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1.
Pathogens ; 12(2)2023 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36839447

RESUMO

Wild boars (Sus scrofa) are a significant invasive species in Brazil. We evaluated the helminth diversity of 96 wild boars in São Paulo state. Helminth infection descriptors were calculated, the species were identified and their 18S, 28S rDNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified for phylogenetic analyses. Ascarops strongylina, Strongyloides ransomi, Globocephalus urosubulatus, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Trichuris suis, Metastrongylus salmi, Metastrongylus pudendotecus, Ascaris suum and Stephanurus dentatus and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus were identified. Globocephalus urosubulatus had the highest prevalence and mean abundance, and most animals had mixed infections with three parasite species. There was no association between parasite intensity and prevalence and host sex and body condition index (p > 0.05). Novel DNA sequences were obtained from G. urosubulatus, A. strongylina, and S. dentatus. This is the first study on the helmint diversity of non-captive wild boars in Brazil, and the first report of the occurrence of M. hirudinaceus, G. urosubulatus and S. dentatus in Brazilian wild boars. Non-captive wild boars of São Paulo State did not act as capture hosts for native helminth species but maintained their typical parasites, common to domestic pigs. They may act as parasite dispersers for low-tech subsistence pig farming and for native Tayassuidae.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30961824

RESUMO

Mycoplasma suis, the etiological agent of swine hemoplasmosis, is an epicellular bacterium that adheres to the surface of pig erythrocytes leading to deformations of the target cells. Little is known about the occurrence of M. suis in wild swine populations around the world, its economic impact on swine herds, and the risk of human infection. The aim of this study was to investigate, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on the 16S rRNA gene, the occurrence of M. suis in a captive population of white-lipped peccaries (100 Tayassu pecari) and in free-living wild boars (14 Sus scrofa) in Brazil. None of the white-lipped peccaries were positive for M. suis, whereas seven (50%) wild boars were positive in qPCR assays. The quantification of M. suis-16S rRNA copies/µL ranged from 1.42 × 10° to 3.906 × 101 in positive animals, indicating a low bacteremia and a chronic carrier status in free-living wild boars. In conclusion, M. suis might be a non-frequent pathogen in wild suids maintained in captivity. Despite the low bacteremia, the prevalence of M. suis in wild boar population in Brazil seems to be high.


Assuntos
Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma/genética , Mycoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/veterinária , Brasil/epidemiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/genética , Tipagem Molecular , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Sus scrofa , Suínos
3.
Parasitol Res ; 117(4): 1013-1024, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470712

RESUMO

Four species of Mammomonogamus are known from large African herbivores. A recent study demonstrated that a single Mammomonogamus species was shared by both western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) in Central African Republic, suggesting lower species diversity than previously described in literature. We examined more than 500 fecal samples collected from sympatric African forest elephants, western lowland gorillas, and African forest buffaloes (Syncerus caffer nanus) at four study sites across Central Africa and examined them by coproscopic methods to detect Mammomonogamus eggs, which were found at three of the study sites. Subsequently, sequences of 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, and cox1 amplified from individual eggs were analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA revealed two clades: one formed by sequences originating from Gabonese buffaloes and the other comprising gorillas and elephants. The gorilla-elephant clade was further differentiated depending on the locality. We show the existence of at least two distinct species of Mammomonogamus, M. loxodontis in elephants and gorillas and M. nasicola in buffaloes. The available information on Mammomonogamus in African herbivores is reviewed.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/genética , Entamoeba/isolamento & purificação , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Strongyloidea , Animais , Búfalos/parasitologia , Carboxipeptidases/genética , República Centro-Africana , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Elefantes/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Gorilla gorilla/parasitologia , Herbivoria , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Strongyloidea/classificação , Strongyloidea/genética , Strongyloidea/isolamento & purificação
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 26(2): 143-151, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28746444

RESUMO

This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39'58"S, 49°8'49"W), state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1%) adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) and 2,347 (44.9%) Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae), both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low (species richness = 2), with a Simpson index (D) equal to 0.505, and low values of Brillouin (HB = 0.687) and Margalef diversity (I = 0.117) indices. Berger-Parker's index of dominance (p = 0.551) indicated a slight dominance of the monogenean parasite D. piscinarius. There was a positive correlation, assessed by Pearson coefficient between parasite abundance of D. piscinarius and standard length (r = 0.43) and weight (r = 0.51) of hosts.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Perciformes/parasitologia , Rios , Animais , Brasil
5.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 143-151, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-899277

RESUMO

Abstract This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39′58"S, 49°8′49"W), state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1%) adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) and 2,347 (44.9%) Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae), both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low (species richness = 2), with a Simpson index (D) equal to 0.505, and low values of Brillouin (HB = 0.687) and Margalef diversity (I = 0.117) indices. Berger-Parker's index of dominance (p = 0.551) indicated a slight dominance of the monogenean parasite D. piscinarius. There was a positive correlation, assessed by Pearson coefficient between parasite abundance of D. piscinarius and standard length (r = 0.43) and weight (r = 0.51) of hosts.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e analisar as comunidades e infracomunidades de metazoários parasitos de corvinas capturadas no Reservatório de Promissão, Rio Tietê, município de Borborema (21° 67′S, 49° 14′O), Estado de São Paulo. Foram examinados 50 espécimes, capturados por pescadores profissionais no mês de março de 2015, e os parasitas coletados foram quantificados, preparados e montados para identificação taxonômica e análise das comunidades de parasitos. Os peixes analisados no estudo apresentaram comprimento padrão médio de 25,2 ± 2,2 cm e peso médio de 328,82 ± 89,03 g. Foram coletados 5227 espécimes de parasitas metazoários, sendo 2880 (55,1%) Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae) e 2347 (44,9%) metacercárias de Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea, Diplostomidae), ambos com prevalência de 100% e abundância parasitária de 57,6 e 46,9, respectivamente. Foi encontrada baixa diversidade parasitária (riqueza de espécies=2), com índice de Simpson (D) igual a 0,505 e baixos valores dos índices de Shannon (H'=0,688) e de diversidade de Margalef (I=0,177). O índice de dominância de Berger-Parker (d=0,551) indicou uma leve dominância do monogenético D. piscinarius. Houve correlação positiva intermediária, avaliada pelo coeficiente de Pearson, entre a abundância parasitária de D. piscinarius e comprimento padrão (r=0,43) e peso (r=0,51) dos hospedeiros.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes/parasitologia , Rios , Espécies Introduzidas , Brasil
6.
Parasitol Res ; 115(8): 3229-37, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27121257

RESUMO

Amazonia, the largest Brazilian biome, is one of the most diverse biomes around the world. Considering the Brazilian chiropteran species, 120 out of known 167 species are registered in Pará state, with 10 endemic species. Despite the high diversity of bats in Amazonia, studies on their parasites, especially on helminths, are scarce. Therefore, the present study aims to study the helminth fauna of different bats from the Pará state, Amazon biome, determine the descriptors of infection, and evaluate the host-parasite interactions, as well as evaluate differences in ecological indexes in accordance with the feeding guilds. The study was developed on 67 bats of 21 species captured in several areas of the Pará state. The animals were identified, divided into feeding guilds, and necropsied. The parasites obtained were identified and quantified. A total of 182 parasites were found in 20.89 % of the studied bats, representing nine species, as follows: Anenterotrema eduardocaballeroi, Anenterotrema liliputianum, Ochoterenatrema caballeroi, Tricholeiperia sp., Parahistiostrongylus octacanthus, Litomosoides guiterasi, Litomosoides brasiliensis, Capillariinae gen. sp., and Hymenolepididae gen. sp. Also, the results indicated that there was no impact of parasitism on host body condition and no relationship between sex and parasite intensity. In relation to the feeding guilds, the omnivores showed higher prevalence and mean intensity. Animals from regions closer to the equator tend to have greater richness in parasite species, but the present study revealed low diversity and richness in species. In conclusion, the ecological pattern observed for other animal groups, in which higher parasitic diversity are registered in lower latitudes, is not applicable to chiropterans from the study area.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/parasitologia , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Helmintos/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Animais , Brasil , Quirópteros/classificação , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Ecologia , Feminino , Helmintos/classificação , Helmintos/genética , Masculino , Prevalência
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