*Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2684, 2024 Feb 01.*

##### RESUMO

We introduce the gapped coherent state in the form of a single-photon source (SPS) that consists of uncorrelated photons as a background, except that we demand that no two photons can be closer in time than a time gap [Formula: see text]. While no obvious quantum mechanism is yet identified to produce exactly such a photon stream, a numerical simulation is easily achieved by first generating an uncorrelated (Poissonian) signal and then for each photon in the list, either adding such a time gap or removing all photons that are closer in time from each other than [Formula: see text]. We study the statistical properties of such a hypothetical signal, which exhibits counter-intuitive features. This provides a neat and natural connection between continuous-wave (stationary) and pulsed single-photon sources, with also a bearing on what it means for such sources to be perfect in terms of single-photon emission.

*Opt Express ; 29(23): 37262-37280, 2021 Nov 08.*

##### RESUMO

Quantum vortices are the analogue of classical vortices in optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, superfluids and superconductors, where they provide the elementary mode of rotation and orbital angular momentum. While they mediate important pair interactions and phase transitions in nonlinear fluids, their linear dynamics is useful for the shaping of complex light, as well as for topological entities in multi-component systems, such as full Bloch beams. Here, setting a quantum vortex into directional motion in an open-dissipative fluid of microcavity polaritons, we observe the self-splitting of the packet, leading to the trembling movement of its center of mass, whereas the vortex core undergoes ultrafast spiraling along diverging and converging circles, in a sub-picosecond precessing fashion. This singular dynamics is accompanied by vortex-antivortex pair creation and annihilation and a periodically changing topological charge. The spiraling and branching mechanics represent a direct manifestation of the underlying Bloch pseudospin space, whose mapping is shown to be rotating and splitting itself. Its reshaping is due to three simultaneous drives along the distinct directions of momentum and complex frequency, by means of the differential group velocities, Rabi frequency and dissipation rates, which are natural assets in coupled fields such as polaritons. This state, displaying linear momentum dressed with oscillating angular momentum, confirms the richness of multi-component and open quantum fluids and their innate potentiality to implement sophisticated and dynamical topological textures of light.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 125(17): 170402, 2020 Oct 23.*

##### RESUMO

Resonance fluorescence has played a major role in quantum optics with predictions and later experimental confirmation of nonclassical features of its emitted light such as antibunching or squeezing. In the Rayleigh regime where most of the light originates from the scattering of photons with subnatural linewidth, antibunching would appear to coexist with sharp spectral lines. Here, we demonstrate that this simultaneous observation of subnatural linewidth and antibunching is not possible with simple resonant excitation. Using an epitaxial quantum dot for the two-level system, we independently confirm the single-photon character and subnatural linewidth by demonstrating antibunching in a Hanbury Brown and Twiss type setup and using high-resolution spectroscopy, respectively. However, when filtering the coherently scattered photons with filter bandwidths on the order of the homogeneous linewidth of the excited state of the two-level system, the antibunching dip vanishes in the correlation measurement. Our observation is explained by antibunching originating from photon-interferences between the coherent scattering and a weak incoherent signal in a skewed squeezed state. This prefigures schemes to achieve simultaneous subnatural linewidth and antibunched emission.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 124(5): 053601, 2020 Feb 07.*

##### RESUMO

We demonstrate theoretically the bundle emission of n strongly correlated phonons in an acoustic cavity QED system. The mechanism relies on Stokes resonances that generate super-Rabi oscillations between states with a large difference in their number of excitations, which, combined with dissipation, transfer coherently pure n-phonon states outside of the cavity. This process works with close to perfect purity over a wide range of parameters and is tunable optically with well-resolved operation conditions. This broadens the realm of quantum phononics, with potential applications for on-chip quantum information processing, quantum metrology, and engineering of new types of quantum devices, such as optically heralded n-phonon guns.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 121(5): 055302, 2018 Aug 03.*

##### RESUMO

Negative effective masses can be realized by engineering the dispersion relation of a variety of quantum systems. A recent experiment with spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates has shown that a negative effective mass can halt the free expansion of the condensate and lead to fringes in the density [M. A. Khamehchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 155301 (2017)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.118.155301]. Here, we show that the underlying cause of these observations is the self-interference of the wave packet that arises when only one of the two effective mass parameters that characterize the dispersion of the system is negative. We show that spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates may access regimes where both mass parameters controlling the propagation and diffusion of the condensate are negative, which leads to the novel phenomenon of counterpropagating self-interfering packets.

*Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6975, 2018 May 03.*

##### RESUMO

We adapt the Quantum Monte Carlo method to the cascaded formalism of quantum optics, allowing us to simulate the emission of photons of known energy. Statistical processing of the photon clicks thus collected agrees with the theory of frequency-resolved photon correlations, extending the range of applications based on correlations of photons of prescribed energy, in particular those of a photon-counting character. We apply the technique to autocorrelations of photon streams from a two-level system under coherent and incoherent pumping, including the Mollow triplet regime where we demonstrate the direct manifestation of leapfrog processes in producing an increased rate of two-photon emission events.

*Sci Adv ; 4(4): eaao6814, 2018 04.*

##### RESUMO

Polaritons are quasi-particles that originate from the coupling of light with matter and that demonstrate quantum phenomena at the many-particle mesoscopic level, such as Bose-Einstein condensation and superfluidity. A highly sought and long-time missing feature of polaritons is a genuine quantum manifestation of their dynamics at the single-particle level. Although they are conceptually perceived as entangled states and theoretical proposals abound for an explicit manifestation of their single-particle properties, so far their behavior has remained fully accounted for by classical and mean-field theories. We report the first experimental demonstration of a genuinely quantum state of the microcavity polariton field, by swapping a photon for a polariton in a two-photon entangled state generated by parametric downconversion. When bringing this single-polariton quantum state in contact with a polariton condensate, we observe a disentangling with the external photon. This manifestation of a polariton quantum state involving a single quantum unlocks new possibilities for quantum information processing with interacting bosons.

*Nat Mater ; 17(2): 145-151, 2018 02.*

##### RESUMO

The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a disordered to a quasi-ordered state, mediated by the proliferation of topological defects in two dimensions, governs seemingly remote physical systems ranging from liquid helium, ultracold atoms and superconducting thin films to ensembles of spins. Here we observe such a transition in a short-lived gas of exciton-polaritons, bosonic light-matter particles in semiconductor microcavities. The observed quasi-ordered phase, characteristic for an equilibrium two-dimensional bosonic gas, with a decay of coherence in both spatial and temporal domains with the same algebraic exponent, is reproduced with numerical solutions of stochastic dynamics, proving that the mechanism of pairing of the topological defects (vortices) is responsible for the transition to the algebraic order. This is made possible thanks to long polariton lifetimes in high-quality samples and in a reservoir-free region. Our results show that the joint measurement of coherence both in space and time is required to characterize driven-dissipative phase transitions and enable the investigation of topological ordering in open systems.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 118(21): 215301, 2017 May 26.*

##### RESUMO

We report a record-size, two-dimensional polariton condensate of a fraction of a millimeter radius free from the presence of an exciton reservoir. This macroscopically occupied state is formed by the ballistically expanding polariton flow that relaxes and condenses over a large area outside of the excitation spot. The density of this trap-free condensate is <1 polariton/µm^{2}, reducing the phase noise induced by the interaction energy. Moreover, the backflow effect, recently predicted for the nonparabolic polariton dispersion, is observed here for the first time in the fast-expanding wave packet.

*Sci Rep ; 6: 28930, 2016 07 25.*

##### RESUMO

The dynamics of coupled condensates is a wide-encompassing problem with relevance to superconductors, BECs in traps, superfluids, etc. Here, we provide a unified picture of this fundamental problem that includes i) detuning of the free energies, ii) different self-interaction strengths and iii) finite lifetime of the modes. At such, this is particularly relevant for the dynamics of polaritons, both for their internal dynamics between their light and matter constituents, as well as for the more conventional dynamics of two spatially separated condensates. Polaritons are short-lived, interact only through their material fraction and are easily detuned. At such, they bring several variations to their atomic counterpart. We show that the combination of these parameters results in important twists to the phenomenology of the Josephson effect, such as the behaviour of the relative phase (running or oscillating) or the occurence of self-trapping. We undertake a comprehensive stability analysis of the fixed points on a normalized Bloch sphere, that allows us to provide a generalized criterion to identify the Rabi and Josephson regimes in presence of detuning and decay.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 116(2): 026401, 2016 Jan 15.*

##### RESUMO

We study the propagation of noninteracting polariton wave packets. We show how two qualitatively different concepts of mass that arise from the peculiar polariton dispersion lead to a new type of particlelike object from noninteracting fields-much like self-accelerating beams-shaped by the Rabi coupling out of Gaussian initial states. A divergence and change of sign of the diffusive mass results in a "mass wall" on which polariton wave packets bounce back. Together with the Rabi dynamics, this yields propagation of ultrafast subpackets and ordering of a spacetime crystal.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 114(23): 233601, 2015 Jun 12.*

##### RESUMO

The on-chip generation of nonclassical states of light is a key requirement for future optical quantum hardware. In solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics, such nonclassical light can be generated from self-assembled quantum dots strongly coupled to photonic crystal cavities. Their anharmonic strong light-matter interaction results in large optical nonlinearities at the single photon level, where the admission of a single photon into the cavity may enhance (photon tunneling) or diminish (photon blockade) the probability for a second photon to enter the cavity. Here, we demonstrate that detuning the cavity and quantum-dot resonances enables the generation of high-purity nonclassical light from strongly coupled systems. For specific detunings we show that not only the purity but also the efficiency of single-photon generation increases significantly, making high-quality single-photon generation by photon blockade possible with current state-of-the-art samples.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 112(11): 113602, 2014 Mar 21.*

##### RESUMO

We report observation of oscillations in the dynamics of a microcavity polariton condensate formed under pulsed nonresonant excitation. While oscillations in a condensate have always been attributed to Josephson mechanisms due to a chemical potential unbalance, here we show that under some localization conditions of the condensate, they may arise from relaxation oscillations, a pervasive classical dynamics that repeatedly provokes the sudden decay of a reservoir, shutting off relaxation as the reservoir is replenished. Using nonresonant excitation, it is thus possible to obtain condensate injection pulses with a record frequency of 0.1 THz.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 104(10): 106402, 2010 Mar 12.*

##### RESUMO

We revisit the exciton mechanism of superconductivity in the framework of microcavity physics, replacing virtual excitons as a binding agent of Cooper pairs by excitations of an exciton-polariton Bose-Einstein condensate. We consider a model microcavity where a quantum well with a two-dimensional electron gas is sandwiched between two undoped quantum wells, where a polariton condensate is formed. We show that the critical temperature for superconductivity dramatically increases with the condensate population, opening a new route towards high-temperature superconductivity.

*Phys Rev Lett ; 101(8): 083601, 2008 Aug 22.*

##### RESUMO

We show that strong coupling (SC) of light and matter as it is realized with quantum dots in microcavities differs substantially from the paradigm of atoms in optical cavities. The type of pumping used in semiconductors yields new criteria to achieve SC, with situations where the pump hinders, or on the contrary, favors it. We analyze one of the seminal experimental observation of SC of a quantum dot in a pillar microcavity [Reithmaier, Nature (London) 432, 197 (2004)10.1038/nature02969] as an illustration of our main statements.