nmc (No. 137) in the LiBS2 structure type, while CsInSb2 crystallizes in lower symmetry in the orthorhombic space group Cmce (No. 64) in the KGaSb2 structure type with additional disorder of one of the Cs sites. The crystal structures of all three reported AMSb2 compounds are composed of two-dimensional [MSb2]- tetrahedral layers separated by Rb+ or Cs+ cations. [MSb2]- layers are built from fused M-Sb pentagons and hexagons, which are also the main structural units for A8M27Sb19 clathrate cages. The semiconductor nature of AMSb2 was suggested by band structure calculations and confirmed by transport property characterization. CsGaSb2 is a rare example of an n-type pnictide Zintl phase. All reported compounds exhibit low thermal conductivity typical for complex antimonides of heavy elements.

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