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1.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 21(7): 777-786, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37314366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to explore thresholds with interaction effects among antibiotic usage, covariates (alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR)), and their effect on extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae) in hospitalized patients. METHODS: Multivariate Adaptive Regression Spline models were used. These considered second-order interactions among antibiotic use and ABHR in addition to potential thresholds that further improve explained variance in the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae response. The study involved collecting monthly hospital-level data for January 2017-December 2021. RESULTS: Analysis of the main effects showed that third-generation cephalosporins above 2.00 DDD/100 occupied bed days (OBD) generally increased ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae incidence (cases/100 OBD). Levels of ABHR above 6.61 L/100 OBD were shown to generally decrease ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae incidence. Second-order interactions revealed that when third-generation cephalosporin use was greater than 3.71 DDD/100 OBD, and ABHR was greater than 6.6 L/100 OBD (same as main effect threshold), ABHR partially lost effectiveness in its ability to reduce ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae incidence. This demonstrates the importance of not exceeding the identified thresholds of 3.71 DDD/100 OBD for third-generation cephalosporin use. CONCLUSION: The main-effect thresholds in third-generation cephalosporins and ABHR, and the identified interaction between third-generation cephalosporins and ABHR can inform effective hospital antimicrobial stewardship.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Infecções por Klebsiella , Humanos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Infecções por Klebsiella/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Klebsiella/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Etanol , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(11): 1679-1686, 2022 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449638

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results in similar clinical characteristics as bacterial respiratory tract infections and can potentially lead to antibiotic overuse. This study aimed to determine the changes in hospital antimicrobial usage before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: We compared antimicrobial consumption data for 2019 and 2020. Inpatient antibiotic consumption was determined and expressed as a defined daily dose (DDD) per 100 occupied bed days, following the World Health Organization (WHO) methods. The WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification was used. RESULTS: The total antimicrobial consumption in 2020 increased by 16.3% compared to consumption in 2019. In 2020, there was a reduction in fourth-generation cephalosporins (-30%), third-generation cephalosporins (-29%), and combinations of penicillins (-23%). In contrast, antibiotics that were consumed more during 2020 compared with 2019 included linezolid (374%), vancomycin (66.6%), and carbapenem (7%). Linezolid is the only antibiotic from the Reserve group on the hospital's formulary. Antibiotic usage from the Access group was reduced by 17%, while antibiotic usage from the Watch group and the Reserve group was increased by 3% and 374%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings show a significant shift in antibiotic usage from the Access group to the Watch and Reserve groups. The Watch and Reserve groups are known to be associated with increased resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, antimicrobial stewardship should be increased and maintained during the pandemic to ensure appropriate antibiotic use.


Assuntos
Tratamento Farmacológico da COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Linezolida , Hospitais , Cefalosporinas/uso terapêutico
3.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 11(6)2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35740181

RESUMO

Solutions are needed to inform antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) regarding balancing the access to effective antimicrobials with the need to control antimicrobial resistance. Theoretical and mathematical models suggest a non-linear relationship between antibiotic use and resistance, indicating the existence of thresholds of antibiotic use beyond which resistance would be triggered. It is anticipated that thresholds may vary across populations depending on host, environment, and organism factors. Further research is needed to evaluate thresholds in antibiotic use for a specific pathogen across different settings. The objective of this study is to identify thresholds of population antibiotic use associated with the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) across six hospital sites in Oman. The study was an ecological, multi-centre evaluation that involved collecting historical antibiotic use and CRAb incidence over the period from January 2015 to December 2019. By using non-linear time-series analysis, we identified different thresholds in the use of third-generation cephalosporins, piperacillin-tazobactam, aminoglycoside, and fluoroquinolones across participating hospitals. The identification of different thresholds emphasises the need for tailored analysis based on modelling data from each hospital. The determined thresholds can be used to set targets for each hospital AMS, providing a balance between access to these antibiotics versus controlling CRAb incidence.

6.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(10)2021 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696268

RESUMO

The Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disproportionately affected people living and working in care homes. This study aimed to explore the experience of care home managers on the implementation and uptake of the COVID-19 vaccination programme by residents and staff in care homes in Northern Ireland. An exploratory mixed methods approach was used, i.e., semi-structured interviews to design the cross-sectional survey and content analysis of statements using open ended questions. Care home managers were approached and sixty-seven valid quantitative and forty-nine descriptive responses were analysed. The study identified eight themes which described factors that motivated residents (family visits and relationship with managers and staff), and staff vaccine uptake (return to normal life at work and trust in care home managers). The identified themes also confirmed that vaccine uptake is negatively influenced by perceived side effects. The findings indicated that social media can promote or decelerate the uptake of vaccine despite the accessibility to a successful vaccination programme. The study highlights the important role of managers in handling the challenges through building trust and establishing relationships with staff and residents. The findings identified challenges to the uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine by staff and residents that can inform the implementation of future vaccination programmes.

7.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207567

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has overlapping clinical characteristics with bacterial respiratory tract infection, leading to the prescription of potentially unnecessary antibiotics. This study aimed at measuring changes and patterns of national antimicrobial use for one year preceding and one year during the COVID-19 pandemic. Annual national antimicrobial consumption for 2019 and 2020 was obtained from the Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) following the WHO surveillance methods. The WHO Access, Watch, and Reserve (AWaRe) classification was used. Total antibiotic consumption in 2020 (26.8 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day) decreased by 5.5% compared to 2019 (28.4 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day). There was an increase in the use of several antibiotics during 2020 compared with 2019 (third generation cephalosporins (19%), carbapenems (52%), macrolides (57%), and lincosamides (106%)). In 2020, there was a marked reduction in amoxicillin use (-53%), while the use of azithromycin increased by 74%. National antimicrobial consumption of the Access group decreased by 18% from 2019 to 2020 (59.1% vs. 48.1% of total consumption). The use of the Watch group increased in 2020 by 26%. The study highlighted an increase in the use of certain antibiotics during the pandemic period that are known to be associated with increasing resistance. Efforts to enhance national antimicrobial stewardship are needed to ensure rational use of antimicrobials.

8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(2): 524-530, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to public health worldwide. The relationship between the intensity of antibiotic use and resistance might not be linear, suggesting that there might be a threshold of antibiotic use, beyond which resistance would be triggered. OBJECTIVES: To identify thresholds in antibiotic use, below which specific antibiotic classes have no significant measurable impact on the incidence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb), but above which their use correlates with an increase in the incidence of CRAb. METHODS: The study took place at a tertiary teaching hospital in Jordan. The study was ecological in nature and was carried out retrospectively over the period January 2014 to December 2019. The outcome time series for this study was CRAb cases. The primary explanatory variables were monthly use of antibiotics and the use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR). Non-linear time-series methods were used to identify thresholds in antibiotic use. RESULTS: Non-linear time-series analysis determined a threshold in third-generation cephalosporin and carbapenem use, where the maximum use of third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems should not exceed 8 DDD/100 occupied bed days (OBD) and 10 DDD/100 OBD, respectively. ABHR had a significant reducing effect on CRAb cases even at lower usage quantities (0.92 L/100 OBD) and had the most significant effect when ABHR exceeded 3.4 L/100 OBD. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of thresholds, utilizing non-linear time-series methods, can provide a valuable tool to inform hospital antibiotic policies through identifying quantitative targets that balance access to effective therapies with control of resistance. Further studies are needed to validate the identified thresholds, through being prospectively adopted as a target for antimicrobial stewardship programmes, and then to evaluate the impact on reducing CRAb incidence.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter , Acinetobacter baumannii , Infecções por Acinetobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Acinetobacter/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Incidência , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(2): 516-523, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) on reducing broad-spectrum antibiotic use and its effect on carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) in hospitalized patients. METHODS: The study was a retrospective, ecological assessment in a tertiary teaching hospital over 6 years (January 2014 to December 2019). The intervention involved the implementation of an ASP in February 2018, which remains in effect today. This ASP consists of several components, including education, antibiotic guidelines, antibiotic restriction policy with prior approval, audit of compliance to the restriction policy and feedback. Restricted antibiotics were imipenem/cilastatin, ertapenem, meropenem, vancomycin, teicoplanin, tigecycline, colistin, amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The intervention was evaluated by time-series methods. RESULTS: Statistically significant decreases in the level of antibiotic use, after the introduction of the ASP, were observed for the following antibiotics: imipenem/cilastatin (P = 0.0008), all carbapenems (P = 0.0001), vancomycin (P = 0.0006), colistin (P = 0.0016) and third-generation cephalosporins (P = 0.0004). A statistically significant decrease in the slope, after the introduction of the ASP, for ertapenem (P = 0.0044) and ciprofloxacin (P = 0.0117) was observed. For piperacillin/tazobactam, there was a significant increasing trend (P = 0.0208) before the introduction of the ASP. However, this increased trend was halted post-introduction of the ASP (P = 0.4574). The introduction of the ASP was associated with a significant impact on reducing the levels of CRAb (P = 0.0237). CONCLUSIONS: The introduced antimicrobial stewardship interventions contributed to a reduction in the use of several broad-spectrum antibiotics, reversed the trends of increasing use of other antibiotics and were associated with a significant reduction in CRAb.


Assuntos
Acinetobacter baumannii , Gestão de Antimicrobianos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Hospitais , Humanos , Jordânia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos
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