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1.
Science ; 384(6691): 87-93, 2024 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38574149

RESUMO

Agricultural simplification continues to expand at the expense of more diverse forms of agriculture. This simplification, for example, in the form of intensively managed monocultures, poses a risk to keeping the world within safe and just Earth system boundaries. Here, we estimated how agricultural diversification simultaneously affects social and environmental outcomes. Drawing from 24 studies in 11 countries across 2655 farms, we show how five diversification strategies focusing on livestock, crops, soils, noncrop plantings, and water conservation benefit social (e.g., human well-being, yields, and food security) and environmental (e.g., biodiversity, ecosystem services, and reduced environmental externalities) outcomes. We found that applying multiple diversification strategies creates more positive outcomes than individual management strategies alone. To realize these benefits, well-designed policies are needed to incentivize the adoption of multiple diversification strategies in unison.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Fazendas , Solo
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 121(17): e2307220121, 2024 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38621138

RESUMO

The expansion of the oil palm industry in Indonesia has improved livelihoods in rural communities, but comes at the cost of biodiversity and ecosystem degradation. Here, we investigated ways to balance ecological and economic outcomes of oil palm cultivation. We compared a wide range of production systems, including smallholder plantations, industrialized company estates, estates with improved agronomic management, and estates with native tree enrichment. Across all management types, we assessed multiple indicators of biodiversity, ecosystem functions, management, and landscape structure to identify factors that facilitate economic-ecological win-wins, using palm yields as measure of economic performance. Although, we found that yields in industrialized estates were, on average, twice as high as those in smallholder plantations, ecological indicators displayed substantial variability across systems, regardless of yield variations, highlighting potential for economic-ecological win-wins. Reducing management intensity (e.g., mechanical weeding instead of herbicide application) did not lower yields but improved ecological outcomes at moderate costs, making it a potential measure for balancing economic and ecological demands. Additionally, maintaining forest cover in the landscape generally enhanced local biodiversity and ecosystem functioning within plantations. Enriching plantations with native trees is also a promising strategy to increase ecological value without reducing productivity. Overall, we recommend closing yield gaps in smallholder cultivation through careful intensification, whereas conventional plantations could reduce management intensity without sacrificing yield. Our study highlights various pathways to reconcile the economics and ecology of palm oil production and identifies management practices for a more sustainable future of oil palm cultivation.


Assuntos
Arecaceae , Óleos Industriais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Agricultura , Árvores , Óleo de Palmeira , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 2078, 2024 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38453933

RESUMO

Plant diversity effects on community productivity often increase over time. Whether the strengthening of diversity effects is caused by temporal shifts in species-level overyielding (i.e., higher species-level productivity in diverse communities compared with monocultures) remains unclear. Here, using data from 65 grassland and forest biodiversity experiments, we show that the temporal strength of diversity effects at the community scale is underpinned by temporal changes in the species that yield. These temporal trends of species-level overyielding are shaped by plant ecological strategies, which can be quantitatively delimited by functional traits. In grasslands, the temporal strengthening of biodiversity effects on community productivity was associated with increasing biomass overyielding of resource-conservative species increasing over time, and with overyielding of species characterized by fast resource acquisition either decreasing or increasing. In forests, temporal trends in species overyielding differ when considering above- versus belowground resource acquisition strategies. Overyielding in stem growth decreased for species with high light capture capacity but increased for those with high soil resource acquisition capacity. Our results imply that a diversity of species with different, and potentially complementary, ecological strategies is beneficial for maintaining community productivity over time in both grassland and forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Plantas , Biomassa , Florestas , Pradaria
4.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 8(5): 888-900, 2024 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38409318

RESUMO

Forecasting the risks of climate change for species and ecosystems is necessary for developing targeted conservation strategies. Previous risk assessments mapped the exposure of the global land surface to changes in climate. However, this procedure is unlikely to robustly identify priority areas for conservation actions because nonlinear physiological responses and colimitation processes ensure that ecological changes will not map perfectly to the forecast climatic changes. Here, we combine ecophysiological growth models of 135,153 vascular plant species and plant growth-form information to transform ambient and future climatologies into phytoclimates, which describe the ability of climates to support the plant growth forms that characterize terrestrial ecosystems. We forecast that 33% to 68% of the global land surface will experience a significant change in phytoclimate by 2070 under representative concentration pathways RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5, respectively. Phytoclimates without present-day analogue are forecast to emerge on 0.3-2.2% of the land surface and 0.1-1.3% of currently realized phytoclimates are forecast to disappear. Notably, the geographic pattern of change, disappearance and novelty of phytoclimates differs markedly from the pattern of analogous trends in climates detected by previous studies, thereby defining new priorities for conservation actions and highlighting the limits of using untransformed climate change exposure indices in ecological risk assessments. Our findings suggest that a profound transformation of the biosphere is underway and emphasize the need for a timely adaptation of biodiversity management practices.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Medição de Risco , Previsões , Plantas , Modelos Biológicos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal
6.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 1330, 2024 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38351066

RESUMO

Human factors and plant characteristics are important drivers of plant invasions, which threaten ecosystem integrity, biodiversity and human well-being. However, while previous studies often examined a limited number of factors or focused on a specific invasion stage (e.g., naturalization) for specific regions, a multi-factor and multi-stage analysis at the global scale is lacking. Here, we employ a multi-level framework to investigate the interplay between plant characteristics (genome size, Grime's adaptive CSR-strategies and native range size) and economic use and how these factors collectively affect plant naturalization and invasion success worldwide. While our findings derived from structural equation models highlight the substantial contribution of human assistance in both the naturalization and spread of invasive plants, we also uncovered the pivotal role of species' adaptive strategies among the factors studied, and the significantly varying influence of these factors across invasion stages. We further revealed that the effects of genome size on plant invasions were partially mediated by species adaptive strategies and native range size. Our study provides insights into the complex and dynamic process of plant invasions and identifies its key drivers worldwide.


Assuntos
Cidadania , Ecossistema , Humanos , Tamanho do Genoma , Espécies Introduzidas , Ecologia , Biodiversidade , Plantas/genética
7.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7890, 2023 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38036522

RESUMO

A prominent hypothesis in ecology is that larger species ranges are found in more variable climates because species develop broader environmental tolerances, predicting a positive range size-temperature variability relationship. However, this overlooks the extreme temperatures that variable climates impose on species, with upper or lower thermal limits more likely to be exceeded. Accordingly, we propose the 'temperature range squeeze' hypothesis, predicting a negative range size-temperature variability relationship. We test these contrasting predictions by relating 88,000 elevation range sizes of vascular plants in 44 mountains to short- and long-term temperature variation. Consistent with our hypothesis, we find that species' range size is negatively correlated with diurnal temperature range. Accurate predictions of short-term temperature variation will become increasingly important for extinction risk assessment in the future.


Assuntos
Clima , Ecossistema , Temperatura , Temperatura Alta , Mudança Climática
8.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 6244, 2023 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37828007

RESUMO

Darwin's naturalization conundrum describes two seemingly contradictory hypotheses regarding whether alien species closely or distantly related to native species should be more likely to naturalize in regional floras. Both expectations have accumulated empirical support, and whether such apparent inconsistency can be reconciled at the global scale is unclear. Here, using 219,520 native and 9,531 naturalized alien plant species across 487 globally distributed regions, we found a latitudinal gradient in Darwin's naturalization conundrum. Naturalized alien plant species are more closely related to native species at higher latitudes than they are at lower latitudes, indicating a greater influence of preadaptation in harsher climates. Human landscape modification resulted in even steeper latitudinal clines by selecting aliens distantly related to natives in warmer and drier regions. Our results demonstrate that joint consideration of climatic and anthropogenic conditions is critical to reconciling Darwin's naturalization conundrum.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Magnoliopsida , Humanos , Cidadania , Espécies Introduzidas , Plantas
9.
Sci Adv ; 9(40): eadi1897, 2023 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37792943

RESUMO

Plant introductions outside their native ranges by humans have led to substantial ecological consequences. While we have gained considerable knowledge about intercontinental introductions, the distribution and determinants of intracontinental aliens remain poorly understood. Here, we studied naturalized (i.e., self-sustaining) intracontinental aliens using native and alien floras of 243 mainland regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Australia. We revealed that 4510 plant species had intracontinental origins, accounting for 3.9% of all plant species and 56.7% of all naturalized species in these continents. In North America and Europe, the numbers of intracontinental aliens peaked at mid-latitudes, while the proportion peaked at high latitudes in Europe. Notably, we found predominant poleward naturalization, primarily due to larger native species pools in low-latitudes. Geographic and climatic distances constrained the naturalization of intracontinental aliens in Australia, Europe, and North America, but not in South America. These findings suggest that poleward naturalizations will accelerate, as high latitudes become suitable for more plant species due to climate change.


Assuntos
Cidadania , Mudança Climática , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Plantas , América do Norte , Ecossistema
10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 7(10): 1633-1644, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37652998

RESUMO

Human activities are causing global biotic redistribution, translocating species and providing them with opportunities to establish populations beyond their native ranges. Species originating from certain global regions, however, are disproportionately represented among naturalized aliens. The evolutionary imbalance hypothesis posits that differences in absolute fitness among biogeographic divisions determine outcomes when biotas mix. Here, we compile data from native and alien distributions for nearly the entire global seed plant flora and find that biogeographic conditions predicted to drive evolutionary imbalance act alongside climate and anthropogenic factors to shape flows of successful aliens among regional biotas. Successful aliens tend to originate from large, biodiverse regions that support abundant populations and where species evolve against a diverse backdrop of competitors and enemies. We also reveal that these same native distribution characteristics are shared among the plants that humans select for cultivation and economic use. In addition to influencing species' innate potentials as invaders, we therefore suggest that evolutionary imbalance shapes plants' relationships with humans, impacting which species are translocated beyond their native distributions.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Humanos , Clima , Plantas , Sementes
11.
Nature ; 619(7970): 545-550, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37438518

RESUMO

Oceanic island floras are well known for their morphological peculiarities and exhibit striking examples of trait evolution1-3. These morphological shifts are commonly attributed to insularity and are thought to be shaped by the biogeographical processes and evolutionary histories of oceanic islands2,4. However, the mechanisms through which biogeography and evolution have shaped the distribution and diversity of plant functional traits remain unclear5. Here we describe the functional trait space of the native flora of an oceanic island (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain) using extensive field and laboratory measurements, and relate it to global trade-offs in ecological strategies. We find that the island trait space exhibits a remarkable functional richness but that most plants are concentrated around a functional hotspot dominated by shrubs with a conservative life-history strategy. By dividing the island flora into species groups associated with distinct biogeographical distributions and diversification histories, our results also suggest that colonization via long-distance dispersal and the interplay between inter-island dispersal and archipelago-level speciation processes drive functional divergence and trait space expansion. Contrary to our expectations, speciation via cladogenesis has led to functional convergence, and therefore only contributes marginally to functional diversity by densely packing trait space around shrubs. By combining biogeography, ecology and evolution, our approach opens new avenues for trait-based insights into how dispersal, speciation and persistence shape the assembly of entire native island floras.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ilhas , Oceanos e Mares , Plantas , Especiação Genética , Características de História de Vida , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Plantas/classificação , Espanha , Ecologia
12.
New Phytol ; 239(6): 2389-2403, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37438886

RESUMO

Karyological characteristics are among the traits underpinning the invasion success of vascular plants. Using 11 049 species, we tested the effects of genome size and ploidy levels on plant naturalization (species forming self-sustaining populations where they are not native) and invasion (naturalized species spreading rapidly and having environmental impact). The probability that a species naturalized anywhere in the world decreased with increasing monoploid genome size (DNA content of a single chromosome set). Naturalized or invasive species with intermediate monoploid genomes were reported from many regions, but those with either small or large genomes occurred in fewer regions. By contrast, large holoploid genome sizes (DNA content of the unreplicated gametic nucleus) constrained naturalization but favoured invasion. We suggest that a small genome is an advantage during naturalization, being linked to traits favouring adaptation to local conditions, but for invasive spread, traits associated with a large holoploid genome, where the impact of polyploidy may act, facilitate long-distance dispersal and competition with other species.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Traqueófitas , Tamanho do Genoma , Cidadania , Ploidias , Espécies Introduzidas , DNA
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(30): e2300981120, 2023 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37459510

RESUMO

Assessing the distribution of geographically restricted and evolutionarily unique species and their underlying drivers is key to understanding biogeographical processes and critical for global conservation prioritization. Here, we quantified the geographic distribution and drivers of phylogenetic endemism for ~320,000 seed plants worldwide and identified centers and drivers of evolutionarily young (neoendemism) and evolutionarily old endemism (paleoendemism). Tropical and subtropical islands as well as tropical mountain regions displayed the world's highest phylogenetic endemism. Most tropical rainforest regions emerged as centers of paleoendemism, while most Mediterranean-climate regions showed high neoendemism. Centers where high neo- and paleoendemism coincide emerged on some oceanic and continental fragment islands, in Mediterranean-climate regions and parts of the Irano-Turanian floristic region. Global variation in phylogenetic endemism was well explained by a combination of past and present environmental factors (79.8 to 87.7% of variance explained) and most strongly related to environmental heterogeneity. Also, warm and wet climates, geographic isolation, and long-term climatic stability emerged as key drivers of phylogenetic endemism. Neo- and paleoendemism were jointly explained by climatic and geological history. Long-term climatic stability promoted the persistence of paleoendemics, while the isolation of oceanic islands and their unique geological histories promoted neoendemism. Mountainous regions promoted both neo- and paleoendemism, reflecting both diversification and persistence over time. Our study provides insights into the evolutionary underpinnings of biogeographical patterns in seed plants and identifies the areas on Earth with the highest evolutionary and biogeographical uniqueness-key information for setting global conservation priorities.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Sementes , Geologia
14.
Ambio ; 52(10): 1558-1574, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37286920

RESUMO

Tropical agricultural landscapes often consist of a mosaic of different land uses, yet little is known about the spectrum of ecosystem service bundles and materials they provide to rural households. We interviewed 320 households on the different benefits received from prevalent land-use types in north-eastern Madagascar (old-growth forests, forest fragments, vanilla agroforests, woody fallows, herbaceous fallows, and rice paddies) in terms of ecosystem services and plant uses. Old-growth forests and forest fragments were reported as important for regulating services (e.g. water regulation), whilst fallow lands and vanilla agroforests as important for provisioning services (food, medicine, fodder). Households reported the usage of 285 plant species (56% non-endemics) and collected plants from woody fallows for varying purposes, whilst plants from forest fragments, predominantly endemics, were used for construction and weaving. Multiple land-use types are thus complementary for providing ecosystem services, with fallow lands being particularly important. Hence, balancing societal needs and conservation goals should be based on diversified and comprehensive land management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Florestas , Árvores , Agricultura , Biodiversidade
15.
New Phytol ; 240(4): 1548-1560, 2023 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37264995

RESUMO

Plant life and growth forms (shortened to 'plant forms') represent key functional strategies of plants in relation to their environment and provide important insights into the ecological constraints acting on the distribution of biodiversity. Despite their functional importance, how the spectra of plant forms contribute to global gradients of plant diversity is unresolved. Using a novel dataset comprising > 295 000 species, we quantify the contribution of different plant forms to global gradients of vascular plant diversity. Furthermore, we establish how plant form distributions in different biogeographical regions are associated with contemporary and paleoclimate conditions, environmental heterogeneity and phylogeny. We find a major shift in representation of woody perennials in tropical latitudes to herb-dominated floras in temperate and boreal regions, following a sharp latitudinal gradient in plant form diversity from the tropics to the poles. We also find significant functional differences between regions, mirroring life and growth form responses to environmental conditions, which is mostly explained by contemporary climate (18-87%), and phylogeny (6-62%), with paleoclimate and heterogeneity playing a lesser role (< 23%). This research highlights variation in the importance of different plant forms to diversity gradients world-wide, shedding light on the ecological and evolutionary pressures constraining plant-trait distributions.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Traqueófitas , Filogenia , Biodiversidade , Clima , Plantas , Clima Tropical
16.
PeerJ ; 11: e15500, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37361043

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms driving community assembly has been a major focus of ecological research for nearly a century, yet little is known about these mechanisms in commensal communities, particularly with respect to their historical/evolutionary components. Here, we use a large-scale dataset of 4,440 vascular plant species to explore the relationship between the evolutionary distinctiveness (ED) (as measured by the 'species evolutionary history' (SEH)) of host species and the phylogenetic diversity (PD) of their associated epiphyte species. Although there was considerable variation across hosts and their associated epiphyte species, they were largely unrelated to host SEH. Our results mostly support the idea that the determinants of epiphyte colonization success might involve host characteristics that are unrelated to host SEH (e.g., architectural differences between hosts). While determinants of PD of epiphyte assemblages are poorly known, they do not appear to be related to the evolutionary history of host species. Instead, they might be better explained by neutral processes of colonization and extinction. However, the high level of phylogenetic signal in epiphyte PD (independent of SEH) suggests it might still be influenced by yet unrecognized evolutionary determinants. This study highlights how little is still known about the phylogenetic determinants of epiphyte communities.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Traqueófitas , Filogenia , Simbiose , Especificidade de Hospedeiro
17.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 6718, 2023 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37185616

RESUMO

Quantitative assessments of endemism, evolutionary distinctiveness and extinction threat underpin global conservation prioritization for well-studied taxa, such as birds, mammals, and amphibians. However, such information is unavailable for most of the world's taxa. This is the case for the Orchidaceae, a hyperdiverse and cosmopolitan family with incomplete phylogenetic and threat information. To define conservation priorities, we present a framework based on phylogenetic and taxonomic measures of distinctiveness and rarity based on the number of regions and the area of occupancy. For 25,434 orchid species with distribution data (89.3% of the Orchidaceae), we identify the Neotropics as hotspots for richness, New Guinea as a hotspot for evolutionary distinctiveness, and several islands that contain many rare and distinct species. Orchids have a similar proportion of monotypic genera as other Angiosperms, however, more taxonomically distinct orchid species are found in a single region. We identify 278 species in need of immediate conservation actions and find that more than 70% of these do not currently have an IUCN conservation assessment and are not protected in ex-situ collections at Botanical Gardens. Our study highlights locations and orchid species in urgent need of conservation and demonstrates a framework that can be applied to other data-deficient taxa.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Orchidaceae , Animais , Biodiversidade , Filogenia , Orchidaceae/genética , Evolução Biológica , Mamíferos
18.
J Environ Manage ; 343: 118199, 2023 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37244102

RESUMO

The understorey vegetation of temperate forests harbours a major proportion of terrestrial biodiversity and fulfills an important role in ecosystem functioning. Over the past decades, temperate forest understoreys were found to change in species diversity and composition due to several anthropogenic and natural drivers. Currently, the conversion and restoration of even-aged coniferous monocultures into more diverse and mixed broad-leaved forests are major objectives of sustainable forest management in Central Europe. This forest conversion alters understorey communities and abiotic site conditions but the underlying patterns and processes are not yet fully understood. Therefore, we investigated changes in the Bavarian Spessart mountains in southwest Germany, where we re-sampled 108 semi-permanent plots from four different coniferous stand types (i.e., Norway spruce, Scots pine, Douglas fir, European larch) about 30 years after the initial assessment. On these plots, we recorded understorey vegetation and forest structure, and derived abiotic site conditions based on ecological indicator values of understorey vegetation, followed by multivariate analysis. We found changes in plant communities that point towards a decrease of soil acidity and a "thermophilization" of forest understoreys. Understorey species richness remained constant, while understorey's Shannon and Simpson diversity increased. The observed changes in forest structure explained the temporal shifts in understorey species composition. The understorey species composition did not experience a significant floristic homogenization since the 1990s. However, plant communities exhibited a reduction in species characteristic of coniferous forests and a simultaneous increase in species associated with broad-leaved forests. The increase of specialist species (closed forests and open sites) may have compensated for the detected decrease in generalist species. We conclude that the forest conversion towards mixed broad-leaved forest in the Spessart mountains of the past decades might have masked homogenization trends that are increasingly reported from Central European forest understoreys.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Traqueófitas , Árvores , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Plantas
19.
Nature ; 618(7964): 316-321, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37225981

RESUMO

In the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration1, large knowledge gaps persist on how to increase biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in cash crop-dominated tropical landscapes2. Here, we present findings from a large-scale, 5-year ecosystem restoration experiment in an oil palm landscape enriched with 52 tree islands, encompassing assessments of ten indicators of biodiversity and 19 indicators of ecosystem functioning. Overall, indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, as well as multidiversity and ecosystem multifunctionality, were higher in tree islands compared to conventionally managed oil palm. Larger tree islands led to larger gains in multidiversity through changes in vegetation structure. Furthermore, tree enrichment did not decrease landscape-scale oil palm yield. Our results demonstrate that enriching oil palm-dominated landscapes with tree islands is a promising ecological restoration strategy, yet should not replace the protection of remaining forests.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Óleo de Palmeira , Árvores , Florestas , Óleo de Palmeira/provisão & distribuição , Árvores/fisiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Nações Unidas , Clima Tropical , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribuição , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos
20.
Ecol Appl ; 33(5): e2862, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37096419

RESUMO

As the extent of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) cultivation has expanded at the expense of tropical rainforests, enriching conventional large-scale oil palm plantations with native trees has been proposed as a strategy for restoring biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, how tree enrichment affects insect-mediated ecosystem functions is unknown. We investigated impacts on insect herbivory and pollination in the fourth year of a plantation-scale, long-term oil palm biodiversity enrichment experiment in Jambi, Sumatra, Indonesia. Within 48 plots systematically varying in size (25-1600 m2 ) and planted tree species richness (one to six species), we collected response data on vegetation structure, understory insect abundances, and pollinator and herbivore activity on chili plants (Capsicum annuum), which served as indicators of insect-mediated ecosystem functions. We examined the independent effects of plot size, tree species richness, and tree identity on these response variables, using the linear model for random partitions design. The experimental treatments were most associated with vegetation structure: tree identity mattered, as the species Peronema canescens strongly decreased (by approximately one standard deviation) both canopy openness and understory vegetation cover; whereas tree richness only decreased understory flower density. Further, the smallest plots had the lowest understory flower density and richness, presumably because of lower light availability and colonization rates, respectively. Enrichment influenced herbivorous insects and natural enemies in the understory to a lesser extent: both groups had higher abundances in plots with two enrichment species planted, possibly because higher associated tree mortality created more habitat, while herbivores decreased with increasing tree species richness, in line with the resource concentration hypothesis. Linking relationships in structural equation models showed that the negative association between P. canescens and understory vegetation cover was mediated through canopy openness. Likewise, canopy openness mediated increases in herbivore and pollinator insect abundances. Higher pollinator visitation increased phytometer yield, while impacts of insect herbivores on yield were not apparent. Our results demonstrate that even at an early stage, different levels of ecological restoration influence insect-mediated ecosystem functions, mainly through canopy openness. These findings suggest that maintaining some canopy gaps while enrichment plots develop may be beneficial for increasing habitat heterogeneity and insect-mediated ecosystem functions.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Árvores , Animais , Árvores/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Polinização , Biodiversidade , Insetos/fisiologia , Plantas , Florestas
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