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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 16(3)2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38339394

RESUMO

Performing a mitosis count (MC) is the diagnostic task of histologically grading canine Soft Tissue Sarcoma (cSTS). However, mitosis count is subject to inter- and intra-observer variability. Deep learning models can offer a standardisation in the process of MC used to histologically grade canine Soft Tissue Sarcomas. Subsequently, the focus of this study was mitosis detection in canine Perivascular Wall Tumours (cPWTs). Generating mitosis annotations is a long and arduous process open to inter-observer variability. Therefore, by keeping pathologists in the loop, a two-step annotation process was performed where a pre-trained Faster R-CNN model was trained on initial annotations provided by veterinary pathologists. The pathologists reviewed the output false positive mitosis candidates and determined whether these were overlooked candidates, thus updating the dataset. Faster R-CNN was then trained on this updated dataset. An optimal decision threshold was applied to maximise the F1-score predetermined using the validation set and produced our best F1-score of 0.75, which is competitive with the state of the art in the canine mitosis domain.

2.
Int J Pharm ; 653: 123875, 2024 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316316

RESUMO

Impairment of the skin's structural integrity initially results in acute wounds which can become chronic if timely wound closure is not achieved. Chronic wounds (CWs) affect more than 1% of the global population with increasing cases of this condition due to the ageing population. Current wound management relies on debridement, hyperbaric oxygen, antibiotics, and wound dressings, which lack early intervention and specificity. Herein, antibiotics-free retinol-based micellar formulations (RMF) were made and their wound healing efficacy were investigated in vitro. Five different formulations with retinol contents of 0.3% and 1% against a placebo were topically applied to an organotypic full-thickness skin wound model (FT-SWM, MatTek®) with a 3 mm punch wound, and maintained in an incubator for 6 days. The histological analysis of the FT-SWM was conducted at depths of 60 µm and 80 µm. It was found that all the micellar retinol formulations accelerated wound bed contraction, with 0.3% RMF demonstrating the highest efficacy. At the depths of 60 µm and 80 µm, the 0.3% RMF exhibited inner wound diameter contraction of 58% and 77%, respectively, in comparison to the placebo showing 15% and 8%. The RMF significantly accelerated wound healing and can thus be a potential early intervention for speedy wound recovery. It should be pointed out that these results were obtained based on a small sample size and a large sample size will be explored to further validate the results.


Assuntos
Micelas , Vitamina A , Cicatrização , Oxigênio , Bandagens , Antibacterianos , Pele/patologia
3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 20(1): e1011714, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38236828

RESUMO

Disentangling the impact of the weather on transmission of infectious diseases is crucial for health protection, preparedness and prevention. Because weather factors are co-incidental and partly correlated, we have used geography to separate out the impact of individual weather parameters on other seasonal variables using campylobacteriosis as a case study. Campylobacter infections are found worldwide and are the most common bacterial food-borne disease in developed countries, where they exhibit consistent but country specific seasonality. We developed a novel conditional incidence method, based on classical stratification, exploiting the long term, high-resolution, linkage of approximately one-million campylobacteriosis cases over 20 years in England and Wales with local meteorological datasets from diagnostic laboratory locations. The predicted incidence of campylobacteriosis increased by 1 case per million people for every 5° (Celsius) increase in temperature within the range of 8°-15°. Limited association was observed outside that range. There were strong associations with day-length. Cases tended to increase with relative humidity in the region of 75-80%, while the associations with rainfall and wind-speed were weaker. The approach is able to examine multiple factors and model how complex trends arise, e.g. the consistent steep increase in campylobacteriosis in England and Wales in May-June and its spatial variability. This transparent and straightforward approach leads to accurate predictions without relying on regression models and/or postulating specific parameterisations. A key output of the analysis is a thoroughly phenomenological description of the incidence of the disease conditional on specific local weather factors. The study can be crucially important to infer the elusive mechanism of transmission of campylobacteriosis; for instance, by simulating the conditional incidence for a postulated mechanism and compare it with the phenomenological patterns as benchmark. The findings challenge the assumption, commonly made in statistical models, that the transformed mean rate of infection for diseases like campylobacteriosis is a mere additive and combination of the environmental variables.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Doenças Transmissíveis , Gastroenterite , Humanos , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , País de Gales/epidemiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Estações do Ano , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Incidência , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
5.
Front Mol Biosci ; 10: 1144001, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37842636

RESUMO

Introduction: Accurate and rapid diagnostics paired with effective tracking and tracing systems are key to halting the spread of infectious diseases, limiting the emergence of new variants and to monitor vaccine efficacy. The current gold standard test (RT-qPCR) for COVID-19 is highly accurate and sensitive, but is time-consuming, and requires expensive specialised, lab-based equipment. Methods: Herein, we report on the development of a SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) rapid and inexpensive diagnostic platform that relies on a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay and a portable smart diagnostic device. Automated image acquisition and an Artificial Intelligence (AI) deep learning model embedded in the Virus Hunter 6 (VH6) device allow to remove any subjectivity in the interpretation of results. The VH6 device is also linked to a smartphone companion application that registers patients for swab collection and manages the entire process, thus ensuring tests are traced and data securely stored. Results: Our designed AI-implemented diagnostic platform recognises the nucleocapsid protein gene of SARS-CoV-2 with high analytical sensitivity and specificity. A total of 752 NHS patient samples, 367 confirmed positives for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and 385 negatives, were used for the development and validation of the test and the AI-assisted platform. The smart diagnostic platform was then used to test 150 positive clinical samples covering a dynamic range of clinically meaningful viral loads and 250 negative samples. When compared to RT-qPCR, our AI-assisted diagnostics platform was shown to be reliable, highly specific (100%) and sensitive (98-100% depending on viral load) with a limit of detection of 1.4 copies of RNA per µL in 30 min. Using this data, our CE-IVD and MHRA approved test and associated diagnostic platform has been approved for medical use in the United Kingdom under the UK Health Security Agency's Medical Devices (Coronavirus Test Device Approvals, CTDA) Regulations 2022. Laboratory and in-silico data presented here also indicates that the VIDIIA diagnostic platform is able to detect the main variants of concern in the United Kingdom (September 2023). Discussion: This system could provide an efficient, time and cost-effective platform to diagnose SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious diseases in resource-limited settings.

6.
Pharmaceutics ; 15(6)2023 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37376081

RESUMO

Chronic wounds and their treatment present a significant burden to patients and healthcare systems alike, with their management further complicated by bacterial infection. Historically, antibiotics have been deployed to prevent and treat infections, but the emergence of bacterial antimicrobial resistance and the frequent development of biofilms within the wound area necessitates the identification of novel treatment strategies for use within infected chronic wounds. Here, several non-antibiotic compounds, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), curcumin, retinol, polysorbate 40, ethanol, and D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 (TPGS) were screened for their antibacterial and antibiofilm capabilities. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and crystal violet (CV) biofilm clearance against two bacteria frequently associated with infected chronic wounds, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were determined. PHMB was observed to have highly effective antibacterial activity against both bacteria, but its ability to disperse biofilms at MIC levels was variable. Meanwhile, TPGS had limited inhibitory activity but demonstrated potent antibiofilm properties. The subsequent combination of these two compounds in a formulation resulted in a synergistic enhancement of their capability to kill both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa and disperse their biofilms. Collectively, this work highlights the utility of combinatory approaches to the treatment of infected chronic wounds where bacterial colonization and biofilm formation remains significant issues.

7.
Vet Microbiol ; 284: 109819, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37390703

RESUMO

The development of alternatives to antibiotics is essential for the treatment of animal infections and as a measure to reduce the selective pressure on antibiotics that are critical for human medicine. Metal complexes have been highlighted for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial pathogens. In particular, manganese carbonyl complexes have shown efficacy against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, and relatively low cytotoxicity against avian macrophages and in wax moth larval models. They are thus potential candidates for deployment against Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), the aetiological agent of avian colibacillosis, which results in severe animal welfare issues and financial losses worldwide. This study aimed to determine the efficacy of [Mn(CO)3(tqa-κ3N)]Br in Galleria mellonella and chick models of infection against APEC. The results demonstrated in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity against all antibiotic-resistant APEC test isolates screened in the study.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Humanos , Manganês/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
8.
Microb Biotechnol ; 16(5): 977-989, 2023 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36734313

RESUMO

Environmental water is considered one of the main vehicles for the transmission of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), posing an increasing threat to humans and animals health. Continuous efforts are being made to eliminate AMR; however, the detection of AMR pathogens from water samples often requires at least one culture step, which is time-consuming and can limit sensitivity. In this study, we employed comparative genomics to identify the prevalence of AMR genes within among: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella enterica and Acinetobacter, using publicly available genomes. The mcr-1, blaKPC (KPC-1 to KPC-4 alleles), blaOXA-48, blaOXA-23 and blaVIM (VIM-1 and VIM-2 alleles) genes are of great medical and veterinary significance, thus were selected as targets for the development of isothermal loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) detection assays. We also developed a rapid and sensitive sample preparation method for an integrated culture-independent LAMP-based detection from water samples. The developed assays successfully detected the five AMR gene markers from pond water within 1 h and were 100% sensitive and specific with a detection limit of 0.0625 µg/mL and 10 cfu/mL for genomic DNA and spiked bacterial cells, respectively. The integrated detection can be easily implemented in resource-limited areas to enhance One Health AMR surveillances and improve diagnostics.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli , Animais , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Escherichia coli , Água , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Vet Sci ; 10(1)2023 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36669046

RESUMO

The definitive diagnosis of canine soft-tissue sarcomas (STSs) is based on histological assessment of formalin-fixed tissues. Assessment of parameters, such as degree of differentiation, necrosis score and mitotic score, give rise to a final tumour grade, which is important in determining prognosis and subsequent treatment modalities. However, grading discrepancies are reported to occur in human and canine STSs, which can result in complications regarding treatment plans. The introduction of digital pathology has the potential to help improve STS grading via automated determination of the presence and extent of necrosis. The detected necrotic regions can be factored in the grading scheme or excluded before analysing the remaining tissue. Here we describe a method to detect tumour necrosis in histopathological whole-slide images (WSIs) of STSs using machine learning. Annotated areas of necrosis were extracted from WSIs and the patches containing necrotic tissue fed into a pre-trained DenseNet161 convolutional neural network (CNN) for training, testing and validation. The proposed CNN architecture reported favourable results, with an overall validation accuracy of 92.7% for necrosis detection which represents the number of correctly classified data instances over the total number of data instances. The proposed method, when vigorously validated represents a promising tool to assist pathologists in evaluating necrosis in canine STS tumours, by increasing efficiency, accuracy and reducing inter-rater variation.

10.
Environ Int ; 171: 107707, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human, animal, and environmental health are increasingly threatened by the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. Inappropriate use of antibiotic treatments commonly contributes to this threat, but it is also becoming apparent that multiple, interconnected environmental factors can play a significant role. Thus, a One Health approach is required for a comprehensive understanding of the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance and inform science-based decisions and actions. The broad and multidisciplinary nature of the problem poses several open questions drawing upon a wide heterogeneous range of studies. OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to collect and catalogue the evidence of the potential effects of environmental factors on the abundance or detection of antibiotic resistance determinants in the outdoor environment, i.e., antibiotic resistant bacteria and mobile genetic elements carrying antibiotic resistance genes, and the effect on those caused by local environmental conditions of either natural or anthropogenic origin. METHODS: Here, we describe the protocol for a systematic evidence map to address this, which will be performed in adherence to best practice guidelines. We will search the literature from 1990 to present, using the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Web of Science Core Collection as well as the grey literature. We shall include full-text, scientific articles published in English. Reviewers will work in pairs to screen title, abstract and keywords first and then full-text documents. Data extraction will adhere to a code book purposely designed. Risk of bias assessment will not be conducted as part of this SEM. We will combine tables, graphs, and other suitable visualisation techniques to compile a database i) of studies investigating the factors associated with the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the environment and ii) map the distribution, network, cross-disciplinarity, impact and trends in the literature.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bactérias , Animais , Humanos , Prevalência , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Bactérias/genética , Viés , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
11.
Vet Rec ; 192(5): e2540, 2023 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable recent reductions in antimicrobial use, the UK gamebird industry continues to struggle with production diseases during the rearing season, necessitating significant antibiotic use. This observational study investigated the presence of genes conferring resistance to ß-lactam antibiotics within industry-reared pheasants and red-legged partridges in the UK. METHODS: DNA was extracted from 60 pooled caecal samples collected from gamebirds at routine postmortem examinations during the rearing season. Genes encoding extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) were detected by PCR and the corresponding alleles were determined. RESULTS: Over half (53%) of the samples harboured genes encoding blaTEM resistance, with blaSHV identified in 20% of samples. The blaTEM gene was more common on sites with higher antibiotic use, whereas blaSHV was predominantly found in birds younger than 5 weeks. Genotyping of the identified resistance genes revealed the presence of blaTEM-1 , blaSHV-1 and blaSHV-11 alleles. LIMITATIONS: This was a small-scale study conducted at four sites in southern England. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of the presence of ESBL genes in gamebirds, highlighting the need for further research into antimicrobial resistance in UK gamebirds.


Assuntos
Galliformes , beta-Lactamases , Animais , beta-Lactamases/genética , Resistência beta-Lactâmica/genética , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Codorniz , Reino Unido
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(1): e0331622, 2023 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36511696

RESUMO

Cefotaximase-Munich (CTX-M) extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes produced by Enterobacteriaceae confer resistance to clinically relevant third-generation cephalosporins. CTX-M group 1 variants, CTX-M-1 and CTX-M-15, are the leading ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae associated with animal and human infection, respectively, and are an increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) global health concern. The blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15 genes encoding these variants have an approximate nucleotide sequence similarity of 98.7%, making effective differential diagnostic monitoring difficult. Loop-primer endonuclease cleavage loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LEC-LAMP) enables rapid real-time multiplex pathogen detection with single-base specificity and portable on-site testing. We have developed an internally controlled multiplex CTX-M-1/15 LEC-LAMP assay for the differential detection of blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15. Assay analytical specificity was established using a panel of human, animal, and environmental Escherichia coli isolates positive for blaCTX-M-1 (n = 18), blaCTX-M-15 (n = 35), and other closely related blaCTX-Ms (n = 38) from Ireland, Germany, and Portugal, with analytical sensitivity determined using probit regression analysis. Animal fecal sample testing using the CTX-M-1/15 LEC-LAMP assay in combination with a rapid DNA extraction protocol was carried out on porcine fecal samples previously confirmed to be PCR-positive for E. coli blaCTX-M. Portable instrumentation was used to further analyze each fecal sample and demonstrate the on-site testing capabilities of the LEC-LAMP assay with the rapid DNA extraction protocol. The CTX-M-1/15 LEC-LAMP assay demonstrated complete analytical specificity for the differential detection of both variants with sensitive low-level detection of 8.5 and 9.8 copies per reaction for blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, respectively, and E. coli blaCTX-M-1 was identified in all blaCTX-M positive porcine fecal samples tested. IMPORTANCE CTX-M ESBL-producing E. coli is an increasing AMR public health issue with the transmission between animals and humans via zoonotic pathogens now a major area of interest. Accurate and timely identification of ESBL-expressing E. coli CTX-M variants is essential for disease monitoring, targeted antibiotic treatment and infection control. This study details the first report of portable diagnostics technology for the rapid differential detection of CTX-M AMR markers blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15, facilitating improved identification and surveillance of these closely related variants. Further application of this portable internally controlled multiplex CTX-M-1/15 LEC-LAMP assay will provide new information on the transmission and prevalence of these CTX-M ESBL alleles. Furthermore, this transferable diagnostic technology can be applied to other new and emerging relevant AMR markers of interest providing more efficient and specific portable pathogen detection for improved epidemiological surveillance.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Animais , Suínos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética , Antibacterianos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , DNA
13.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36421285

RESUMO

IncL/M broad-host-range conjugative plasmids are involved in the global spread of blaOXA-48 and the emergence of blaNDM-1. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transmission potential of plasmids encoding the emergent NDM-1 carbapenemase compared to the pandemic OXA-48. The conjugation rate and fitness cost of IncM2 and IncL plasmids encoding these carbapenemase genes were tested using a variety of host bacteria. Genomic analysis of uropathogenic Escherichia coli SAP1756 revealed that blaNDM-1 was encoded on an IncM2 plasmid, which also harboured blaTEM-1, bleMBL and sul1 and was highly similar to plasmids isolated from the same geographical area. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that NDM-1 and OXA-48-carrying plasmids transfer successfully between different Enterobacterales species, both in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, E. coli isolates tested as recipients belonging to phylogroups A, B1, D and F were able to receive IncM2 plasmid pSAP1756, while phylogroups B2, C, E and G were not permissive to its acquisition. In general, the IncL OXA-48-carrying plasmids tested transferred at higher rates than IncM2 harbouring NDM-1 and imposed a lower burden to their host, possibly due to the inactivation of the tir fertility inhibition gene and reflecting their worldwide dissemination. IncM2 plasmids carrying blaNDM-1 are considered emergent threats that need continuous monitoring. In addition to sequencing efforts, phenotypic analysis of conjugation rates and fitness cost are effective methods for estimating the pandemic potential of antimicrobial resistance plasmids.

14.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(9)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36155133

RESUMO

The genus Brachyspira includes nine officially recognised species, several of which are pathogenic to mammals and birds. B. pilosicoli, B. intermedia, and B. alvinipulli are the causative agents of avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS), a gastrointestinal disease in poultry caused by the colonisation of the caeca and/ or colo-rectum by Brachyspira. AIS primarily affects layer hens and broiler breeders over the age of 15 weeks. The severity of symptoms can vary but typically presents as reduced growth rates, delayed onset of lay, reduced egg production, faecally stained eggs, and diarrhoea. This disease is estimated to cost the UK laying industry £18 million per annum. Brachyspira colonisation in humans is common in populations from developing countries and HIV-positive patients; however, it is rarely investigated as a human pathogen.


Assuntos
Brachyspira , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Humanos , Lactente , Intestinos , Mamíferos
15.
Pharmaceutics ; 14(5)2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631606

RESUMO

The rapid rise in the health burden associated with chronic wounds is of great concern to policymakers, academia, and industry. This could be attributed to the devastating implications of this condition, and specifically, chronic wounds which have been linked to invasive microbial infections affecting patients' quality of life. Unfortunately, antibiotics are not always helpful due to their poor penetration of bacterial biofilms and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore antibiotics-free compounds/formulations with proven or potential antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound healing efficacy. The mechanism of antibiotics-free compounds is thought to include the disruption of the bacteria cell structure, preventing cell division, membrane porins, motility, and the formation of a biofilm. Furthermore, some of these compounds foster tissue regeneration by modulating growth factor expression. In this review article, the focus is placed on a number of non-antibiotic compounds possessing some of the aforementioned pharmacological and physiological activities. Specific interest is given to Aloevera, curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, polyhexanide, retinoids, ascorbate, tocochromanols, and chitosan. These compounds (when alone or in formulation with other biologically active molecules) could be a dependable alternative in the management or prevention of chronic wounds.

16.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(5)2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588088

RESUMO

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid alternative to PCR, in which the reaction occurs at one temperature and uses a polymerase with high displacement activity, e.g. Bacillus stearothermophilus DNA polymerase I (Bst) or homologues. Since the discovery of LAMP in 2000, several applications have been developed to employ this technique in the rapid detection of nucleic acid targets and enhance its performance. Improvements to the LAMP technique and a variety of innovative detection methods have led to its application for a wide range of targets in medical and veterinary microbiology, particularly in resource-poor settings. The key advantages of LAMP-based diagnostics include the ability to rapidly detect target nucleic acid sequences within 30 min and its ease of use, facilitating its application in field, bedside, pen-side, point-of-care and point-of-need diagnostic settings. LAMP can be a valuable tool to aid in the detection and management of disease outbreaks.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(5): e0168721, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404076

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are important bacterial causes of human foodborne illness. Despite several years of reduced antibiotics usage in livestock production in the United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US), a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) persists in Campylobacter. Both countries have instigated genome sequencing-based surveillance programs for Campylobacter, and in this study, we have identified AMR genes in 32,256 C. jejuni and 8,776 C. coli publicly available genome sequences to compare the prevalence and trends of AMR in Campylobacter isolated in the UK and US between 2001 and 2018. AMR markers were detected in 68% of C. coli and 53% of C. jejuni isolates, with 15% of C. coli isolates being multidrug resistant (MDR), compared to only 2% of C. jejuni isolates. The prevalence of aminoglycoside, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline resistance remained fairly stable from 2001 to 2018 in both C. jejuni and C. coli, but statistically significant differences were observed between the UK and US. There was a statistically significant higher prevalence of aminoglycoside and tetracycline resistance for US C. coli and C. jejuni isolates and macrolide resistance for US C. coli isolates. In contrast, UK C. coli and C. jejuni isolates showed a significantly higher prevalence of quinolone resistance. Specific multilocus sequence type (MLST) clonal complexes (e.g., ST-353/464) showed >95% quinolone resistance. This large-scale comparison of AMR prevalence has shown that the prevalence of AMR remains stable for Campylobacter in the UK and the US. This suggests that antimicrobial stewardship and restricted antibiotic usage may help contain further expansion of AMR prevalence in Campylobacter but are unlikely to reduce it in the short term.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Campylobacter , Quinolonas , Aminoglicosídeos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/genética , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
PeerJ ; 10: e13084, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345588

RESUMO

Background: The horse plays crucial roles across the globe, including in horseracing, as a working and companion animal and as a food animal. The horse hindgut microbiome makes a key contribution in turning a high fibre diet into body mass and horsepower. However, despite its importance, the horse hindgut microbiome remains largely undefined. Here, we applied culture-independent shotgun metagenomics to thoroughbred equine faecal samples to deliver novel insights into this complex microbial community. Results: We performed metagenomic sequencing on five equine faecal samples to construct 123 high- or medium-quality metagenome-assembled genomes from Bacteria and Archaea. In addition, we recovered nearly 200 bacteriophage genomes. We document surprising taxonomic diversity, encompassing dozens of novel or unnamed bacterial genera and species, to which we have assigned new Candidatus names. Many of these genera are conserved across a range of mammalian gut microbiomes. Conclusions: Our metagenomic analyses provide new insights into the bacterial, archaeal and bacteriophage components of the horse gut microbiome. The resulting datasets provide a key resource for future high-resolution taxonomic and functional studies on the equine gut microbiome.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos , Microbiota , Animais , Cavalos , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica , Bactérias/genética , Archaea/genética , Mamíferos
20.
Pathogens ; 11(3)2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335682

RESUMO

Salmonellosis is a zoonosis of major relevance to global public health. Here we present the assessment of Salmonella enterica contamination in pork and poultry meat sold at retail markets in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 780 meat samples (386 poultry meat and 394 pork samples) were collected from 132 markets. From these, 57 samples (7.3%) were positive for S. enterica isolation, including 32 (8.3%) poultry meat and 25 (6.3%) pork samples. S. enterica isolates were further characterized for serotyping, antimicrobial resistance and genotyping by amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial resistance analysis demonstrated two main profiles: pork isolates were more resistant to macrolides, ß-lactams, tetracycline, phenicols, and fluoroquinolones, and poultry meat isolates presented higher resistance to fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and ß-lactams. A total of 72.4% of poultry meat isolates were identified as S. Heidelberg, while most of pork isolates were S. Typhimurium (31.7%) and S. Give (16.7%). Genotyping resulted in most clusters consisting exclusively of pork or poultry meat, no cross-contamination was detected, and a tendency to differentiate isolates according to their serotypes and markets of origin. High resistance rates to critically important antimicrobials reinforce the importance of controlling Salmonella contamination in meat production chains.

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