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1.
Aust Endod J ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566370

RESUMO

The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to conduct a comparative evaluation of partial and full pulpotomy techniques in cariously exposed teeth with symptoms indicative of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science were searched. Studies evaluating and/or comparing clinical and/or radiographic success of partial and full pulpotomy in teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis with a minimum of 12 months follow-up were included. The risk of bias (ROB) tool was used for the assessment of ROB. A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the healing outcome of partial and full pulpotomy. Three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, there was a low risk of bias in each of the five domains. Full pulpotomy had a higher success rate than partial pulpotomy, according to meta-analysis, but the difference was not statistically significant.

3.
Bone Jt Open ; 5(4): 286-293, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591124

RESUMO

Aims: This study reports the results of 38 total hip arthroplasties (THAs) in 33 patients aged less than 50 years, using the JRI Furlong hydroxyapatite ceramic (HAC)-coated femoral component. Methods: We describe the survival, radiological, and functional outcomes of 33 patients (38 THAs) at a mean follow-up of 27 years (25 to 32) between 1988 and 2018. Results: Of the surviving 30 patients (34 THAs), there were four periprosthetic fractures: one underwent femoral revision after 21 years, two had surgical fixation as the stem was deemed stable, and one was treated nonoperatively due to the patient's comorbidities. The periprosthetic fracture patients showed radiological evidence of change in bone stock around the femoral stem, which may have contributed to the fractures; this was reflected in change of the canal flare index at the proximal femur. Two patients (two hips) were lost to follow-up. Using aseptic loosening as the endpoint, 16 patients (18 hips; 48%) needed acetabular revision. None of the femoral components were revised for aseptic loosening, demonstrating 100% survival. The estimate of the cumulative proportion surviving for revisions due to any cause was 0.97 (standard error 0.03). Conclusion: In young patients with high demands, the Furlong HAC-coated femoral component gives excellent long-term results.

4.
Clin Shoulder Elb ; 27(1): 72-78, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical outcomes after fixation of distal humerus intraarticular fractures are directly related to the quality of reduction. The use of three-dimensional (3D)-printed fracture models can benefit preoperative planning to ensure good reduction. This review aims to determine if surgery performed with 3D printing assistance are faster and result in fewer complications and improved clinical outcomes than conventional methods. We also outline the benefits and drawbacks of this novel technique in surgical management of distal humerus fractures. METHODS: A systematic literature search was carried out in various electronic databases. Search results were screened based on title and abstract. Data from eligible studies were extracted into spreadsheets. Meta-analysis was performed using appropriate computer software. RESULTS: Three randomized controlled trials with 144 cases were included in the final analysis. The 3D-printed group had significantly shorter mean operating time (mean difference, 16.25 minutes; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.74-19.76 minutes; P<0.001) and mean intraoperative blood loss (30.40 mL; 95% CI, 10.45-60.36 mL; P=0.005) compared with the conventional group. The 3D-printed group also tended to have fewer complications and a better likelihood of good or excellent outcomes as per the Mayo elbow performance score, but this did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional-printing-assisted surgery in distal humerus fractures has several benefits in reduced operating time and lower blood loss, indirectly decreasing other complications such as infection and anemia-related issues. Future good-quality studies are required to conclusively demonstrate the benefits of 3D printing in improving clinical outcomes. Level of evidence: I.

5.
Indian J Orthop ; 58(4): 339-344, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544540

RESUMO

Purpose: The choice of entry point, Greater trochanter (GT), or Piriformis entry (PE) for antegrade intramedullary nailing (IMN) of the femur is crucial. This study was performed to compare these two entry points in the patients with shaft of femur fractures regarding intra-operative parameters, radiological and functional outcomes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients underwent GT entry nailing, while 25 patients underwent PE nailing. Surgical time, Intra-operative blood units transfused, Intra-operative fluoroscopy exposure by number of C-arm shots taken, mean drop in hemoglobin, and incidence of iatrogenic fracture were recorded. Patients were followed up at 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 6 months to look for radiological healing and improvements in functional outcome using Modified Harris Hip Score (MHHS). MRI of bilateral hips with pelvis was done in 25 patients at 6 months of follow-up to detect any preliminary signs of AVN. Results: The mean drop in hemoglobin in the GT group was significantly lesser than the PE group (p = 0.02). Mean MHHS at 4 weeks post-op was also significantly higher in the GT group (p = 0.01). There was no significant difference between both the groups regarding surgical duration, fluoroscopy exposure, radiological and functional outcomes in the long term. None of the patients who underwent MRI displayed any preliminary sign of AVN. Conclusion: GT entry nails lead to lesser surgical time, fluoroscopy exposure, and intra-operative blood loss. Both the nailing systems achieve excellent fracture unions and comparable functional outcomes in the long term, and there is a minuscule risk of AVN in adult patients undergoing IMN.

8.
Chemistry ; : e202304239, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38317443

RESUMO

The advancement of sustainable chemistry and changes in the economy are strongly intertwined. Reaction time, cost savings, moderate temperatures, and generation of the fewest byproducts are frequently achieved by using catalytic processes. Herein, we report the C-H olefination of imidazo[1,2a] pyridine carboxamides with various acrylates in the presence of Pd (OAc)2 with O2 as the oxidant in aqueous ethanol rather than using non-ecofriendly solvents. The C-H activation features most user-friendly reaction conditions, excellent yield as well as plenty substrate scope and applicable for C-H deuteriation of the corresponding heteroarenes with D2 O. Experimental mechanistic studies indicate that C-H activation step succeeded after formation of tetra coordinated square planer Pd-substrate adduct.

9.
Int J Artif Organs ; 47(3): 212-216, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38384184

RESUMO

This case study delineates the proficient creation of a silicone finger prosthesis, tailored for a patient contending with partial digit amputation. The prosthesis was devised with the overarching goal of reinstating not only the physiological dexterity of the hand but also its aesthetic integrity and the patient's psychological equilibrium. The crafting process entailed a meticulous technique to replicate the intricate texture of the skin in order to guarantee a near normal appearance. Post-prosthesis integration, the patient exhibited enhancements in manual functionality and articulated a heightened self-assuredness because of the indiscernible prosthesis. This illustrative case underscores the efficacy of silicone finger prosthetics in conferring both functional and aesthetic restitution to those afflicted with partial digit amputations.


Assuntos
Dedos , Mãos , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese , Silicones , Estética
10.
Sci Data ; 11(1): 180, 2024 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38336857

RESUMO

Computing binding affinities is of great importance in drug discovery pipeline and its prediction using advanced machine learning methods still remains a major challenge as the existing datasets and models do not consider the dynamic features of protein-ligand interactions. To this end, we have developed PLAS-20k dataset, an extension of previously developed PLAS-5k, with 97,500 independent simulations on a total of 19,500 different protein-ligand complexes. Our results show good correlation with the available experimental values, performing better than docking scores. This holds true even for a subset of ligands that follows Lipinski's rule, and for diverse clusters of complex structures, thereby highlighting the importance of PLAS-20k dataset in developing new ML models. Along with this, our dataset is also beneficial in classifying strong and weak binders compared to docking. Further, OnionNet model has been retrained on PLAS-20k dataset and is provided as a baseline for the prediction of binding affinities. We believe that large-scale MD-based datasets along with trajectories will form new synergy, paving the way for accelerating drug discovery.


Assuntos
Ligantes , Proteínas , Descoberta de Drogas , Aprendizado de Máquina , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas/química , Humanos , Animais
12.
Recent Pat Biotechnol ; 18(1): 2-21, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38205772

RESUMO

The last few decades have seen a rise in the number of deaths caused by neurological disorders. The blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is very complex and has multiple mechanisms, makes drug delivery to the brain challenging for many scientists. Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) such as nanoemulsions, solid-lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, and nano lipid carriers (NLCs) exhibit enhanced bioavailability and flexibility among these nanocarriers. NLCs are found to be very effective. In the last few decades, they have been a center of attraction for controlled drug delivery. According to the current global status of specific neurological disorders, out of all LNPs, NLC significantly reduces the cross-permeability of drugs through the BBB due to their peculiar properties. They offer a host of advantages over other carriers because of their biocompatibility, safety, non-toxicity, non-irritating behavior, stability, high encapsulation efficiency, high drug loading, high drug targeting, control of drug release, and ease in manufacturing. The biocompatible lipid matrix is ideally suited as a drug carrier system due to the nano-size range. For certain neurological conditions such as Parkinsonism, Alzheimer's, Epilepsy, Multiple sclerosis, and Brain cancer, we examined recent advances in NLCs to improve brain targeting of bioactive with special attention to formulation aspects and pharmacokinetic characteristics. This article also provides a brief overview of a critical approach for brain targeting, i.e., direct nose-to-brain drug delivery and some recent patents published on NLC".


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Encéfalo , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Patentes como Assunto
15.
Eur Spine J ; 33(2): 474-480, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37979068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic low back ache (CLBA) is a common condition that is conventionally managed with physical therapy and analgesics. Recently, virtual reality-based interventions have been tried out in the management of CLBA. Their effectiveness, however has not been established. This meta-analysis aims to find out if the application of VR will lead to better pain relief, as compared to conventional techniques in adults with CLBA. METHODS: The literature search was carried out in three online databases for potential randomized controlled trials that compared VR-based interventions with conventional treatment in CLBA. Data on outcome parameters were recorded. Meta-analysis was carried out with the help of appropriate software. RESULTS: Seven studies having data on 507 subjects were included in the meta-analysis. Their mean ages were 48.4 years. There were 252 subjects in the VR group and 255 in the control group. VR-based interventions were found to have a statistically significant improvement in the pain intensity compared with conventional techniques (p - 0.005). CONCLUSION: VR-based interventions are effective in the management of CLBA in the short term. Further research with longer follow-up is required to evaluate if these improvements are persistent in the long term.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Lombar/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Grupos Controle , Bases de Dados Factuais
16.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 23(3): 367-383, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36974405

RESUMO

Autophagy is a self-destructive cellular process that removes essential metabolites and waste from inside the cell to maintain cellular health. Mitophagy is the process by which autophagy causes disruption inside mitochondria and the total removal of damaged or stressed mitochondria, hence enhancing cellular health. The mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell, performing essential functions such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate) generation, metabolism, Ca2+ buffering, and signal transduction. Many different mechanisms, including endosomal and autophagosomal transport, bring these substrates to lysosomes for processing. Autophagy and endocytic processes each have distinct compartments, and they interact dynamically with one another to complete digestion. Since mitophagy is essential for maintaining cellular health and using genetics, cell biology, and proteomics techniques, it is necessary to understand its beginning, particularly in ubiquitin and receptor-dependent signalling in injured mitochondria. Despite their similar symptoms and emerging genetic foundations, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have all been linked to abnormalities in autophagy and endolysosomal pathways associated with neuronal dysfunction. Mitophagy is responsible for normal mitochondrial turnover and, under certain physiological or pathological situations, may drive the elimination of faulty mitochondria. Due to their high energy requirements and post-mitotic origin, neurons are especially susceptible to autophagic and mitochondrial malfunction. This article focused on the importance of autophagy and mitophagy in neurodegenerative illnesses and how they might be used to create novel therapeutic approaches for treating a wide range of neurological disorders.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Doença de Parkinson , Humanos , Mitofagia/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo
17.
Eur Spine J ; 33(1): 47-60, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37659048

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Calcified lumbar disc herniation (CLDH) poses surgical challenges due to longstanding disease and adherence of herniated disc to the surrounding neural structures. The data regarding outcomes after surgery for CLDH are limited. This review was conducted to analyse the surgical techniques, perioperative findings and the postoperative clinical outcomes after surgery for CLDH. METHODS: PRISMA guidelines were followed whilst conducting this systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature review was conducted on 3 databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL). After thorough screening of all search results, 9 studies were shortlisted from which data were extracted and statistical analysis was done. Pooled analysis was done to ascertain the perioperative and postoperative outcomes after surgery for CLDH. Additional comparative analysis was done compared to CLDH with non-calcified lumbar disc herniation (NCLDH) cases. RESULTS: We included 9 studies published between 2016 and 2022 in our review, 8 of these were retrospective. A total of 356 cases of CLDH were evaluated in these studies with a male preponderance (56.4%). Mean operative time was significantly lower in NCLDH cases compared to CLDH cases. The mean estimated blood loss showed a negative correlation with the percentage of males. Satisfactory clinical outcomes were observed in majority of patients. The risk of bias of the included studies was moderate to high. CONCLUSION: Surgical difficulties in CLDH cases leads to increase in operative time compared to NCLDH. Good clinical outcomes can be obtained with careful planning; the focus of surgery should be on decompression of the neural structures rather than disc removal.


Assuntos
Discotomia Percutânea , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral , Humanos , Masculino , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/cirurgia , Deslocamento do Disco Intervertebral/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Discotomia/métodos , Discotomia Percutânea/métodos
18.
Indian J Radiol Imaging ; 34(1): 37-43, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38106876

RESUMO

Background Osteoarthritis (OA) is the commonest form of arthritis with pain and disability as hallmark symptoms. Despite various nonpharmacologic, pharmacologic, and surgical approaches, pain control may be hard to achieve. Over the last few years, few studies have been conducted on managing knee OA using novel endovascular genicular artery embolization (GAE) with varied outcomes. No such study has been reported in India yet to the best of our knowledge. Purpose The main aim of this article was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter GAE in relieving knee pain in patients with mild-to-moderate OA. Materials and Methods Ten patients with radiographic knee OA and moderate-to-severe pain refractory to conservative therapy were enrolled in a prospective observational study. GAE was performed with 100 to 300-µm spherical particles. Patients were assessed with magnetic resonance imaging at the baseline. Visual analog scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) were used to assess pain and disability respectively at the baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. Clinical success was asserted by the downstaging of VAS and WOMAC scores. Adverse events were recorded at all-time points. Descriptive and inferential statistics have been performed using SPSS. A p -Value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Embolization of at least 1 genicular artery was achieved in all the patients (100%). Clinical success was demonstrated in 08 (80%) of the patients. Median VAS reduced from 07 at baseline to 3.5 at 3-month follow-up ( p < 0.001). Median WOMAC score improved from 53 to 23.50 at 3-month follow-up ( p < 0.001). Minor complications were seen in two patients in the form of puncture site hematoma and mild petechial spots over the knee. Conclusion Our pilot study demonstrates GAE as a safe and efficacious procedure to treat knee pain secondary to OA. Further randomized comparative studies with a larger sample size are needed to determine the true treatment effect versus the placebo effect.

19.
Spinal Cord ; 62(2): 51-58, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38129661

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. OBJECTIVE: Currently there is limited evidence and guidance on the management of mild degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) and asymptomatic spinal cord compression (ASCC). Anecdotal evidence suggest variance in clinical practice. The objectives of this study were to assess current practice and to quantify the variability in clinical practice. METHODS: Spinal surgeons and some additional health professionals completed a web-based survey distributed by email to members of AO Spine and the Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS) North American Society. Questions captured experience with DCM, frequency of DCM patient encounters, and standard of practice in the assessment of DCM. Further questions assessed the definition and management of mild DCM, and the management of ASCC. RESULTS: A total of 699 respondents, mostly surgeons, completed the survey. Every world region was represented in the responses. Half (50.1%, n = 359) had greater than 10 years of professional experience with DCM. For mild DCM, standardised follow-up for non-operative patients was reported by 488 respondents (69.5%). Follow-up included a heterogeneous mix of investigations, most often at 6-month intervals (32.9%, n = 158). There was some inconsistency regarding which clinical features would cause a surgeon to counsel a patient towards surgery. Practice for ASCC aligned closely with mild DCM. Finally, there were some contradictory definitions of mild DCM provided in the form of free text. CONCLUSIONS: Professionals typically offer outpatient follow up for patients with mild DCM and/or asymptomatic ASCC. However, what this constitutes varies widely. Further research is needed to define best practice and support patient care.


Assuntos
Compressão da Medula Espinal , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Humanos , Compressão da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Compressão da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Estudos Transversais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Doenças da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia
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