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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077349

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is an important component in the treatment of lung cancer, one of the most common cancers worldwide, frequently resulting in death within only a few years of diagnosis. In order to evaluate new therapeutic approaches and compare their efficiency with regard to tumour control at a pre-clinical stage, it is important to develop standardized samples which can serve as inter-institutional outcome controls, independent of differences in local technical parameters or specific techniques. Recent developments in 3D bioprinting techniques could provide a sophisticated solution to this challenge. We have conducted a pilot project to evaluate the suitability of standardized samples generated from 3D printed human lung cancer cells in radiotherapy studies. The samples were irradiated at high dose rates using both broad beam and microbeam techniques. We found the 3D printed constructs to be sufficiently mechanically stable for use in microbeam studies with peak doses up to 400 Gy to test for cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and cancer cell death in vitro. The results of this study show how 3D structures generated from human lung cancer cells in an additive printing process can be used to study the effects of radiotherapy in a standardized manner.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Projetos Piloto , Impressão Tridimensional
2.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 114(3): 478-493, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934161

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Synchrotron-generated microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) represents an innovative preclinical type of cancer radiation therapy with an excellent therapeutic ratio. Beyond local control, metastatic spread is another important endpoint to assess the effectiveness of radiation therapy treatment. Currently, no data exist on an association between MRT and metastasis. Here, we evaluated the ability of MRT to delay B16F10 murine melanoma progression and locoregional metastatic spread. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We assessed the primary tumor response and the extent of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes in 2 cohorts of C57BL/6J mice, one receiving a single MRT and another receiving 2 MRT treatments delivered with a 10-day interval. We compared these 2 cohorts with synchrotron broad beam-irradiated and nonirradiated mice. In addition, using multiplex quantitative platforms, we measured plasma concentrations of 34 pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and frequencies of immune cell subsets infiltrating primary tumors that received either 1 or 2 MRT treatments. RESULTS: Two MRT treatments were significantly more effective for local control than a single MRT. Remarkably, the second MRT also triggered a pronounced regression of out-of-radiation field locoregional metastasis. Augmentation of CXCL5, CXCL12, and CCL22 levels after the second MRT indicated that inhibition of melanoma progression could be associated with increased activity of antitumor neutrophils and T-cells. Indeed, we demonstrated elevated infiltration of neutrophils and activated T-cells in the tumors after the second MRT. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the importance of monitoring metastasis after MRT and provides the first MRT fractionation schedule that promotes local and locoregional control with the potential to manage distant metastasis.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Síncrotrons , Animais , Citocinas , Melanoma/radioterapia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Síndrome , Linfócitos T
3.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 113(5): 967-973, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483539

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The high potential of microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) in improving tumor control while reducing side effects has been shown by numerous preclinical studies. MRT offers a widened therapeutic window by using the periodical spatial fractionation of synchrotron generated x-rays into an array of intense parallel microbeams. MRT now enters a clinical transfer phase. As proof of principle and cornerstone for the safe clinical transfer of MRT, we conducted a "first in dog" trial under clinical conditions. In this report, we evaluated whether a 3-dimensional conformal MRT can be safely delivered as exclusive radiosurgical treatment in animal patients METHODS AND MATERIALS: We irradiated a 17.5-kg French bulldog for a spontaneous brain tumor (glioma suspected on magnetic resonance imaging) with conformal high-dose-rate microbeam arrays (50-µm-wide microbeams, replicated with a pitch of 400 µm) of synchrotron-generated x-rays. The dose prescription adjusted a minimal cumulated valley dose of 2.8 Gy to the plnning target volume (PTV) (cinical target volume (CTV)+ 1 mm). Thus, each beam delivered 20 to 25 Gy to the target as peak doses, and ∼1 Gy as valley doses RESULTS: The treatment was successfully delivered. Clinical follow-up over 3 months showed a significant improvement of the dog's quality of life: the symptoms disappeared. Magnetic resonance imaging, performed 3 months after irradiation, revealed reduction in tumor size (-87.4%) and mass effect with normalization of the left lateral ventricle. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this neuro-oncologic veterinary trial is the first 3-dimensional conformal synchrotron x-ray MRT treatment of a spontaneous intracranial tumor in a large animal. It is an essential last step toward the clinical transfer of MRT in the near future to demonstrate the feasibility and safety of treating deep-seated tumors using synchrotron-generated microbeams.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Radiocirurgia , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/veterinária , Cães , Glioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioma/patologia , Glioma/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Síncrotrons
4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) induces a transient vascular permeability window, which offers a novel drug-delivery system for the preferential accumulation of therapeutic compounds in tumors. MRT is a preclinical cancer treatment modality that spatially fractionates synchrotron X-rays into micrometer-wide planar microbeams which can induce transient vascular permeability, especially in the immature tumor vessels, without compromising vascular perfusion. Here, we characterized this phenomenon using Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) and demonstrated its therapeutic potential in human glioblastoma xenografts in mice. METHODS: the developing CAM was exposed to planar-microbeams of 75 Gy peak dose with Synchrotron X-rays. Similarly, mice harboring human glioblastoma xenografts were exposed to peak microbeam doses of 150 Gy, followed by treatment with Cisplatin. Tumor progression was documented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and caliper measurements. RESULTS: CAM exposed to MRT exhibited vascular permeability, beginning 15 min post-irradiation, reaching its peak from 45 min to 2 h, and ending by 4 h. We have deemed this period the "permeability window". Morphological analysis showed partially fragmented endothelial walls as the cause of the increased transport of FITC-Dextran into the surrounding tissue and the extravasation of 100 nm microspheres (representing the upper range of nanoparticles). In the human glioblastoma xenografts, MRI measurements showed that the combined treatment dramatically reduced the tumor size by 2.75-fold and 5.25-fold, respectively, compared to MRT or Cisplatin alone. CONCLUSIONS: MRT provides a novel mechanism for drug delivery by increasing vascular transpermeability while preserving vessel integrity. This permeability window increases the therapeutic index of currently available chemotherapeutics and could be combined with other therapeutic agents such as Nanoparticles/Antibodies/etc.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668110

RESUMO

Delivery of high-radiation doses to brain tumors via multiple arrays of synchrotron X-ray microbeams permits huge therapeutic advantages. Brain tumor (9LGS)-bearing and normal rats were irradiated using a conventional, homogeneous Broad Beam (BB), or Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT), then studied by behavioral tests, MRI, and histopathology. A valley dose of 10 Gy deposited between microbeams, delivered by a single port, improved tumor control and median survival time of tumor-bearing rats better than a BB isodose. An increased number of ports and an accumulated valley dose maintained at 10 Gy delayed tumor growth and improved survival. Histopathologically, cell death, vascular damage, and inflammatory response increased in tumors. At identical valley isodose, each additional MRT port extended survival, resulting in an exponential correlation between port numbers and animal lifespan (r2 = 0.9928). A 10 Gy valley dose, in MRT mode, delivered through 5 ports, achieved the same survival as a 25 Gy BB irradiation because of tumor dose hot spots created by intersecting microbeams. Conversely, normal tissue damage remained minimal in all the single converging extratumoral arrays. Multiport MRT reached exceptional ~2.5-fold biological equivalent tumor doses. The unique normal tissue sparing and therapeutic index are eminent prerequisites for clinical translation.

6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synchrotron Microbeam Radiotherapy (MRT) significantly improves local tumour control with minimal normal tissue toxicity. MRT delivers orthovoltage X-rays at an ultra-high "FLASH" dose rate in spatially fractionated beams, typically only few tens of micrometres wide. One of the biggest challenges in translating MRT to the clinic is its use of high peak doses, of around 300-600 Gy, which can currently only be delivered by synchrotron facilities. Therefore, in an effort to improve the translation of MRT to the clinic, this work studied whether the temporal fractionation of traditional MRT into several sessions with lower, more clinically feasible, peak doses could still maintain local tumour control. METHODS: Two groups of twelve C57Bl/6J female mice harbouring B16-F10 melanomas in their ears were treated with microbeams of 50 µm in width spaced by 200 µm from their centres. The treatment modality was either (i) a single MRT session of 401.23 Gy peak dose (7.40 Gy valley dose, i.e., dose between beams), or (ii) three MRT sessions of 133.41 Gy peak dose (2.46 Gy valley dose) delivered over 3 days in different anatomical planes, which intersected at 45 degrees. The mean dose rate was 12,750 Gy/s, with exposure times between 34.2 and 11.4 ms, respectively. RESULTS: Temporally fractionated MRT ablated 50% of B16-F10 mouse melanomas, preventing organ metastases and local tumour recurrence for 18 months. In the rest of the animals, the median survival increased by 2.5-fold in comparison to the single MRT session and by 4.1-fold with respect to untreated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Temporally fractionating MRT with lower peak doses not only maintained tumour control, but also increased the efficacy of this technique. These results demonstrate that the solution to making MRT more clinically feasible is to irradiate with several fractions of intersecting arrays with lower peak doses. This provides alternatives to synchrotron sources where future microbeam radiotherapy could be delivered with less intense radiation sources.

7.
Phys Med ; 71: 161-167, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163884

RESUMO

The use of synchrotron X-ray sources provides innovative approaches in radiation therapy. The unique possibility to generate quasi-parallel beams promoted the development of microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), an innovative approach able to reduce damages to normal tissues while delivering considerable doses in the lesion. Accurate dosimetry in broad-beam configuration (prior to the spatial fractionation of the incident X-ray fan) is very challenging at ultra-high dose rate synchrotron sources. The available reference dosimetry protocol based on the use of a PTW PinPoint ionization chamber was compared with alanine dosimetry at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) ID17 Biomedical beamline, an orthovoltage X-ray source with an average dose rate of 11.6 kGy/s. Reference dose measurements of the alanine pellets were performed at the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT) 60Co facility in Egypt. All alanine dosimeters were analysed by an electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. We determined a relative response rESRF = 0.932 ± 0.027 (1σ) of the alanine pellets irradiated at the ESRF compared to the 60Co facility. Considering the appropriate corrections for the ESRF polychromatic spectrum and the different field size used, our result is in agreement with the previous work of Waldeland et al. for which the utilised alanine contained the same amount of binder, and it is consistent with the works of Anton et al. and Butler et al. for which the utilised alanine contained a higher amount of binder. We confirm that alanine is an appropriate dosimeter for ultra-high dose rate calibration of orthovoltage X-ray sources.


Assuntos
Alanina , Dosímetros de Radiação , Radiometria/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Síncrotrons , Algoritmos , Radioisótopos de Cobalto , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica , Fótons , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Raios X
8.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 107(2): 360-369, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088292

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly collimated synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams depositing several hundred grays. It appears relevant to combine MRT with a conventional treatment course, preparing a treatment scheme for future patients in clinical trials. The efficiency of MRT delivered after several broad-beam (BB) fractions to palliate F98 brain tumors in rats in comparison with BB fractions alone was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Rats bearing 106 F98 cells implanted in the caudate nucleus were irradiated by 5 fractions in BB mode (3 × 6 Gy + 2 × 8 Gy BB) or by 2 boost fractions in MRT mode to a total of 5 fractions (3 × 6 Gy BB + MRT 2 × 8 Gy valley dose; peak dose 181 Gy [50/200 µm]). Tumor growth was evaluated in vivo by magnetic resonance imaging follow-up at T-1, T7, T12, T15, T20, and T25 days after radiation therapy and by histology and flow cytometry. RESULTS: MRT-boosted tumors displayed lower cell density and cell proliferation compared with BB-irradiated tumors. The MRT boost completely stopped tumor growth during ∼4 weeks and led to a significant increase in median survival time, whereas tumors treated with BB alone recurred within a few days after the last radiation fraction. CONCLUSIONS: The first evidence is presented that MRT, delivered as a boost of conventionally fractionated irradiation by orthovoltage broad x-ray beams, is feasible and more efficient than conventional radiation therapy alone.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Glioma/radioterapia , Síncrotrons , Terapia por Raios X/instrumentação , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos da radiação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Carga Tumoral/efeitos da radiação
9.
Phys Med Biol ; 65(2): 02TR01, 2020 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694009

RESUMO

In the last 25 years microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional radiation therapy at large, third generation synchrotrons. In MRT, a multi-slit collimator modulates a kilovoltage x-ray beam on a micrometer scale, creating peak dose areas with unconventionally high doses of several hundred Grays separated by low dose valley regions, where the dose remains well below the tissue tolerance level. Pre-clinical evidence demonstrates that such beam geometries lead to substantially reduced damage to normal tissue at equal tumour control rates and hence drastically increase the therapeutic window. Although the mechanisms behind MRT are still to be elucidated, previous studies indicate that immune response, tumour microenvironment, and the microvasculature may play a crucial role. Beyond tumour therapy, MRT has also been suggested as a microsurgical tool in neurological disorders and as a primer for drug delivery. The physical properties of MRT demand innovative medical physics and engineering solutions for safe treatment delivery. This article reviews technical developments in MRT and discusses existing solutions for dosimetric validation, reliable treatment planning and safety. Instrumentation at synchrotron facilities, including beam production, collimators and patient positioning systems, is also discussed. Specific solutions reviewed in this article include: dosimetry techniques that can cope with high spatial resolution, low photon energies and extremely high dose rates of up to 15 000 Gy s-1, dose calculation algorithms-apart from pure Monte Carlo Simulations-to overcome the challenge of small voxel sizes and a wide dynamic dose-range, and the use of dose-enhancing nanoparticles to combat the limited penetrability of a kilovoltage energy spectrum. Finally, concepts for alternative compact microbeam sources are presented, such as inverse Compton scattering set-ups and carbon nanotube x-ray tubes, that may facilitate the transfer of MRT into a hospital-based clinical environment. Intensive research in recent years has resulted in practical solutions to most of the technical challenges in MRT. Treatment planning, dosimetry and patient safety systems at synchrotrons have matured to a point that first veterinary and clinical studies in MRT are within reach. Should these studies confirm the promising results of pre-clinical studies, the authors are confident that MRT will become an effective new radiotherapy option for certain patients.


Assuntos
Terapia por Raios X/métodos , Humanos , Radiometria , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador , Segurança , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos da radiação , Terapia por Raios X/efeitos adversos
10.
Phys Med ; 65: 227-237, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574356

RESUMO

Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) uses synchrotron arrays of X-ray microbeams to take advantage of the spatial fractionation effect for normal tissue sparing. In this study, radiochromic film dosimetry was performed for a treatment where MRT is introduced as a dose boost in a hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) scheme. The isocenter dose was measured using an ionization chamber and two dimensional dose distributions were determined using radiochromic films. To compare the measured dose distribution to the MRT treatment plan, peak and valley were displayed in separate dosemaps. The measured and computed isocenter doses were compared and a two-dimensional 2%/2 mm normalized γ-index analysis with a 90% passing rate criterion was computed. For SRT, a difference of 2.6% was observed in the dose at the isocenter from the treatment plan and film measurement, with a passing rate of 96% for the γ-index analysis. For MRT, peak and valley doses differences of 25.6% and 8.2% were observed, respectively but passing rates of 96% and 90% respectively were obtained from the normalized γ-index maps. The differences in isocenter doses measured in MRT should be further investigated. We present the methodology of patient specific quality assurance (QA) for studying MRT dose distributions and discuss ideas to improve absolute dosimetry. This patient specific QA will be used for large animal trials quality assurance where MRT will be administered as a dose boost in conventional SRT. The observed remaining discrepancies should be studied against approximations in the TPS phantom materials, beams characteristics or film read-out procedures.


Assuntos
Dosimetria Fotográfica/métodos , Radioterapia/métodos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Humanos , Imagens de Fantasmas , Radiometria/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Síncrotrons , Raios X
11.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 26(Pt 5): 1725-1732, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490164

RESUMO

Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) is an extremely valuable tool for the study of elementary, including magnetic, excitations in matter. The latest developments of this technique have mostly been aimed at improving the energy resolution and performing polarization analysis of the scattered radiation, with a great impact on the interpretation and applicability of RIXS. Instead, this article focuses on the sample environment and presents a setup for high-pressure low-temperature RIXS measurements of low-energy excitations. The feasibility of these experiments is proved by probing the magnetic excitations of the bilayer iridate Sr3Ir2O7 at pressures up to 12 GPa.

12.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 105(5): 1126-1136, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461675

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a method that spatially distributes the x-ray beam into several microbeams of very high dose (peak dose), regularly separated by low-dose intervals (valley dose). MRT selectively spares normal tissues, relative to conventional (uniform broad beam [BB]) radiation therapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: To evaluate the effect of MRT on radioresistant melanoma, B16-F10 murine melanomas were implanted into mice ears. Tumors were either treated with MRT (407.6 Gy peak; 6.2 Gy valley dose) or uniform BB irradiation (6.2 Gy). RESULTS: MRT induced significantly longer tumor regrowth delay than did BB irradiation. A significant 24% reduction in blood vessel perfusion was observed 5 days after MRT, and the cell proliferation index was significantly lower in melanomas treated by MRT compared with BB. MRT provoked a greater induction of senescence in melanoma cells. Bio-Plex analyses revealed enhanced concentration of monocyte-attracting chemokines in the MRT group: MCP-1 at D5, MIP-1α, MIP-1ß, IL12p40, and RANTES at D9. This was associated with leukocytic infiltration at D9 after MRT, attributed mainly to CD8 T cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In light of its potential to disrupt blood vessels that promote infiltration of the tumor by immune cells and its induction of senescence, MRT could be a new therapeutic approach for radioresistant melanoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Orelha/radioterapia , Melanoma Experimental/radioterapia , Tolerância a Radiação , Síncrotrons , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Senescência Celular , Neoplasias da Orelha/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias da Orelha/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Orelha/patologia , Feminino , Melanoma Experimental/irrigação sanguínea , Melanoma Experimental/química , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Quimioatraentes de Monócitos/metabolismo , Coloração e Rotulagem , Carga Tumoral , Microambiente Tumoral , beta-Galactosidase
13.
Phys Rev Lett ; 119(1): 017001, 2017 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731743

RESUMO

We report evidence of a nonadiabatic Kohn anomaly in boron-doped diamond, using a joint theoretical and experimental analysis of the phonon dispersion relations. We demonstrate that standard calculations of phonons using density-functional perturbation theory are unable to reproduce the dispersion relations of the high-energy phonons measured by high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering. On the contrary, by taking into account nonadiabatic effects within a many-body field-theoretic framework, we obtain excellent agreement with our experimental data. This result indicates a breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in the phonon dispersion relations of boron-doped diamond.

14.
Phys Rev Lett ; 118(3): 035502, 2017 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28157361

RESUMO

We present a method for the precise determination of the full elasticity tensor from a single crystal diffraction experiment using monochromatic x rays. For the two benchmark systems calcite and magnesium oxide, we show that the measurement of thermal diffuse scattering in the proximity of Bragg reflections provides accurate values of the complete set of elastic constants. This approach allows for a reliable and model-free determination of the elastic properties and can be performed together with crystal structure investigation in the same experiment.

15.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 87(11): 115103, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27910538

RESUMO

We have developed a helium gas flow cryostat for use on synchrotron tender to hard X-ray beamlines. Very efficient sample cooling is achieved because the sample is placed directly in the cooling helium flow on a removable sample holder. The cryostat is compact and easy to operate; samples can be changed in less than 5 min at any temperature. The cryostat has a temperature range of 2.5-325 K with temperature stability better than 0.1 K. The very wide optical angle and the ability to operate in any orientation mean that the cryostat can easily be adapted for different X-ray techniques. It is already in use on different beamlines at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ALBA Synchrotron Light Facility (ALBA), and Diamond Light Source (DLS) for inelastic X-ray scattering, powder diffraction, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Results obtained at these beamlines are presented here.

16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 31887, 2016 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539662

RESUMO

In spite of the simple body-centered-cubic crystal structure, the elements of group V, vanadium, niobium and tantalum, show strong interactions between the electronic properties and lattice dynamics. Further, these interactions can be tuned by external parameters, such as pressure and temperature. We used inelastic x-ray scattering to probe the phonon dispersion of single-crystalline vanadium as a function of pressure to 45 GPa. Our measurements show an anomalous high-pressure behavior of the transverse acoustic mode along the (100) direction and a softening of the elastic modulus C44 that triggers a rhombohedral lattice distortion occurring between 34 and 39 GPa. Our results provide the missing experimental confirmation of the theoretically predicted shear instability arising from the progressive intra-band nesting of the Fermi surface with increasing pressure, a scenario common to all transition metals of group V.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(29): 19866-72, 2016 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27389481

RESUMO

Using a combination of high resolution X-ray powder diffraction and X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at the B K- and Ca L2,3-edges, we analyzed the reaction products of Ca(BH4)2 after annealing at 350 °C and 400 °C under vacuum conditions. We observed the formation of nanocrystalline/amorphous CaB6 mainly and found only small contributions from amorphous B for annealing times larger than 2 h. For short annealing times of 0.5 h at 400 °C we observed neither CaB12H12 nor CaB6. The results indicate a reaction pathway in which Ca(BH4)2 decomposes to B and CaH2 and finally reacts to form CaB6. These findings confirm the potential of using Ca(BH4)2 as a hydrogen storage medium and imply the desired cycling capabilities for achieving high-density hydrogen storage materials.

18.
Sci Rep ; 6: 22648, 2016 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26935531

RESUMO

The Borrmann effect is the anomalous transmission of x-rays in perfect crystals under diffraction conditions. It arises from the interference of the incident and diffracted waves, which creates a standing wave with nodes at strongly absorbing atoms. Dipolar absorption of x-rays is thus diminished, which makes the crystal nearly transparent for certain x-ray wave vectors. Indeed, a relative enhancement of electric quadrupole absorption via the Borrmann effect has been demonstrated recently. Here we show that the Borrmann effect has a significantly larger impact on resonant x-ray emission than is observable in x-ray absorption. Emission from a dipole forbidden intermediate state may even dominate the corresponding x-ray spectra. Our work extends the domain of x-ray standing wave methods to resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and provides means for novel spectroscopic experiments in d- and f-electron systems.

19.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(7): 5366-71, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818579

RESUMO

We report the microscopic view of the thermal structural stability of the magnesium intercalated fullerene polymer Mg2C60. With the application of X-ray Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, we study in detail the decomposition pathways of the polymer system upon annealing at temperatures between 300 and 700 °C. We show that there are at least two energy scales involved in the decomposition reaction. Intermolecular carbon bonds, which are responsible for the formation of a 2D fullerene polymer, are broken with a relatively modest thermal energy, while the long-range order of the original polymer remains intact. With an increased thermal energy, the crystal structure in turn is found to undergo a transition to a novel intercalated cubic phase that is stable up to the highest temperature studied here. The local structure surrounding magnesium ions gets severely modified close to, possibly at, the phase transition. We used density functional theory based calculations to study the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the collapse of the fullerene network, and to explain the intermediate steps as well as the reaction pathways in the break-up of this peculiar C60 intermolecular bonding architecture.

20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(7): 5397-403, 2016 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26818950

RESUMO

We present an in situ study of the thermal decomposition of Mg(BH4)2 in a hydrogen atmosphere of up to 4 bar and up to 500 °C using X-ray Raman scattering spectroscopy at the boron K-edge and the magnesium L2,3-edges. The combination of the fingerprinting analysis of both edges yields detailed quantitative information on the reaction products during decomposition, an issue of crucial importance in determining whether Mg(BH4)2 can be used as a next-generation hydrogen storage material. This work reveals the formation of reaction intermediate(s) at 300 °C, accompanied by a significant hydrogen release without the occurrence of stable boron compounds such as amorphous boron or MgB12H12. At temperatures between 300 °C and 400 °C, further hydrogen release proceeds via the formation of higher boranes and crystalline MgH2. Above 400 °C, decomposition into the constituting elements takes place. Therefore, at moderate temperatures, Mg(BH4)2 is shown to be a promising high-density hydrogen storage material with great potential for reversible energy storage applications.

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