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ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 6(5): 2588-2599, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715083


The IMPEDE Embolization Plug is a catheter-delivered vascular occlusion device that utilizes a porous shape memory polymer foam as a scaffold for thrombus formation and distal coils to anchor the device within the vessel. In this study, we investigated the biological response of porcine arteries to the IMPEDE device by assessing the extent of healing and overall effectiveness in occluding the vessel at 30, 60, and 90 days. Compared to control devices (Amplatzer Vascular Plug and Nester Embolization Coils), the host response to IMPEDE showed increased cellular infiltration (accommodated by the foam scaffold), which led to advanced healing of the initial thrombus to mature collagenous connective tissue (confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM)). Over time, the host response to the IMPEDE device included degradation of the foam by multinucleated giant cells, which promoted fibrin and polymer degradation and advanced the healing response. Device effectiveness, in terms of vessel occlusion, was evaluated histologically by assessing the degree of recanalization. Although instances of recanalization were often observed at all time points for both control and test articles, the mature connective tissue within the foam scaffold of the IMPEDE devices improved percent vessel occlusion; when recanalization was observed in IMPEDE-treated vessels, channels were exclusively peri-device rather than intradevice, as often observed in the controls, and the vessels mostly remained >75% occluded. Although total vessel occlusion provides the optimal ischemic effect, in cardiovascular pathology, there is a progressive ischemic effect on the downstream vasculature as a vessel narrows. As such, we expect a sustained ischemic therapeutic effect to be observed in vessels greater than 75% occluded. Overall, the current study suggests the IMPEDE device presents advantages over controls by promoting an enhanced degree of healing within the foam scaffold, which decreases the likelihood of intradevice recanalization and ultimately may lead to a sustained ischemic therapeutic effect.

Embolização Terapêutica , Materiais Inteligentes , Doenças Vasculares , Animais , Prótese Vascular , Polímeros , Suínos
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 63: 195-206, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27419615


Shape memory polymer foams have been previously investigated for their safety and efficacy in treating a porcine aneurysm model. Their biocompatibility, rapid thrombus formation, and ability for endovascular catheter-based delivery to a variety of vascular beds makes these foams ideal candidates for use in numerous embolic applications, particularly within the peripheral vasculature. This study sought to investigate the material properties, safety, and efficacy of a shape memory polymer peripheral embolization device in vitro. The material characteristics of the device were analyzed to show tunability of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and the expansion rate of the polymer to ensure adequate time to deliver the device through a catheter prior to excessive foam expansion. Mechanical analysis and flow migration studies were performed to ensure minimal risk of vessel perforation and undesired thromboembolism upon device deployment. The efficacy of the device was verified by performing blood flow studies that established affinity for thrombus formation and blood penetration throughout the foam and by delivery of the device in an ultrasound phantom that demonstrated flow stagnation and diversion of flow to collateral pathways.

Aneurisma/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Polímeros/química , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Suínos , Temperatura de Transição
J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater ; 104(7): 1407-15, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26227115


Current endovascular therapies for intracranial saccular aneurysms result in high recurrence rates due to poor tissue healing, coil compaction, and aneurysm growth. We propose treatment of saccular aneurysms using shape memory polymer (SMP) foam to improve clinical outcomes. SMP foam-over-wire (FOW) embolization devices were delivered to in vitro and in vivo porcine saccular aneurysm models to evaluate device efficacy, aneurysm occlusion, and acute clotting. FOW devices demonstrated effective delivery and stable implantation in vitro. In vivo porcine aneurysms were successfully occluded using FOW devices with theoretical volume occlusion values greater than 72% and rapid, stable thrombus formation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1407-1415, 2016.

Aneurisma/terapia , Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Embolização Terapêutica/instrumentação , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Animais , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/química , Plásticos Biodegradáveis/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Suínos
Adv Healthc Mater ; 4(9): 1386-98, 2015 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925212


Polyurethane shape memory polymers (SMPs) with tunable thermomechanical properties and advanced processing capabilities are synthesized, characterized, and implemented in the design of a microactuator medical device prototype. The ability to manipulate glass transition temperature (Tg ) and crosslink density in low-molecular weight aliphatic thermoplastic polyurethane SMPs is demonstrated using a synthetic approach that employs UV catalyzed thiol-ene "click" reactions to achieve postpolymerization crosslinking. Polyurethanes containing varying C=C functionalization are synthesized, solution blended with polythiol crosslinking agents and photoinitiator and subjected to UV irradiation, and the effects of number of synthetic parameters on crosslink density are reported. Thermomechanical properties are highly tunable, including glass transitions tailorable between 30 and 105 °C and rubbery moduli tailorable between 0.4 and 20 MPa. This new SMP system exhibits high toughness for many formulations, especially in the case of low crosslink density materials, for which toughness exceeds 90 MJ m(-3) at select straining temperatures. To demonstrate the advanced processing capability and synthetic versatility of this new SMP system, a laser-actuated SMP microgripper device for minimally invasive delivery of endovascular devices is fabricated, shown to exhibit an average gripping force of 1.43 ± 0.37 N and successfully deployed in an in vitro experimental setup under simulated physiological conditions.

Temperatura Alta , Poliuretanos/química
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 103(4): 1577-94, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25044644


The rupture of an intracranial aneurysm, which can result in severe mental disabilities or death, affects approximately 30,000 people in the United States annually. The traditional surgical method of treating these arterial malformations involves a full craniotomy procedure, wherein a clip is placed around the aneurysm neck. In recent decades, research and device development have focused on new endovascular treatment methods to occlude the aneurysm void space. These methods, some of which are currently in clinical use, utilize metal, polymeric, or hybrid devices delivered via catheter to the aneurysm site. In this review, we present several such devices, including those that have been approved for clinical use, and some that are currently in development. We present several design requirements for a successful aneurysm filling device and discuss the success or failure of current and past technologies. We also present novel polymeric-based aneurysm filling methods that are currently being tested in animal models that could result in superior healing.

Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Prótese Vascular , Aneurisma Intracraniano/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Desenho de Prótese