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1.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 164 Suppl 1: 42-50, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38360033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a historic move to ensure comprehensive abortion care, India amended the 1971 Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) Act in 2021, creating an unprecedented opportunity for accelerating safe, respectful, and rights-based abortion services. The Federation of Obstetric and Gynecological Societies of India (FOGSI), together with World Health Organization (WHO) India and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, set up a flagship initiative "Respectful Abortion Care" (RAC) to provide training to obstetricians and gynecologists on the new Act, and also address their values and biases. METHODS: Virtual training sessions were organized during the COVID-19 pandemic to disseminate the amendments made under the MTP Act and address provider values and biases. The primary focus was on private providers as they account for more than half of all abortion services in India (52.9%). The RAC modules were systematically designed and delivered by 690 Master Trainers, trained by FOGSI and WHO. RESULTS: A total of 9051 FOGSI members (22%, with 50% from private clinics) completed the RAC trainings. Pretests and post-tests were conducted for impact assessment. Significant improvement was seen on knowledge of criteria for termination of pregnancy for significant birth defects (52%-83%). The post-training survey showed a high level of commitment to promote RAC: >95% were strongly motivated to perform or assist in abortion; 89% reported that the WHO value clarification exercises were helpful in facilitating open discussions on sensitive topics in a comfortable manner; 96% expressed a strong commitment to addressing the issue of respect and confidentiality in abortion care. CONCLUSION: RAC was a unique initiative around the MTP Act amendment 2021 in India, which demonstrated that collaboration and leadership by professional associations can help motivate providers and lead to improved knowledge and commitment from public and private sector providers.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Pandemias , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Índia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Pediatric Health Med Ther ; 14: 249-265, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37654800

RESUMO

Purpose: Neonatal skin care practices guided by personal experience and preferences might be substantially different across different hospital settings. The aim of this consensus recommendation is to provide clinical practice guidance to healthcare practitioners on evidence-based neonatal skin care practices from delivery-to-discharge, in hospital settings. Patients and Methods: A Scientific Advisory Board meeting on "Evidence-based Neonatal Skin Care Practices and Protocols" was held in December 2020 with an expert panel comprising neonatologists, pediatricians, obstetricians and gynecologists and pediatric dermatologist. Comprehensive literature search was performed up to 23 March 2021 using PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve relevant evidence. Results: Recommendations were developed on critical aspects of skin care in healthy full-term neonates including cleansing at birth, skin-to-skin care, cord care, diaper area care, initial and routine bathing, cleansers and emollients use, and criteria to choose appropriate skin care products. Recommendations include inclusion of skin assessment in routine neonatal care, first bath timing after cardio-respiratory and thermal stabilization, 6-24 hours after birth; bathing with water alone or adding a mild liquid cleanser could be considered appropriate as it does not impact the developing skin barrier; use of emollients is recommended for neonates with higher risk of development of eczema to maintain and enhance skin barrier function and integrity; and inclusion of skin care advice in neonatal discharge checklist. Importance of rigorous quality control, high-quality clinical trials for assessment of baby products, usage of products that are formulated appropriately for newborns, and full label transparency for baby products were highlighted. The panel identified gaps in literature and discussed the scope for future research. Conclusion: These recommendations may help to standardize evidence-based skin care for healthy full-term neonates in Indian hospital settings to improve the quality of care that neonates receive in hospital and facilitate improvement in overall neonatal health outcomes.

3.
Int J Gynaecol Obstet ; 159(3): 735-742, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809087

RESUMO

Our aim was to investigate the inclusion of sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) topics in medical curricula and the perceived need for, feasibility of, and barriers to teaching SRHR. We distributed a survey with questions on SRHR content, and factors regulating SRHR content, to medical universities worldwide using chain referral. Associations between high SRHR content and independent variables were analyzed using unconditional linear regression or χ2 test. Text data were analyzed by thematic analysis. We collected data from 219 respondents, 143 universities and 54 countries. Clinical SRHR topics such as safe pregnancy and childbirth (95.7%) and contraceptive methods (97.2%) were more frequently reported as taught compared with complex SRHR topics such as sexual violence (63.8%), unsafe abortion (65.7%), and the vulnerability of LGBTQIA persons (23.2%). High SRHR content was associated with high-income level (P = 0.003) and low abortion restriction (P = 0.042) but varied within settings. Most respondents described teaching SRHR as essential to the health of society. Complexity was cited as a barrier, as were cultural taboos, lack of stakeholder recognition, and dependency on fees and ranking.


Assuntos
Saúde Reprodutiva , Saúde Sexual , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Cureus ; 13(6): e16048, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34345541

RESUMO

Aims We aimed to assess the incidence of the BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid neoplasms at a tertiary care center and its association with various phenotypic features. Methods and material We included all cases diagnosed as thyroid neoplasm in the past decade at the Department of Pathology of our institute and obtained their clinical details from the medical records department of the institute after obtaining permission from the authorities and due International Human Epigenome Consortium clearance. We included data on age, sex, clinical presentation, hormone status, and T and N status of the malignant neoplasms. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides of all cases were evaluated for the type of neoplasm, nuclear features, invasion into the capsule and vascular spaces, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node metastases, mitoses, necrosis, and presence/absence of amyloid. Paraffin blocks of sections with high tumor density and less normal tissue were chosen for evaluation after H&E staining. The slides showing tumors with large areas of hemorrhage, cystic change, or necrosis were excluded. Two primers were used to amplify a 339-bp fragment containing the V600E mutation in exon 15 of BRAF. Tissues were prepared from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks, and DNA was isolated using a standard protocol BRAF NF and BRAF NR Primer Standardized Protocol For FFPE Tissue DNA. Percentages and tables have been used for data presentation. Results Among 47 identified cases, 14 were positive for the BRAF V600E mutation and had papillary carcinoma (n = 9) or follicular neoplasms (n = 5; follicular adenoma, n = 3; follicular carcinoma, n = 2). In the BRAF-positive papillary carcinomas, five cases were aged 20-30 years, eight were female, eight (88.88%) were euthyroid, and one was hypothyroid. Furthermore, 55.55% (5/9 cases) of BRAF-positive cases were stage I, 33.3% (3/9 cases) were stage II, and 0.02% (1/9 cases) were stage III. Conclusions In our cohort, 31% of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and 18.72% of follicular neoplasms expressed the BRAF V600E mutation. BRAF V600E mutation-positive papillary thyroid carcinomas consistently showed all characteristic nuclear features, such as nuclear crowding, overlapping, and grooves. Considering the greater prevalence in the younger age group, the importance of mutation surveillance in PTCs for a total thyroidectomy may be warranted in mutation-positive patients.

5.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(4): 571-578, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179265

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to give a global overview of trends in access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and what is being done to mitigate its impact. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a descriptive analysis and content analysis based on an online survey among clinicians, researchers, and organizations. Our data were extracted from multiple-choice questions on access to SRHR services and risk of SRHR violations, and written responses to open-ended questions on threats to access and required response. RESULTS: The survey was answered by 51 people representing 29 countries. Eighty-six percent reported that access to contraceptive services was less or much less because of COVID-19, corresponding figures for surgical and medical abortion were 62% and 46%. The increased risk of gender-based and sexual violence was assessed as moderate or severe by 79%. Among countries with mildly restrictive abortion policies, 69% had implemented changes to facilitate access to abortion during the pandemic, compared with none among countries with severe restrictions (P < .001), 87.5% compared with 46% had implemented changes to facilitate access to contraception (P = .023). The content analysis showed that (a) prioritizations in health service delivery at the expense of SRHR, (b) lack of political will, (c) the detrimental effect of lockdown, and (d) the suspension of sexual education, were threats to SRHR access (theme 1). Requirements to mitigate these threats (theme 2) were (a) political will and support of universal access to SRH services, (b) the sensitization of providers, (c) free public transport, and (d) physical protective equipment. A contrasting third theme was the state of exception of the COVID-19 pandemic as a window of opportunity to push forward women's health and rights. CONCLUSIONS: Many countries have seen decreased access to and increased violations of SRHR during the COVID-19 pandemic. Countries with severe restrictions on abortion seem less likely to have implemented changes to SRHR delivery to mitigate this impact. Political will to support the advancement of SRHR is often lacking, which is fundamental to ensuring both continued access and, in a minority of cases, the solidification of gains made to SRHR during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Saúde Reprodutiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Pathog Glob Health ; 111(5): 240-246, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28670975

RESUMO

Increased incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative infection has resulted in high rates of morbidity and mortality. Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the commonest MDR pathogens causing bacteraemia with limited therapeutic options such as colistin and tigecycline. Present study focused on molecular characterisation of MDR K. pneumoniae from bloodstream infection and their clinical outcome. A total of 115 K. pneumoniae from January 2015 to September 2016 were included in the study which comprised of phenotypically identified ESBL and carbapenem resistant (CR) isolates. Multiplex PCR was performed for detection of resistance genes encoding ß-lactam resistance. This includes blaSHV, blaTEM, blaVEB, blaPER, blaCTX-M, blaDHA, blaCIT, blaFOX, blaACC, blaACT, blaNDM, blaOXA48-like, blaVIM and blaKPC. Co-expression of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M was predominant with 64% (74/115) prevalence. CTX-M-1 was the variant produced by all the isolates producing CTX-M. AmpC was uncommon, seen in 5% of the isolates (6/115). Among the carbapenemases co-expression of blaNDM and blaOXA48-like was observed in 28% (32/115) and blaNDM in 19% (22/115) and blaOXA48-like in 13% (15/115). blaKPC was absent. Overall mortality was observed to be 57% (64/113) and mortality among CR K. pneumoniae (Kp) was 68% (50/73). The antibiotics that were administered for treatment of CRKp were colistin in 90% (66/73) and tigecycline in 7% (5/73) and in 99% combined with meropenem (72/73). Prevalence of community acquired and nosocomial infections were 5% (4/73) and 95% (69/73) respectively among CRKp. Minocycline and meropenem susceptibilities were comparable and hence minocycline can be a carbapenem sparing agent. The resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics is steadily increasing and are plasmid mediated, their containment in healthcare setting is a challenge.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/microbiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Sepse/microbiologia , Resistência beta-Lactâmica , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Plasmídeos/análise , Prevalência , Sepse/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , beta-Lactamases/genética
7.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 36(1): 23-26, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28050823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis although part of spectrum of alcoholic liver disease can have overlapping features, and differentiating them using clinical, biochemical, and imaging features is not always possible. Standard therapy for each differs, and steroid therapy while beneficial in alcoholic hepatitis may be detrimental in cirrhosis due to high infectious complications. We analyzed our experience with liver biopsy in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. METHODS: Male patients in the age group of 25-65 years who were clinically diagnosed with severe alcoholic hepatitis (DF > 32) were retrospectively analyzed and included in this study. All of them had undergone transjugular liver biopsy within the first 7 days of hospitalization. RESULTS: Thirty patients were included. Most were in the 35-55 age group. Jaundice was present in all patients with fever and tender hepatomegaly also being common. On histopathological evaluation, 33.3% (n = 10) suspected clinically to have alcoholic hepatitis had underlying cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: Cirrhosis is found in one third of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis. This may alter our approach to management of this condition.


Assuntos
Biópsia/métodos , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatite Alcoólica/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Febre/etiologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatomegalia/etiologia , Humanos , Icterícia/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática Alcoólica/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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