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1.
Indian J Orthop ; 58(2): 182-189, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312903

RESUMO

Introduction: Orthopaedic surgeons are among the most frequent users of radiation and are often exposed to X-Ray radiation regularly. There is an overall unsatisfactory level of knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the same among surgeons. This study aimed to assess the practices among orthopaedic surgeons regarding radiation and its hazards in India. Methodology: This questionnaire-based survey was conducted between March and September 2022. The questionnaire broadly assessed the knowledge, awareness, and practices among orthopaedic surgeons regularly exposed to X-ray radiation. The questionnaire consisted of objective and Likert scale questions which were distributed to the respondents electronically using publicly available contact information. A qualitative review of interpretations obtained from the responses and available evidence in the literature was then performed. Results: The response rate for the survey was 36.4%. 65.9% reported using trunk protection all the time during procedures. 57.1% of respondents reported not using thyroid protection during procedures. 92.3% reported not using protective goggles and 100% did not use appropriate gloves. 76.9% were not issued dosimeters, and only 5.5% of those who had been issued one wore it during radiation procedures. 58.2% reported having a dedicated employee to operate the machine. 86.8% of respondents did not have formal training and 81.3% were not aware of institutes offering formal training. Conclusion: There is very high compliance with the use of protection aprons among the respondents however, the use of other apparel like thyroid shields, protection goggles and gloves was poor. The awareness regarding radiation exposure was also poor as most respondents were not issued dosimeters, however, those issued with one were well aware of their exposure. It is imperative to prioritize both surgeons' and patients' safety where radiation exposure is concerned.

2.
Surg Neurol Int ; 15: 1, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38344095

RESUMO

Background: FD is relatively rare in the craniofacial region, accounting for only 20% of all cases. Currently, two general subtypes of FD are recognized: monostotic and polyostotic. The monostotic form is more frequent, accounting for 75% to 80% of fibrous dysplasia cases. Case Description: An 18-year-old male presented with the complaint of bony-hard swelling over the forehead for 8 years. Radiology showed an expansile osseous lesion involving frontal bones. The patient underwent bi-frontal craniectomy with gross total resection of tumour mass with titanium mesh cranioplasty. His postoperative period was uneventful and was discharged on the seventh postoperative day. Conclusion: The cases of monostotic skull fibrous dysplasia should be treated by resection of the affected bone and cranioplasty. However, a more conservative re-contouring may be carried out in cases with multifocal involvement or when the excision is considered risky due to proximity to the major venous sinuses.

3.
Cureus ; 16(1): e52475, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371055

RESUMO

Background and objective Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at a higher risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) since they regularly come into direct contact with infected patients and their surroundings. In light of this, it is critical to study the potential risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs to help determine its transmission patterns and prevent infections among HCWs, as well as healthcare-associated COVID-19. Methods We conducted a case-control study at a tertiary healthcare center from December 2020 to August 2021. HCWs who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, by RT-PCR were included as cases and those who tested negative for RT-PCR and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were recruited as controls. We interviewed 316 HCWs (187 cases and 129 controls) by using the WHO questionnaire titled "Protocol for assessment of potential risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 among health workers in a health care setting" to assess infection prevention and control (IPC) knowledge and practices, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). The odds ratio (OR) for factors associated with infection was determined by multivariable logistic regression. Results The majority (87.2%) of the cases were symptomatic. Adherence to IPC measures was higher among controls as compared to cases. A significantly higher number of controls used PPE compared to cases. The proportions of HCWs involved in cleaning, patient transport, reception, and catering were higher among cases (37.9%) compared to controls (19.1%). In multivariable analysis, undergoing training on care for COVID-19 patients was associated with a lower risk of infection (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.24-0.69). Conclusions Adherence to IPC and use of PPE were significantly higher among controls as compared to cases. Receiving training in COVID-19 patient care and compliance with IPC measures were associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection among HCWs in this study.

4.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the long-term survival of and causes of death after surgery among patients with pathologic stage IA non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). METHODS: Patients who underwent surgery and were diagnosed with pathologic stage IA NSCLC in the NLST were identified for analysis. The primary analyses were conducted among patients undergoing lobectomy. The 5- and 10-year overall survival and lung cancer-specific survival rates, the causes of death, and the cumulative incidence of lung cancer death were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 380 patients (n=329, 86.6% lobectomy, n=20, 5.3% segmentectomy, n=31, 8.2% wedge resection) met inclusion criteria. Median follow-up time from the date of surgery was 7.8 (IQR: 4.8, 10.7) years. The 10-year overall survival rate was 58.3% (95% CI: 52.4-63.8) for lobectomy, 59.9% (95% CI: 33.2-78.8) for segmentectomy, and 45.2% (95% CI: 20.8-66.9) for wedge resection. The 10-year lung cancer-specific survival rate was 74.3% (95% CI: 68.6-79.1) for lobectomy, 81.3% (95% CI: 51.3-93.8) for segmentectomy, and 84.8% (95% CI: 64.0-94.1) for wedge resection. Lung cancer was the leading cause of death, accounting for 55.8% of deaths after lobectomy. The 10-year cumulative incidence of lung cancer death after lobectomy was 22.5% (95% CI:18.3% to 27.1%). CONCLUSIONS: Ten-year overall survival after lobectomy among patients with pathologic stage IA NSCLC in the NLST was 58%. Lung cancer was the leading cause of death, accounting for over 55% of deaths.

5.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 84: 102833, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38184982

RESUMO

L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) is the most common form of hyperkinetic movement disorder resulting from altered information processing in the cortico-basal ganglia network. We here review recent advances clarifying the altered interplay between striatal output pathways in this movement disorder. We also review studies revealing structural and synaptic changes to the striatal microcircuitry and altered cortico-striatal activity dynamics in LID. We furthermore highlight the recent progress made in understanding the involvement of cerebellar and brain stem nuclei. These recent developments illustrate that dyskinesia research continues to provide key insights into cellular and circuit-level plasticity within the cortico-basal ganglia network and its interconnected brain regions.


Assuntos
Discinesia Induzida por Medicamentos , Humanos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Gânglios da Base , Corpo Estriado , Encéfalo/metabolismo
6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 31(7): 10934-10949, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212561

RESUMO

Residue studies were conducted in bell pepper crops (green and yellow bell pepper) to ensure the safe use of fenvalerate, profenofos, and novaluron (under open field and protected conditions) in randomized block design (RBD) following three applications at a 10-day interval over two consecutive years, 2021 and 2022. A robust analytical method was developed using quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the determination of pesticide residues in bell pepper samples. The half-lives for fenvalerate were 2.47-2.87 and 2.50-3.03 days on bell pepper under open field conditions, whereas the corresponding values for bell pepper under protected conditions were 3.84-4.58 and 4.17-4.71 days, during 2021 and 2022, respectively. Profenofos displayed half-lives of 2.03-2.65 and 2.15-2.77 days in open field conditions and 3.05-3.89 and 3.16-3.78 days in protected conditions during 2021 and 2022, respectively. Similarly, novaluron had half-lives of 2.87-3.49 and 3.24-3.75 days under protected conditions in 2021 and 2022, respectively. The maximum residue limits (MRLs) were calculated to be 0.6 mg/kg for fenvalerate, while for profenofos it was 0.7 mg/kg on bell pepper under open field conditions at double doses, at the proposed pre-harvest interval (PHI) of 3 days. Likewise, for bell peppers grown under protected conditions, MRLs at the PHI of 3 days were determined to be 0.8 mg/kg for fenvalerate, 0.3 mg/kg for novaluron, and 1.5 mg/kg for profenofos. A dietary risk assessment study indicated that the percentage of acute hazard index (% aHI) was significantly lower than 100, and hazard quotient (HQ) values were below 1, signifying no acute or chronic risk to consumers. These findings underscore the safety of consuming bell peppers treated with fenvalerate, profenofos, and novaluron under the protected and open field conditions.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Nitrilas , Organotiofosfatos , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Compostos de Fenilureia , Piretrinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Capsicum/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Medição de Risco
7.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 89, 2024 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216712

RESUMO

Haplotype-based breeding is an emerging and innovative concept that enables the development of designer crop varieties by exploiting and exploring superior alleles/haplotypes among target genes to create new traits in breeding programs. In this regard, whole-genome re-sequencing of 399 genotypes (landraces and breeding lines) from the 3000 rice genomes panel (3K-RG) is mined to identify the superior haplotypes for 95 drought-responsive candidate genes. Candidate gene-based association analysis reveals 69 marker-trait associations (MTAs) in 16 genes for single plant yield (SPY) under drought stress. Haplo-pheno analysis of these 16 genes identifies superior haplotypes for seven genes associated with the higher SPY under drought stress. Our study reveals that the performance of lines possessing superior haplotypes is significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) as measured by single plant yield (SPY), for the OsGSK1-H4, OsDSR2-H3, OsDIL1-H22, OsDREB1C-H3, ASR3-H88, DSM3-H4 and ZFP182-H4 genes as compared to lines without the superior haplotypes. The validation results indicate that a superior haplotype for the DREB transcription factor (OsDREB1C) is present in all the drought-tolerant rice varieties, while it was notably absent in all susceptible varieties. These lines carrying the superior haplotypes can be used as potential donors in haplotype-based breeding to develop high-yielding drought-tolerant rice varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza , Haplótipos , Oryza/genética , Secas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genótipo
8.
J Minim Access Surg ; 20(1): 19-23, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38240383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to report the surgical outcomes and also evaluating the safety and feasibility of thoracoscopic pericardial window (PW) for recurrent pericardial effusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of eight cases of recurrent pericardial effusion, managed by thoracoscopic method in a tertiary-level thoracic surgery centre over 5 years. A detailed analysis of all perioperative variables, including complications, was carried out. RESULTS: A total of eight patients underwent thoracoscopic PW during the study period. Males (87.5%) were predominant in the cohort. The median age was 54 years (range: 28-78 years). The median duration of symptoms was 2 months (range: 1-3 months). Tuberculosis (50%), malignancy (37.5%) and chronic kidney disease (12.5%) were the causes of recurrent effusion. All patients underwent thoracoscopic procedure with no conversions. The median operative time was 45 min (range: 40-70 min). The median effusion volume drained was 500 ± 100 ml. The median hospital stay was 3 days (range: 2-4 days) with no post-procedural complications. All the patients had complete resolution of symptoms. No recurrence was noted in the median follow-up period of 28 months (range: 6-60 months). CONCLUSIONS: Thoracoscopic PW is a safe and feasible minimally invasive option in the management of recurrent pericardial effusion in selected patients. Surgical fitness, haemodynamic status and estimated survival (in malignant effusion) should be considered before the procedure.

9.
3 Biotech ; 14(1): 20, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38144392

RESUMO

This study outlines the synthesis of biogenic copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) using an extract derived from Cassia fistula Linn (Cf) leaves through a green synthesis approach. Characterization of the synthesized CfBio-CuONPs was carried out using UV- VIS, FTIR, DLS, XRD, and TEM studies. The CfBio-CuONPs exhibited a prominent peak at 272 nm in UV-VIS spectroscopy, and XRD measurements confirmed their crystalline nature. The FTIR spectrum of CfBio-CuONPs revealed the presence of functional groups such as O-H and aromatic groups. TEM analysis confirmed that the CfBio-CuONPs were predominantly spherical with diameters ranging from 15 to 25 nm. Subsequently, the antibacterial potential of CfBio-CuONPs was evaluated against four pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis. Among these, B. subtilis exhibited the highest zone of inhibition (26.93 ± 2.01 mm), followed by E. coli (24.25 ± 1.04 mm), P. aeruginosa (23.98 ± 0.97 mm), and S. epidermidis (22.97 ± 1.20 mm). CfBio-CuONPs demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity (78 ± 1.54%) at a dose-dependent concentration of 2000 µg/ml. Furthermore, in vitro toxicity assessment using the toxtrak test indicated that CfBio-CuONPs exhibited a significantly stronger toxic effect value/PI against E. coli (93.52%) compared to P. aeruginosa (92.65%), B. subtilis (91.25%), and S. epidermidis (82.89%). These results underscore the notable toxicity of CfBio-CuONPs against E. coli, surpassing that against other bacteria and conventional antibiotics. This study highlights the potential utility of CfBio-CuONPs for eradicating pathogenic microorganisms and suggests potential implications for ecotoxicology. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-023-03869-5.

10.
Life Sci Alliance ; 7(3)2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38148113

RESUMO

Identifying high-impact, rare genetic variants associated with specific traits is crucial for crop improvement. The 3,010 rice genome (3K RG) dataset offers a valuable resource for discovering genomic regions with potential applications in crop breeding. We used Extreme Trait GWAS (Et-GWAS), employing bulk pooling and allele frequency measurement to efficiently extract rare variants from the 3K RG. This innovative approach facilitates the detection of associations between genetic variants and target traits, concentrating and quantifying rare alleles. In our study, on grain yield under drought stress, Et-GWAS successfully identified five key genes (OsPP2C11, OsK5.2, OsIRO2, OsPEX1, and OsPWA1) known for enhancing yield under drought. In addition, we examined the overlap of our results with previously reported qDTY-QTLs and observed that OsUCH1 and OsUCH2 genes were located within qDTY2.2 We compared Et-GWAS with conventional GWAS, finding it effectively capturing most candidate genes associated with the target trait. Validation with resistant starch showed similar results. To enhance user-friendliness, we developed a GUI for Et-GWAS; https://et-gwas.shinyapps.io/Et-GWAS/.


Assuntos
Oryza , Oryza/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Frequência do Gene
11.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 167(1): 350-364.e17, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37473997

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to identify whether the results of JCOG0802 could be generalized to US clinical settings. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with clinical stage IA (≤2 cm) non-small cell lung cancer who underwent segmentectomy versus lobectomy (2004-2017) in the National Cancer Database were identified. Overall survival of patients in the National Cancer Database was assessed using propensity score-matched analysis. A separate analysis of the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results database was conducted to evaluate treatment patterns of second primary lung cancers among patients who underwent segmentectomy versus lobectomy for a first primary lung cancer. RESULTS: Of the 23,286 patients in the National Cancer Database meeting inclusion criteria, 1397 (6.0%) underwent segmentectomy and 21,889 (94.0%) underwent lobectomy. In a propensity score-matched analysis of all patients in the study cohort, there were no significant differences in overall survival between patients undergoing segmentectomy versus lobectomy (5-year overall survival: 79.9% [95% CI, 76.7%-82.0%] vs 81.8% [95% CI, 78.7%-84.4%], log-rank: P = .72). In subgroup analyses by tumor grade and histologic subtype, segmentectomy was associated with similar overall survival compared with lobectomy in all subgroups evaluated. In a propensity score-matched analysis of patients in the Surveillance Epidemiology End Results database, there were no significant differences in treatment patterns of second primary lung cancers between patients who underwent segmentectomy and patients who underwent lobectomy for their first primary lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In this national analysis of US patients diagnosed with stage IA (≤2 cm) non-small cell lung cancer, there were no significant differences in overall survival between segmentectomy and lobectomy in the overall cohort or in subgroup analyses by tumor grade or histologic subtype.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/cirurgia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Org Biomol Chem ; 2023 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38093645

RESUMO

An approach towards Cu-free click chemistry has been developed in this work. Silver-catalyzed PCy3-ligand-assisted synthesis of 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles at room temperature has been developed. Regioselectivity of the reaction was confirmed from the results of single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SC-XRD) of one of the products. SC-XRD of ex situ-generated Ag-PCy3 complex helped us propose a plausible mechanism for the reaction. This reaction was indicated to exhibit a catalytic activity level similar to that for the in situ-generated complex. The methodology was found to work well with benzyl azides, phenyl azides, terminal alkynes and internal alkynes in aqueous medium. The one-pot three-component reaction leading to 1,2,3-triazole synthesis also proceeded well.

13.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2023 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38070179

RESUMO

To increase rice yields and feed billions of people, it is essential to enhance genetic gains. However, the development of new varieties is hindered by longer generation times and seasonal constraints. To address these limitations, a speed breeding facility has been established and a robust speed breeding protocol, SpeedFlower is developed that allows growing 4-5 generations of indica and/or japonica rice in a year. Our findings reveal that a high red-to-blue (2R > 1B) spectrum ratio, followed by green, yellow and far-red (FR) light, along with a 24-h long day (LD) photoperiod for the initial 15 days of the vegetative phase, facilitated early flowering. This is further enhanced by 10-h short day (SD) photoperiod in the later stage and day and night temperatures of 32/30 °C, along with 65% humidity facilitated early flowering ranging from 52 to 60 days at high light intensity (800 µmol m-2 s-1 ). Additionally, the use of prematurely harvested seeds and gibberellic acid treatment reduced the maturity duration by 50%. Further, SpeedFlower was validated on a diverse subset of 198 rice accessions from 3K RGP panel encompassing all 12 distinct groups of Oryza sativa L. classes. Our results confirmed that using SpeedFlower one generation can be achieved within 58-71 days resulting in 5.1-6.3 generations per year across the 12 sub-groups. This breakthrough enables us to enhance genetic gain, which could feed half of the world's population dependent on rice.

15.
J Cytol ; 40(4): 192-199, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38058671

RESUMO

Background: Secretory carcinoma (SC) is a newly described entity which has been often misdiagnosed earlier as acinic cell carcinoma on cytology. Diagnosing SC was initially based upon identifying the ETV6:NTRK3 fusion gene with the help of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Lately, with more knowledge of the reliable histomorphology, cytology, and immunohistochemistry features, definitive diagnosis can be confidently made without the help of FISH in almost every case. Materials and Methods: Six histologically confirmed cases of SC were studied. The cytology slides of all the six cases were retrieved and reviewed to identify the characteristic features which could have helped in raising the possibility of SC on fine needle aspiration cytology itself. Cell blocks were also studied, wherever available. Results: Patients were all male with average age of 35.2 years. The six cases in the current study demonstrated at least focal cytoplasmic vacuolization of varying sizes, papillae formations, and bland nuclear features on fine needle aspirate smears. It was also seen that S-100 and mammaglobin immunohistochemistry (IHC) are very helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Conclusions: The results of the current study highlight the cytomorphological features which may help in clinching the diagnosis SC on cytology itself. They also highlight certain cytological features which help to rule out the other differential diagnoses.

16.
Cureus ; 15(11): e48131, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38046739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathological examination of a medicolegal autopsy is a great learning opportunity for a pathologist as well as for a forensic expert, where the cause of death remains unknown. Liver disease epidemiology differs from one geographic area to another. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study with 100 medicolegal autopsy cases over a one-year period conducted in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology (FMT) and Pathology. Representative tissue from the liver was collected in 10% neutral buffered formalin and sent for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The mean age of the cases was 41.98 ± 15.39 years, and ages ranged from 20 to 90 years with male preponderance. The most common histopathology and gross findings noted were mild to moderate chronic hepatitis (CH) (54%) and fatty change (36%), respectively. There was a significant association (p ≤ 0.05) between histopathology and gross findings, cause, and manner of death. CONCLUSION: Gross and histopathological examination of the liver in a medicolegal autopsy has a significant role in ascertaining the cause and manner of death.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38047361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus constitutes approximately 90% of all reported forms of diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance characterizes this manifestation of diabetes. The prevalence of this condition is commonly observed in patients aged 45 and above; however, there is an emerging pattern of younger cohorts receiving diagnoses primarily attributed to lifestyle-related variables, including obesity, sedentary behavior, and poor dietary choices. The enzyme SGLT2 exerts a negative regulatory effect on insulin signaling pathways, resulting in the development of insulin resistance and subsequent elevation of blood glucose levels. The maintenance of glucose homeostasis relies on the proper functioning of insulin signaling pathways, while disruptions in insulin signaling can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to investigate the role of SGLT2. This enzyme interferes with insulin signaling pathways and identifies potential SGLT2 inhibitors as a treatment for managing type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We screened the Maybridge HitDiscover database to identify potent hits followed by druglikeness, Synthetic Accessibility, PAINS alert, toxicity estimation, ADME assessment, and Consensus Molecular docking. RESULTS: The screening process led to the identification of three molecules that demonstrated significant binding affinity, favorable drug-like properties, effective ADME, and minimal toxicity. CONCLUSION: The identified molecules could manage T2DM effectively by inhibiting SGLT2, providing a promising avenue for future therapeutic strategies.

18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(1): 58, 2023 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110624

RESUMO

Mancozeb residue estimation was done using second derivative ultraviolet spectroscopy by Shimadzu ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer, and chlorpyrifos was estimated by QuEChERS technique using GC-FPD. The persistence for chlorpyrifos was carried out at two locations, and for mancozeb, persistence studies were carried out at four locations. Initial deposits of mancozeb on apple fruits ranged from 1.33 to 1.63 mg/kg at the recommended dose and from 2.55 to 3.26 mg/kg at double the recommended dose at all four locations. Chlorpyrifos residues in apple fruits had an initial deposit of 0.94-0.99 mg/kg at recommended dose and 1.75-1.92 mg/kg at double the recommended dose. Mancozeb residues in apple fruit were below the detection limit (BDL) after 20 days at recommended dose and after 25 days at double the recommended dose at two locations, while mancozeb residue at the other two locations and the residues of chlorpyrifos at all locations reached BDL after 15 and 20 days at recommended and double the recommended doses, respectively. Half-life of mancozeb varied from 3.07 to 4.02 days at recommended dose and from 3.30 to 4.32 days at double the recommended dose, whereas chlorpyrifos residues dissipated to half their initial concentration on 2.33-2.35 days at recommended dose and 2.89-2.90 days at double the recommended dose. The soil samples showed no presence of residues of chlorpyrifos and mancozeb at harvest. The risk assessment revealed that hazard quotient for the intake of mancozeb was in the range of 0.06-0.13% and 0.20-0.44% for rural and urban population, while for the intake of chlorpyrifos, hazard quotient was in the range of 0.10-0.12% for rural population and 0.33-0.38% for urban population, and theoretical maximum dietary intake (9.67 × 10-5 mg/person and 3.18 × 10-4 mg/person for rural population and urban population in case of mancozeb and 3.22 × 10-5 mg/person and 1.06 × 10-4 mg/person for rural population and urban population in case of chlorpyrifos) was also found to be less than maximum permissible intake (1.38 mg/kg for mancozeb and 0.60 mg/kg for chlorpyrifos). The results of risk assessment thereby indicated that apple consumption does not pose a risk to human health.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Malus , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Clorpirifos/análise , Frutas/química , Solo/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Medição de Risco , Meia-Vida
19.
Laryngoscope ; 2023 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37933810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare treatment characteristics and outcomes between patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) treated at hospitals of varying safety-net burden status. METHODS: Patients with cT1-4, N0-3, M0 HPV-positive OPSCC who underwent definitive surgery or radiation were included. Patients were grouped based on their treating hospital safety-net burden status, defined as the percentage of uninsured and Medicaid-insured patients with OPSCC treated at the facility and stratified as low burden (LBH: 0-25th percentile), medium burden (MBH: 25th-75th percentile), or high burden (HBH: 75th-100th percentile). The primary outcome was primary treatment with surgery versus radiation, evaluated with multivariable-adjusted logistic regression. Secondary outcomes included TORS versus open surgical approach, and overall survival evaluated with Cox proportional hazards analysis. RESULTS: Of the 19,810 patients with cT1-4, N0-3, M0 HPV-positive OPSCC included in this study, 4921 (24.8%) were treated at LBH, 12,201 (61.6%) were treated at MBH, and 2688 (13.6%) were treated at HBH. In multivariable-adjusted analysis, compared with treatment at LBH, treatment at HBH was associated with more frequent radiation over surgical treatment (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.12-1.40, p < 0.001). For patients undergoing surgery, patients at HBH had less frequent transoral robotic surgery (OR: 0.30, 95% CI 0.24-0.38, p < 0.001) compared with patients treated at LBH. Overall survival of patients treated at HBH was worse than that of patients treated at LBH (HR: 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.43, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight underlying disparities at higher safety-net burden facilities that impact patterns of care and outcomes for patients with OPSCC. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 2023.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37936473

RESUMO

Vitamin nano-engineering has been accomplished by synthesizing various nanostructures to improve their stability, bioavailability, shelf life, and functioning. This review provides a detailed description of recent advances in the art of encapsulation with high efficiency through the use of practical and logistic nano-engineering techniques such as nanofibres, nanogels, nanobeads, nanotubes, nanoparticles, nanoliposomes, and many other nanostructures. To demonstrate the interaction of molecules with nano-forms, the bioavailability of several vitamins such as B, C, E, A, D, and others in the form of nanostructures is explored. This review will provide a thorough understanding of how to improve bioavailability and nanostructure selection to extend the utility, shelf life, and structural stability of vitamins. While nanoencapsulation can improve vitamin stability and distribution, the materials employed in nanotechnologies may offer concerns if they are not sufficiently tested for safety. If nanoparticles are not adequately designed and evaluated, they may cause inflammation, oxidative stress, or other unwanted effects. Researchers and makers of nanomaterials and medication delivery systems should adhere to established rules and regulations. Furthermore, long-term studies are required to monitor any negative consequences that may result from the use of nanostructure.

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