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1.
Hypertension ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder associated with an imbalance in circulating proangiogenic and antiangiogenic proteins. Preclinical evidence implicates microvascular dysfunction as a potential mediator of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular risk. METHODS: Women with singleton pregnancies complicated by severe antepartum-onset preeclampsia and a comparator group with normotensive deliveries underwent cardiac positron emission tomography within 4 weeks of delivery. A control group of premenopausal, nonpostpartum women was also included. Myocardial flow reserve, myocardial blood flow, and coronary vascular resistance were compared across groups. sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1) and PlGF (placental growth factor) were measured at imaging. RESULTS: The primary cohort included 19 women with severe preeclampsia (imaged at a mean of 15.3 days postpartum), 5 with normotensive pregnancy (mean, 14.4 days postpartum), and 13 nonpostpartum female controls. Preeclampsia was associated with lower myocardial flow reserve (ß, -0.67 [95% CI, -1.21 to -0.13]; P=0.016), lower stress myocardial blood flow (ß, -0.68 [95% CI, -1.07 to -0.29] mL/min per g; P=0.001), and higher stress coronary vascular resistance (ß, +12.4 [95% CI, 6.0 to 18.7] mm Hg/mL per min/g; P=0.001) versus nonpostpartum controls. Myocardial flow reserve and coronary vascular resistance after normotensive pregnancy were intermediate between preeclamptic and nonpostpartum groups. Following preeclampsia, myocardial flow reserve was positively associated with time following delivery (P=0.008). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio strongly correlated with rest myocardial blood flow (r=0.71; P<0.001), independent of hemodynamics. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory cross-sectional study, we observed reduced coronary microvascular function in the early postpartum period following preeclampsia, suggesting that systemic microvascular dysfunction in preeclampsia involves coronary microcirculation. Further research is needed to establish interventions to mitigate the risk of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular disease.

2.
medRxiv ; 2024 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38496439

RESUMO

Background: Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder associated with an imbalance in circulating pro- and anti-angiogenic proteins. Preclinical evidence implicates microvascular dysfunction as a potential mediator of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular risk. Methods: Women with singleton pregnancies complicated by severe antepartum-onset preeclampsia and a comparator group with normotensive deliveries underwent cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) within 4 weeks of delivery. A control group of pre-menopausal, non-postpartum women was also included. Myocardial flow reserve (MFR), myocardial blood flow (MBF), and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were compared across groups. Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) were measured at imaging. Results: The primary cohort included 19 women with severe preeclampsia (imaged at a mean 16.0 days postpartum), 5 with normotensive pregnancy (mean 14.4 days postpartum), and 13 non-postpartum female controls. Preeclampsia was associated with lower MFR (ß=-0.67 [95% CI -1.21 to -0.13]; P=0.016), lower stress MBF (ß=-0.68 [95% CI, -1.07 to -0.29] mL/min/g; P=0.001), and higher stress CVR (ß=+12.4 [95% CI 6.0 to 18.7] mmHg/mL/min/g; P=0.001) vs. non-postpartum controls. MFR and CVR after normotensive pregnancy were intermediate between preeclamptic and non-postpartum groups. Following preeclampsia, MFR was positively associated with time following delivery (P=0.008). The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio strongly correlated with rest MBF (r=0.71; P<0.001), independent of hemodynamics. Conclusions: In this exploratory study, we observed reduced coronary microvascular function in the early postpartum period following severe preeclampsia, suggesting that systemic microvascular dysfunction in preeclampsia involves the coronary microcirculation. Further research is needed to establish interventions to mitigate risk of preeclampsia-associated cardiovascular disease.

3.
NEJM Evid ; 3(2): EVIDra2300273, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38320493

RESUMO

Maternal Cardiovascular Health Post-DobbsPregnancy is associated with increasing morbidity and mortality in the United States. In the post-Dobbs era, many pregnant patients at highest risk no longer have access to abortion, which has been a crucial component of standard medical care.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Sistema Cardiovascular , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Saúde Materna
4.
JAMA Cardiol ; 9(3): 209-220, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38170504

RESUMO

Importance: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs), including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia, are important contributors to maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition, women with HDPs face an elevated long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. Objective: To identify proteins in the circulation associated with HDPs. Design, Setting, and Participants: Two-sample mendelian randomization (MR) tested the associations of genetic instruments for cardiovascular disease-related proteins with gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. In downstream analyses, a systematic review of observational data was conducted to evaluate the identified proteins' dynamics across gestation in hypertensive vs normotensive pregnancies, and phenome-wide MR analyses were performed to identify potential non-HDP-related effects associated with the prioritized proteins. Genetic association data for cardiovascular disease-related proteins were obtained from the Systematic and Combined Analysis of Olink Proteins (SCALLOP) consortium. Genetic association data for the HDPs were obtained from recent European-ancestry genome-wide association study meta-analyses for gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Study data were analyzed October 2022 to October 2023. Exposures: Genetic instruments for 90 candidate proteins implicated in cardiovascular diseases, constructed using cis-protein quantitative trait loci (cis-pQTLs). Main Outcomes and Measures: Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Results: Genetic association data for cardiovascular disease-related proteins were obtained from 21 758 participants from the SCALLOP consortium. Genetic association data for the HDPs were obtained from 393 238 female individuals (8636 cases and 384 602 controls) for gestational hypertension and 606 903 female individuals (16 032 cases and 590 871 controls) for preeclampsia. Seventy-five of 90 proteins (83.3%) had at least 1 valid cis-pQTL. Of those, 10 proteins (13.3%) were significantly associated with HDPs. Four were robust to sensitivity analyses for gestational hypertension (cluster of differentiation 40, eosinophil cationic protein [ECP], galectin 3, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]), and 2 were robust for preeclampsia (cystatin B, heat shock protein 27 [HSP27]). Consistent with the MR findings, observational data revealed that lower NT-proBNP (0.76- to 0.88-fold difference vs no HDPs) and higher HSP27 (2.40-fold difference vs no HDPs) levels during the first trimester of pregnancy were associated with increased risk of HDPs, as were higher levels of ECP (1.60-fold difference vs no HDPs). Phenome-wide MR analyses identified 37 unique non-HDP-related protein-disease associations, suggesting potential on-target effects associated with interventions lowering HDP risk through the identified proteins. Conclusions and Relevance: Study findings suggest genetic associations of 4 cardiovascular disease-related proteins with gestational hypertension and 2 associated with preeclampsia. Future studies are required to test the efficacy of targeting the corresponding pathways to reduce HDP risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez , Pré-Eclâmpsia , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Medicina de Precisão/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27
5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 9(2): 174-181, 2024 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950744

RESUMO

Importance: The gold standard for outcome adjudication in clinical trials is medical record review by a physician clinical events committee (CEC), which requires substantial time and expertise. Automated adjudication of medical records by natural language processing (NLP) may offer a more resource-efficient alternative but this approach has not been validated in a multicenter setting. Objective: To externally validate the Community Care Cohort Project (C3PO) NLP model for heart failure (HF) hospitalization adjudication, which was previously developed and tested within one health care system, compared to gold-standard CEC adjudication in a multicenter clinical trial. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective analysis of the Influenza Vaccine to Effectively Stop Cardio Thoracic Events and Decompensated Heart Failure (INVESTED) trial, which compared 2 influenza vaccines in 5260 participants with cardiovascular disease at 157 sites in the US and Canada between September 2016 and January 2019. Analysis was performed from November 2022 to October 2023. Exposures: Individual sites submitted medical records for each hospitalization. The central INVESTED CEC and the C3PO NLP model independently adjudicated whether the cause of hospitalization was HF using the prepared hospitalization dossier. The C3PO NLP model was fine-tuned (C3PO + INVESTED) and a de novo NLP model was trained using half the INVESTED hospitalizations. Main Outcomes and Measures: Concordance between the C3PO NLP model HF adjudication and the gold-standard INVESTED CEC adjudication was measured by raw agreement, κ, sensitivity, and specificity. The fine-tuned and de novo INVESTED NLP models were evaluated in an internal validation cohort not used for training. Results: Among 4060 hospitalizations in 1973 patients (mean [SD] age, 66.4 [13.2] years; 514 [27.4%] female and 1432 [72.6%] male]), 1074 hospitalizations (26%) were adjudicated as HF by the CEC. There was good agreement between the C3PO NLP and CEC HF adjudications (raw agreement, 87% [95% CI, 86-88]; κ, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.66-0.72]). C3PO NLP model sensitivity was 94% (95% CI, 92-95) and specificity was 84% (95% CI, 83-85). The fine-tuned C3PO and de novo NLP models demonstrated agreement of 93% (95% CI, 92-94) and κ of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.77-0.86) and 0.83 (95% CI, 0.79-0.87), respectively, vs the CEC. CEC reviewer interrater reproducibility was 94% (95% CI, 93-95; κ, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.80-0.89]). Conclusions and Relevance: The C3PO NLP model developed within 1 health care system identified HF events with good agreement relative to the gold-standard CEC in an external multicenter clinical trial. Fine-tuning the model improved agreement and approximated human reproducibility. Further study is needed to determine whether NLP will improve the efficiency of future multicenter clinical trials by identifying clinical events at scale.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 82(20): 1936-1948, 2023 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37940231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep learning interpretation of echocardiographic images may facilitate automated assessment of cardiac structure and function. OBJECTIVES: We developed a deep learning model to interpret echocardiograms and examined the association of deep learning-derived echocardiographic measures with incident outcomes. METHODS: We trained and validated a 3-dimensional convolutional neural network model for echocardiographic view classification and quantification of left atrial dimension, left ventricular wall thickness, chamber diameter, and ejection fraction. The training sample comprised 64,028 echocardiograms (n = 27,135) from a retrospective multi-institutional ambulatory cardiology electronic health record sample. Validation was performed in a separate longitudinal primary care sample and an external health care system data set. Cox models evaluated the association of model-derived left heart measures with incident outcomes. RESULTS: Deep learning discriminated echocardiographic views (area under the receiver operating curve >0.97 for parasternal long axis, apical 4-chamber, and apical 2-chamber views vs human expert annotation) and quantified standard left heart measures (R2 range = 0.53 to 0.91 vs study report values). Model performance was similar in 2 external validation samples. Model-derived left heart measures predicted incident heart failure, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and death. A 1-SD lower model-left ventricular ejection fraction was associated with 43% greater risk of heart failure (HR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.23-1.66) and 17% greater risk of death (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.06-1.30). Similar results were observed for other model-derived left heart measures. CONCLUSIONS: Deep learning echocardiographic interpretation accurately quantified standard measures of left heart structure and function, which in turn were associated with future clinical outcomes. Deep learning may enable automated echocardiogram interpretation and disease prediction at scale.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Aprendizado Profundo , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 7557, 2023 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37985769

RESUMO

Systemic inflammation has been implicated in the pathobiology of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Here, we examine the association of upstream mediators of inflammation as ascertained by fatty-acid derived eicosanoid and eicosanoid-related metabolites with HFpEF status and exercise manifestations of HFpEF. Among 510 participants with chronic dyspnea and preserved LVEF who underwent invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing, we find that 70 of 890 eicosanoid and related metabolites are associated with HFpEF status, including 17 named and 53 putative eicosanoids (FDR q-value < 0.1). Prostaglandin (15R-PGF2α, 11ß-dhk-PGF2α) and linoleic acid derivatives (12,13 EpOME) are associated with greater odds of HFpEF, while epoxides (8(9)-EpETE), docosanoids (13,14-DiHDPA), and oxylipins (12-OPDA) are associated with lower odds of HFpEF. Among 70 metabolites, 18 are associated with future development of heart failure in the community. Pro- and anti-inflammatory eicosanoid and related metabolites may contribute to the pathogenesis of HFpEF and serve as potential targets for intervention.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Volume Sistólico , Dispneia , Teste de Esforço , Eicosanoides , Tolerância ao Exercício
8.
J Card Fail ; 2023 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37979670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infertility has been shown to be associated with a greater risk of incident heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We studied the association of infertility with subclinical markers of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, including echocardiographic signs of cardiac remodeling and cardiac biomarkers. METHODS AND RESULTS: A history of infertility was ascertained in 2002 women enrolled in the Framingham Heart Study. We examined the association of infertility with echocardiographic measures and cardiac biomarkers with multivariable-adjusted linear regression models. Among 2002 women (mean age 40.84 ± 9.71 years), 285 (14%) reported a history of infertility. Infertility was associated with a greater E/e' ratio (ß = 0.120, standard error 0.057, P = .04), even after adjustment for common confounders. Infertility was not associated with other echocardiographic measures or cardiac biomarkers. CONCLUSIONS: Infertility was associated with a greater E/e' ratio, a marker of diastolic dysfunction that may signal earlier subclinical cardiac remodeling in women with infertility.

9.
Eur Respir J ; 62(4)2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37857430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eicosanoids are bioactive lipids that regulate systemic inflammation and exert vasoactive effects. Specific eicosanoid metabolites have previously been associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH), yet their role remains incompletely understood. METHODS: We studied 482 participants with chronic dyspnoea who underwent clinically indicated cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) with invasive haemodynamic monitoring. We performed comprehensive profiling of 888 eicosanoids and eicosanoid-related metabolites using directed non-targeted mass spectrometry, and examined associations with PH (mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) >20 mmHg), PH subtypes and physiological correlates, including transpulmonary metabolite gradients. RESULTS: Among 482 participants (mean±sd age 56±16 years, 62% women), 200 had rest PH. We found 48 eicosanoids and eicosanoid-related metabolites that were associated with PH. Specifically, prostaglandin (11ß-dhk-PGF2α), linoleic acid (12,13-EpOME) and arachidonic acid derivatives (11,12-DiHETrE) were associated with higher odds of PH (false discovery rate q<0.05 for all). By contrast, epoxide (8(9)-EpETE), α-linolenic acid (13(S)-HOTrE(γ)) and lipokine derivatives (12,13-DiHOME) were associated with lower odds. Among PH-related eicosanoids, 14 showed differential transpulmonary metabolite gradients, with directionality suggesting that metabolites associated with lower odds of PH also displayed pulmonary artery uptake. In individuals with exercise PH, eicosanoid profiles were intermediate between no PH and rest PH, with six metabolites that differed between rest and exercise PH. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the role of specific eicosanoids, including linoleic acid and epoxide derivatives, as potential regulators of inflammation in PH. Of note, physiological correlates, including transpulmonary metabolite gradients, may prioritise future studies focused on eicosanoid-related pathways as important contributors to PH pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Masculino , Ácido Linoleico , Eicosanoides/metabolismo , Inflamação , Compostos de Epóxi
10.
medRxiv ; 2023 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37662283

RESUMO

Background: The gold standard for outcome adjudication in clinical trials is chart review by a physician clinical events committee (CEC), which requires substantial time and expertise. Automated adjudication by natural language processing (NLP) may offer a more resource-efficient alternative. We previously showed that the Community Care Cohort Project (C3PO) NLP model adjudicates heart failure (HF) hospitalizations accurately within one healthcare system. Methods: This study externally validated the C3PO NLP model against CEC adjudication in the INVESTED trial. INVESTED compared influenza vaccination formulations in 5260 patients with cardiovascular disease at 157 North American sites. A central CEC adjudicated the cause of hospitalizations from medical records. We applied the C3PO NLP model to medical records from 4060 INVESTED hospitalizations and evaluated agreement between the NLP and final consensus CEC HF adjudications. We then fine-tuned the C3PO NLP model (C3PO+INVESTED) and trained a de novo model using half the INVESTED hospitalizations, and evaluated these models in the other half. NLP performance was benchmarked to CEC reviewer inter-rater reproducibility. Results: 1074 hospitalizations (26%) were adjudicated as HF by the CEC. There was high agreement between the C3PO NLP and CEC HF adjudications (agreement 87%, kappa statistic 0.69). C3PO NLP model sensitivity was 94% and specificity was 84%. The fine-tuned C3PO and de novo NLP models demonstrated agreement of 93% and kappa of 0.82 and 0.83, respectively. CEC reviewer inter-rater reproducibility was 94% (kappa 0.85). Conclusion: Our NLP model developed within a single healthcare system accurately identified HF events relative to the gold-standard CEC in an external multi-center clinical trial. Fine-tuning the model improved agreement and approximated human reproducibility. NLP may improve the efficiency of future multi-center clinical trials by accurately identifying clinical events at scale.

11.
J Clin Med ; 12(17)2023 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37685580

RESUMO

Vascular aging, i.e., the deterioration of the structure and function of the arteries over the life course, predicts cardiovascular events and mortality. Vascular degeneration can be recognized before becoming clinically symptomatic; therefore, its assessment allows the early identification of individuals at risk. This opens the possibility of minimizing disease progression. To review these issues, a search was completed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar from 2000 to date. As a network of clinicians and scientists involved in vascular medicine, we here describe the structural and functional age-dependent alterations of the arteries, the clinical tools for an early diagnosis of vascular aging, and the cellular and molecular events implicated. It emerges that more studies are necessary to identify the best strategy to quantify vascular aging, and to design proper physical activity programs, nutritional and pharmacological strategies, as well as social interventions to prevent, delay, and eventually revert the disease.

12.
Circ Heart Fail ; 16(11): e010618, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37703087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and adiposity are associated with an increased risk of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF); yet, specific underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We sought to examine the association of obesity-related biomarkers including adipokines (leptin, resistin, adiponectin), inflammatory markers (CRP [C-reactive protein], IL-6 [interleukin-6]), and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with HFpEF status, exercise capacity, and cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We studied 509 consecutive patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50% and chronic dyspnea, who underwent clinically indicated cardiopulmonary exercise test with invasive hemodynamic monitoring between 2006 and 2017. We defined HFpEF based on the presence of elevated left ventricular filling pressures at rest or during exercise. Fasting blood samples collected at the time of the cardiopulmonary exercise test were used to assay obesity-related biomarkers. We examined the association of log-transformed biomarkers with HFpEF status and exercise traits using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models. RESULTS: We observed associations of obesity-related biomarkers with measures of impaired exercise capacity including peak VO2 (P≤0.002 for all biomarkers). The largest effect size was seen with leptin, where a 1-SD higher leptin was associated with a 2.35 mL/kg per min lower peak VO2 (ß, -2.35±0.19; P<0.001). In addition, specific biomarkers were associated with distinct measures of exercise reserve including blood pressure (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, adiponectin; P≤0.002 for all), and chronotropic response (CRP, IL-6, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, leptin, and resistin; P<0.05 for all). Our findings suggest that among the obesity-related biomarkers studied, higher levels of leptin and CRP are independently associated with increased odds of HFpEF, with odds ratios of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09-1.70) and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.03-1.52), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Specific obesity-related pathways including inflammation, adipokine signaling, and insulin resistance may underlie the association of obesity with HFpEF and exercise intolerance.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Resistência à Insulina , Humanos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Leptina , Resistina , Adiponectina , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Interleucina-6 , Obesidade/complicações , Biomarcadores , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia
13.
JCI Insight ; 8(22)2023 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37707956

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDCardiorenal syndrome (CRS) - renal injury during heart failure (HF) - is linked to high morbidity. Whether circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their RNA cargo directly impact its pathogenesis remains unclear.METHODSWe investigated the role of circulating EVs from patients with CRS on renal epithelial/endothelial cells using a microfluidic kidney-on-chip (KOC) model. The small RNA cargo of circulating EVs was regressed against serum creatinine to prioritize subsets of functionally relevant EV-miRNAs and their mRNA targets investigated using in silico pathway analysis, human genetics, and interrogation of expression in the KOC model and in renal tissue. The functional effects of EV-RNAs on kidney epithelial cells were experimentally validated.RESULTSRenal epithelial and endothelial cells in the KOC model exhibited uptake of EVs from patients with HF. HF-CRS EVs led to higher expression of renal injury markers (IL18, LCN2, HAVCR1) relative to non-CRS EVs. A total of 15 EV-miRNAs were associated with creatinine, targeting 1,143 gene targets specifying pathways relevant to renal injury, including TGF-ß and AMPK signaling. We observed directionally consistent changes in the expression of TGF-ß pathway members (BMP6, FST, TIMP3) in the KOC model exposed to CRS EVs, which were validated in epithelial cells treated with corresponding inhibitors and mimics of miRNAs. A similar trend was observed in renal tissue with kidney injury. Mendelian randomization suggested a role for FST in renal function.CONCLUSIONPlasma EVs in patients with CRS elicit adverse transcriptional and phenotypic responses in a KOC model by regulating biologically relevant pathways, suggesting a role for EVs in CRS.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT03345446.FUNDINGAmerican Heart Association (AHA) (SFRN16SFRN31280008); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (1R35HL150807-01); National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UH3 TR002878); and AHA (23CDA1045944).


Assuntos
Síndrome Cardiorrenal , Vesículas Extracelulares , Insuficiência Cardíaca , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Síndrome Cardiorrenal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
14.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 12(16): e028849, 2023 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37548169

RESUMO

Background Premature and early menopause are independently associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, mechanisms linking age of menopause with CVD remain poorly characterized. Methods and Results We measured 71 circulating CVD protein biomarkers in 1565 postmenopausal women enrolled in the FHS (Framingham Heart Study). We examined the association of early menopause with biomarkers and tested whether early menopause modified the association of biomarkers with incident cardiovascular outcomes (heart failure, major CVD, and all-cause death) using multivariable-adjusted linear regression and Cox models, respectively. Among 1565 postmenopausal women included (mean age 62 years), 395 (25%) had a history of early menopause. Of 71 biomarkers examined, we identified 7 biomarkers that were significantly associated with early menopause, of which 5 were higher in women with early menopause including adrenomedullin and resistin, and 2 were higher in women without early menopause including insulin growth factor-1 and CNTN1 (contactin-1) (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P<0.1 for all). Early menopause also modified the association of specific biomarkers with incident cardiovascular outcomes including adrenomedullin (Pint<0.05). Conclusions Early menopause is associated with circulating levels of CVD protein biomarkers and appears to modify the association between select biomarkers with incident cardiovascular outcomes. Identified biomarkers reflect several distinct biological pathways, including inflammation, adiposity, and neurohormonal regulation. Further investigation of these pathways may provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of early menopause-associated CVD.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Menopausa Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Adrenomedulina , Menopausa , Biomarcadores , Fatores de Risco
16.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 16(4): 340-349, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37278238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) models applied to 12-lead ECG waveforms can predict atrial fibrillation (AF), a heritable and morbid arrhythmia. However, the factors forming the basis of risk predictions from AI models are usually not well understood. We hypothesized that there might be a genetic basis for an AI algorithm for predicting the 5-year risk of new-onset AF using 12-lead ECGs (ECG-AI)-based risk estimates. METHODS: We applied a validated ECG-AI model for predicting incident AF to ECGs from 39 986 UK Biobank participants without AF. We then performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the predicted AF risk and compared it with an AF GWAS and a GWAS of risk estimates from a clinical variable model. RESULTS: In the ECG-AI GWAS, we identified 3 signals (P<5×10-8) at established AF susceptibility loci marked by the sarcomeric gene TTN and sodium channel genes SCN5A and SCN10A. We also identified 2 novel loci near the genes VGLL2 and EXT1. In contrast, the clinical variable model prediction GWAS indicated a different genetic profile. In genetic correlation analysis, the prediction from the ECG-AI model was estimated to have a higher correlation with AF than that from the clinical variable model. CONCLUSIONS: Predicted AF risk from an ECG-AI model is influenced by genetic variation implicating sarcomeric, ion channel and body height pathways. ECG-AI models may identify individuals at risk for disease via specific biological pathways.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Inteligência Artificial , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Eletrocardiografia
17.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 81(23): 2231-2242, 2023 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37286252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2022 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA)/Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) clinical practice guideline proposed an updated definition for heart failure (HF) stages. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare prevalence and prognosis of HF stages according to classification/definition originally described in 2013 and 2022 ACC/AHA/HFSA definitions. METHODS: Study participants from 3 longitudinal cohorts (the MESA [Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis], CHS [Cardiovascular Health Study], and the FHS [Framingham Heart Study]), were categorized into 4 HF stages according to the 2013 and 2022 criteria. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess predictors of progression to symptomatic HF and adverse clinical outcomes associated with each HF stage. RESULTS: Among 11,618 study participants, according to the 2022 staging, 1,943 (16.7%) were healthy, 4,348 (37.4%) were in stage A (at risk), 5,019 (43.2%) were in stage B (pre-HF), and 308 (2.7%) were in stage C/D (symptomatic HF). Compared to the classification/definition originally described in 2013, the 2022 ACC/AHA/HFSA approach resulted in a higher proportion of individuals with stage B HF (increase from 15.9% to 43.2%); this shift disproportionately involved women as well as Hispanic and Black individuals. Despite the 2022 criteria designating a greater proportion of individuals as stage B, the relative risk of progression to symptomatic HF remained similar (HR: 10.61; 95% CI: 9.00-12.51; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: New standards for HF staging resulted in a substantial shift of community-based individuals from stage A to stage B. Those with stage B HF in the new system were at high risk for progression to symptomatic HF.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Cardiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Prognóstico , American Heart Association
18.
medRxiv ; 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37205587

RESUMO

Valvular heart disease is associated with a high global burden of disease. Even mild aortic stenosis confers increased morbidity and mortality, prompting interest in understanding normal variation in valvular function at scale. We developed a deep learning model to study velocity-encoded magnetic resonance imaging in 47,223 UK Biobank participants. We calculated eight traits, including peak velocity, mean gradient, aortic valve area, forward stroke volume, mitral and aortic regurgitant volume, greatest average velocity, and ascending aortic diameter. We then computed sex-stratified reference ranges for these phenotypes in up to 31,909 healthy individuals. In healthy individuals, we found an annual decrement of 0.03cm 2 in the aortic valve area. Participants with mitral valve prolapse had a 1 standard deviation [SD] higher mitral regurgitant volume (P=9.6 × 10 -12 ), and those with aortic stenosis had a 4.5 SD-higher mean gradient (P=1.5 × 10 -431 ), validating the derived phenotypes' associations with clinical disease. Greater levels of ApoB, triglycerides, and Lp(a) assayed nearly 10 years prior to imaging were associated with higher gradients across the aortic valve. Metabolomic profiles revealed that increased glycoprotein acetyls were also associated with an increased aortic valve mean gradient (0.92 SD, P=2.1 x 10 -22 ). Finally, velocity-derived phenotypes were risk markers for aortic and mitral valve surgery even at thresholds below what is considered relevant disease currently. Using machine learning to quantify the rich phenotypic data of the UK Biobank, we report the largest assessment of valvular function and cardiovascular disease in the general population.

19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 98(4): 549-558, 2023 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37019514

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of serial C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements in predicting the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and mortality. METHODS: The analysis was performed using data from two prospective, population-based observational cohorts: the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease (PREVEND) study and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). A total of 9253 participants had CRP measurements available at two examinations (PREVEND: 1997-1998 and 2001-2002; FHS Offspring cohort: 1995-1998 and 1998-2001). All CRP measurements were natural log-transformed before analyses. Cardiovascular disease included fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular events, and heart failure. Cancer included all malignancies except nonmelanoma skin cancers. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population at baseline was 52.4±12.1 years and 51.2% (n=4733) were women. Advanced age, female sex, smoking, body mass index, and total cholesterol were associated with greater increases in CRP levels over time (Pall<.001 in the multivariable model). Baseline CRP, as well as increase in CRP over time (ΔCRP), were associated with incident CVD (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.29 per 1-SD increase; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29 to 1.47, and HR per 1-SD increase: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.29 respectively). Similar findings were observed for incident cancer (baseline CRP, HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.26; ΔCRP, HR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.15) and mortality (baseline CRP, HR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.37; ΔCRP, HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.16). CONCLUSION: Initial as well as subsequent increases in CRP levels predict future CVD, cancer, and mortality in the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37090632

RESUMO

Genes from ancient families are sometimes involved in the convergent evolutionary origins of similar traits, even across vast phylogenetic distances. Sulfotransferases are an ancient family of enzymes that transfer sulfate from a donor to a wide variety of substrates, including probable roles in some bioluminescence systems. Here we demonstrate multiple sulfotransferases, highly expressed in light organs of the bioluminescent ostracod Vargula tsujii , transfer sulfate in vivo to the luciferin substrate, vargulin. We find luciferin sulfotransferases of ostracods are not orthologous to known luciferin sulfotransferases of fireflies or sea pansies; animals with distinct and convergently evolved bioluminescence systems compared to ostracods. Therefore, distantly related sulfotransferases were independently recruited at least three times, leading to parallel evolution of luciferin metabolism in three highly diverged organisms. Re-use of homologous genes is surprising in these bioluminescence systems because the other components, including luciferins and luciferases, are completely distinct. Whether convergently evolved traits incorporate ancient genes with similar functions or instead use distinct, often newer, genes may be constrained by how many genetic solutions exist for a particular function. When fewer solutions exist, as in genetic sulfation of small molecules, evolution may be more constrained to use the same genes time and again.

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