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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 12(2): e5602, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38328272

RESUMO

Background: Superficial infection is a common minor complication of transcutaneous implants that can be challenging to predict or diagnose. Although it remains unclear whether superficial infections progress to deep infections (which may require implant removal), predicting and treating any infection in these patients is important. Given that flap thinning during stage II surgery requires compromising vascularity for stability of the skin penetration aperture, we hypothesized that early skin temperature changes predict long-term superficial infection risk. Methods: We obtained standardized thermal imaging and recorded surface temperatures of the aperture and overlying flaps 2 weeks postoperatively for the first 34 patients (46 limbs) treated with the Osseointegrated Prosthesis for the Rehabilitation of Amputees transfemoral implant system. We used two-sided t tests to compare temperatures surrounding the aperture and adjacent soft tissues in patients with and without subsequent infection. Results: During median follow-up of 3 years, 14 limbs (30.4%) developed 23 superficial infections. At patients' initial 2-week visit, mean skin temperature surrounding the aperture was 36.3ºC in limbs that later developed superficial infections and 36.7ºC in uninfected limbs (P = 0.35). In four patients with bilateral implants who later developed superficial infection in one limb, average temperature was 1.5ºC colder in the infected limb (P = 0.12). Conclusions: Superficial infections remain a frequent complication of transfemoral osseointegration surgery. We did not find differences in early heat signatures between limbs subsequently complicated and those not complicated by superficial infection. Further research should explore more objective measures to predict, diagnose, and prevent infections after osseointegration surgery.

2.
Bone ; 181: 117029, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38331307

RESUMO

Blast-related traumatic heterotopic ossification (tHO) impacts clinical outcomes in combat-injured patients, leading to delayed wound healing, inflammatory complications, and reduced quality of life. Blast injured patients often have significant burns. This study investigated whether a partial thickness thermal burn injury exacerbates blast-related tHO in a clinically relevant polytrauma animal model. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to an established model involving a whole-body blast overpressure exposure (BOP), complex extremity trauma followed by hind limb amputation (CET) followed by the addition of a 10 % total body surface area (TBSA) second degree thermal burn (BU). Micro-CT scans on post-operative day 56 showed a significant increase in HO volume in the CET + BU as compared to the CET alone injury group (p < .0001; 22.83 ± 3.41 mm3 vs 4.84 ± 5.77 mm3). Additionally, CET + BU concomitant with BOP significantly increased HO (p < .0001; 34.95 ± 7.71 mm3) as compared to CET + BU alone, confirming BOP has a further synergistic effect. No HO was detectable in rats in the absence of CET. Serum analysis revealed similar significant elevated (p < .0001) levels of pro-inflammatory markers (Cxcl1 and Il6) at 6 h post-injury (hpi) in the CET + BU and BOP + CET + BU injury groups as compared to naïve baseline values. Real-time qPCR demonstrated similar levels of chondrogenic and osteogenic gene expression in muscle tissue at the site of injury at 168 hpi in both the CET + BU and BOP+CET + BU injury groups. These results support the hypothesis that a 10 % TBSA thermal burn markedly enhances tHO following acute musculoskeletal extremity injury in the presence and absence of blast overpressure. Furthermore, the influence of BOP on tHO cannot be accounted for either in regards to systemic inflammation induced from remote injury or inflammatory-osteo-chondrogenic expression changes local to the musculoskeletal trauma, suggesting that another mechanism beyond BOP and BU synergistic effects are at play. Therefore, these findings warrant future investigations to explore other mechanisms by which blast and burn influence tHO, and testing prophylactic measures to mitigate the local and systemic inflammatory effects of these injuries on development of HO.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Queimaduras , Ossificação Heterotópica , Humanos , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Osteogênese , Qualidade de Vida , Queimaduras/complicações , Traumatismos por Explosões/complicações , Extremidades , Fatores de Risco , Ossificação Heterotópica/prevenção & controle
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1280884, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38116014

RESUMO

Introduction: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a complex pathology often observed in combat injured casualties who have sustained severe, high energy polytraumatic extremity injuries. Once HO has developed, prophylactic therapies are limited outside of surgical excision. Tourniquet-induced ischemia injury (IR) exacerbates trauma-mediated musculoskeletal tissue injury, inflammation, osteogenic progenitor cell development and HO formation. Others have shown that focal adhesion kinase-2 (FAK2) plays a key role in regulating early inflammatory signaling events. Therefore, we hypothesized that targeting FAK2 prophylactically would mitigate extremity trauma induced IR inflammation and HO formation. Methods: We tested whether the continuous infusion of a FAK2 inhibitor (Defactinib, PF-573228; 6.94 µg/kg/min for 14 days) can mitigate ectopic bone formation (HO) using an established blast-related extremity injury model involving femoral fracture, quadriceps crush injury, three hours of tourniquet-induced limb ischemia, and hindlimb amputation through the fracture site. Tissue inflammation, infiltrating cells, osteogenic progenitor cell content were assessed at POD-7. Micro-computed tomography imaging was used to quantify mature HO at POD-56. Results: In comparison to vehicle control-treated rats, FAK2 administration resulted in no marked wound healing complications or weight loss. FAK2 treatment decreased HO by 43%. At POD-7, marked reductions in tissue proinflammatory gene expression and assayable osteogenic progenitor cells were measured, albeit no significant changes in expression patterns of angiogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic genes. At the same timepoint, injured tissue from FAK-treated rats had fewer infiltrating cells. Additionally, gene expression analyses of tissue infiltrating cells resulted in a more measurable shift from an M1 inflammatory to an M2 anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype in the FAK2 inhibitor-treated group. Discussion: Our findings suggest that FAK2 inhibition may be a novel strategy to dampen trauma-induced inflammation and attenuate HO in patients at high risk as a consequence of severe musculoskeletal polytrauma.


Assuntos
Quinase 2 de Adesão Focal , Ossificação Heterotópica , Animais , Humanos , Ratos , Extremidades , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/complicações , Ossificação Heterotópica/etiologia , Ossificação Heterotópica/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
OTA Int ; 6(4 Suppl): e242, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37448566

RESUMO

Severe open lower extremity trauma requires debridement to remove contamination and devitalized tissues. Aggressive debridement should be balanced with preservation of viable tissue. These often damaged but preserved viable tissues are "spare parts" that augment the options available for reconstruction. The long-term goal of reconstruction should be functional limb restoration and optimization. Injury patterns, levels, and patient factors will determine whether this endeavor is better accomplished with limb salvage or amputation. This article reviews the rationale and strategies for preserving spare parts throughout debridement and then incorporating them as opportunistic grafts in the ultimate reconstruction to facilitate healing and maximize extremity function. Level of Evidence: 5.

5.
Mil Med ; 187(1-2): e11-e16, 2022 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33231690

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Positioning of implant components for total hip arthroplasty (THA) is important for polyethylene liner wear, prosthesis joint stability, and range of motion. The introduction of fluoroscopy for the direct anterior approach has been shown to improve physician accuracy for component positioning. Few studies compare the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy for THA component positioning in posterior THA. The purpose of this project is to retrospectively evaluate the effect of intraoperative fluoroscopy on component positioning for THA using posterior and direct anterior approach (DAA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of postoperative weight-bearing X-ray films of THAs was performed over a 2-year period where a single fellowship-trained total joint surgeon introduced direct anterior approach into his practice while expanding the intraoperative use of fluoroscopy for all THA procedures, regardless of approach. Component position was evaluated through radiographic measurement of acetabular cup inclination (goal of 40 degrees), limb length discrepancy (goal of 0 mm), and femoral component offset difference (goal of 0 mm). Radiographic analysis was performed by two independent providers. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients with an average age of 62 years were identified during the 2-year period surrounding the THA practice change, adding fluoroscopy to posterior and DAA THA. Three cohorts were identified: cohort A: 44 patients who underwent posterior THAs without the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy, cohort B: 35 patients who underwent direct anterior approach THAs with the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy, and cohort C: 18 patients who underwent posterior THAs with the use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy for the posterior approach versus unguided posterior approach increased accuracy of both cup inclination (44 degrees vs 50 degrees, P < .05) and femoral offset (4 mm vs 7 mm, P < .05). A comparison of DAA with fluoroscopy versus posterior approach without fluoroscopy showed improvement in cup inclination (48 degrees vs 50 degrees, P < .05). Fluoroscopy with posterior approach versus fluoroscopy with DAA was found to have improved cup inclination (44 degrees vs 48 degrees, P < .05). CONCLUSION: Intraoperative use of fluoroscopy can improve component positioning for posterior THA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Prótese de Quadril , Acetábulo/cirurgia , Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Articulação do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Transplant Cell Ther ; 27(7): 591-599, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882342

RESUMO

Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs), recipient-derived peptide epitopes presented on the cell surface, are known to mediate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); however, there are no current methods to associate mHA features with GVHD risk. This deficiency is due in part to the lack of technological means to accurately predict, let alone confirm, the tremendous number of potential mHAs in each individual transplant. Previous studies have shown that different HLA molecules present varying fractions of candidate peptide epitopes; however, the genetic "distance" between HLA-matched donors and recipients is relatively constrained. From these 2 observations, it is possible that the HLA type for a donor-recipient pair (DRP) would provide a surrogate measurement of the number of predicted mHAs, which could be related to GVHD risk. Because different HLA molecules present variable numbers of peptide antigens, a predicted cumulative peptide-binding efficiency can be calculated for individual DRP based on the pair's HLA type. The purpose of this study was to test whether cumulative peptide-binding efficiency is associated with the risk of acute GVHD (aGVHD) or relapse. In this retrospective Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study, a total of 3242 HLA-matched DRPs were analyzed for predicted cumulative peptide-binding efficiency using their HLA types and were divided into tertiles based on their scores. Univariable and multivariable analyses was performed to test for associations between cumulative peptide-binding efficiency for DRPs, divided into the HLA-matched related donor (MRD) and HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) cohorts, and the primary outcomes of aGVHD and relapse. Secondary outcomes investigated included overall survival, disease-free survival, and transplantation-related mortality. Using a computationally generated peptidome as a test dataset, the tested series of HLA class I displayed peptide-binding frequencies ranging from 0.1% to 3.8% of the full peptidome, and HLA class II molecules had peptide-binding frequencies of 12% to 77% across the HLA-DRB1 allotypes. By increasing binding efficiency tertile, the cumulative incidence of aGVHD at 6 months for MUD patients was 41%, 41%, and 45% for HLA class I (P = .336) and 44%, 41%, and 42% for HLA class II (P = .452). The cumulative incidences of relapse at 3 years for MUD transplant recipients were 36%, 38%, and 38% for HLA class I (P = .533) and 37%, 37%, and 38% for HLA class II (P = .896). The findings were similar for MRD transplant recipients. Multivariable analysis did not identify any impact of peptide-binding efficiency on aGVHD or relapse in MUD or MRD transplant recipients. Whereas GVHD is mediated by minor antigen mismatches in the context of HLA-matched allo-HCT, peptide-binding efficiency, which was used as a surrogate measurement for predicted number of binding antigens, did not provide additional clinical information for GVHD risk assessment. The negative result may be due to the limitations of this surrogate marker, or it is possible that GVHD is driven by a subset of immunogenic mHAs. Further research should be directed at direct mHA epitope and immunogenicity prediction.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Doadores não Relacionados , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Peptídeos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656481

RESUMO

Vascularized medial femoral condyle bone grafts have been reported to be a reliable treatment for recalcitrant bony nonunions of the extremities. Although clavicle fracture nonunions are rare after treatment with open reduction internal fixation, symptomatic nonunions can be a challenge. The medial femoral condyle vascularized bone graft has been described as a treatment option for clavicle nonunions with the thoracoacromial trunk as the recipient anastomosis site. This case illustrates how the transverse cervical artery and accompanying veins can be used as an anastomosis when the thoracoacromial trunk is inaccessible because of previous surgical- and infection-related scaring. At the final follow-up, the patient had returned to full duty and resumed competitive triathlons. Radiographs demonstrated complete healing of clavicle fracture.


Assuntos
Clavícula , Fraturas não Consolidadas , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Artérias , Clavícula/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas não Consolidadas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Blood Adv ; 2(16): 2052-2062, 2018 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115642

RESUMO

T-cell responses to minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) mediate both antitumor immunity (graft-versus-leukemia [GVL]) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in allogeneic stem cell transplant. Identifying mHAs with high allele frequency, tight binding affinity to common HLA molecules, and narrow tissue restriction could enhance immunotherapy against leukemia. Genotyping and HLA allele data from 101 HLA-matched donor-recipient pairs (DRPs) were computationally analyzed to predict both class I and class II mHAs likely to induce either GVL or GVHD. Roughly twice as many mHAs were predicted in HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) stem cell transplantation (SCT) compared with HLA-matched related transplants, an expected result given greater genetic disparity in MUD SCT. Computational analysis predicted 14 of 18 previously identified mHAs, with 2 minor antigen mismatches not being contained in the patient cohort, 1 missed mHA resulting from a noncanonical translation of the peptide antigen, and 1 case of poor binding prediction. A predicted peptide epitope derived from GRK4, a protein expressed in acute myeloid leukemia and testis, was confirmed by targeted differential ion mobility spectrometry-tandem mass spectrometry. T cells specific to UNC-GRK4-V were identified by tetramer analysis both in DRPs where a minor antigen mismatch was predicted and in DRPs where the donor contained the allele encoding UNC-GRK4-V, suggesting that this antigen could be both an mHA and a cancer-testis antigen. Computational analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data can reliably predict leukemia-associated mHA and can be used to guide targeted mHA discovery.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/imunologia , Modelos Imunológicos , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas , Aloenxertos , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/patologia , Efeito Enxerto vs Leucemia/imunologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/imunologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/patologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/terapia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/imunologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/patologia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Doadores não Relacionados
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