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1.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0281226, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38483917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is increasingly recognized as a major problem for children and their families in China. However, its influence on parental mental health has been seldom explored. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a community sample of children aged 6-13 years, and the extent to which it impacts parental mental health. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of primary school pupils (number = 2497) in Deyang, Sichuan Province, South-West China. We used standardized instruments to identify children with ADHD symptoms and parent depression. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 9.8%. Factors associated with the likelihood of ADHD, included family environment(P = 0.003), time spent with children(P = 0.01), parenting style(P = 0.01), and parental relationship, pupils self-harm and lower academic ability (P = 0.001). After controlling for other factors, having a child with ADHD increased the likelihood of parents' depression (OR = 4.35, CI = 2.68~7.07), additional factors included parent relationship. CONCLUSIONS: ADHD may be a common disorder among Chinese children, the symptoms of which may increase the likelihood of parent depression. There is a need for greater detection of ADHD in schools, acknowledgement of the challenges the disorder creates for academic success and family wellbeing, and psychoeducational tools for supporting parents of children with ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Criança , Humanos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Pais/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 104, 2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38321443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental health rehabilitation services provide specialist treatment to people with particularly severe and complex problems. In 2018, the Care Quality Commission reported that over half the 4,400 mental health inpatient rehabilitation beds in England were provided by the independent sector. They raised concerns that the length of stay and cost of independent sector care was double that of the NHS and that their services tended to be provided much further from people's homes. However, there has been no research comparing the two sectors and we therefore do not know if these concerns are justified. The ACER Study (Assessing the Clinical and cost-Effectiveness of inpatient mental health Rehabilitation services provided by the NHS and independent sector) is a national programme of research in England, funded from 2021 to 2026, that aims to investigate differences in inpatient mental health rehabilitation provided by the NHS and independent sector in terms of: patient characteristics; service quality; patient, carer and staff experiences; clinical and cost effectiveness. METHODS: ACER comprises a:1) detailed survey of NHS and independent sector inpatient mental health rehabilitation services across England; 2) qualitative investigation of patient, family, staff and commissioners' experiences of the two sectors; 3) cohort study comparing clinical outcomes in the two sectors over 18 months; 4) comprehensive national comparison of inpatient service use in the two sectors, using instrumental variable analysis of routinely collected healthcare data over 18 months; 5) health economic evaluation of the relative cost-effectiveness of the two sectors. In Components 3 and 4, our primary outcome is 'successful rehabilitation' defined as a) being discharged from the inpatient rehabilitation unit without readmission and b) inpatient service use over the 18 months. DISCUSSION: The ACER study will deliver the first empirical comparison of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of NHS and independent sector inpatient mental health rehabilitation services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17381762 retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Humanos , Medicina Estatal , Estudos de Coortes , Análise de Custo-Efetividade , Análise Custo-Benefício , Pacientes Internados
3.
BMJ Open ; 14(2): e077940, 2024 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38341208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth in suicide literature addressing the impact on general practitioners (GPs) of losing a patient. We aimed to examine the personal and professional impact as well as the availability of support and why GPs did or did not use it. DESIGN: A qualitative study using one-to-one interviews with participants recruited using snowball sampling. SETTING: The study was conducted in a primary care setting. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews were held with 19 GPs within primary care in Northern Ireland. RESULTS: GPs are impacted both personally and professionally when they lose a patient to suicide, but may not access formal help due to commonly held idealised notions of a 'good' GP who is regarded as having solid imperturbability. Fear of professional repercussions also plays a major role in deterring help-seeking. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for a systemic culture shift within general practice which allows doctors to seek support when their physical or mental health require it. This may help prevent stress, burnout and early retirement.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Suicídio , Humanos , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Irlanda do Norte , Suicídio/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde
4.
Child Care Health Dev ; 50(1): e13161, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37555597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injuries are the leading cause of death and disability in preschool children who are subject to specific risk factors. We sought to clarify the determinants of unintentional injuries in children aged 5 years and under in high-income countries and report on the methodological quality of the selected studies. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted of observational studies investigating determinants of unintentional injury in children aged 0-5. Searches were conducted in Web of Science, Medline, Embase, PsycInfo and CINAHL. All methods of data analysis and reporting followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA 2021) guidelines. Determinants are reported at the child, parental, household and area level. RESULTS: An initial search revealed 6179 records. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria: 17 cohort studies and 2 case control studies. While studies included longitudinal surveys and administrative healthcare data analysis, the highest quality studies examined were case-control designs. Child factors associated with unintentional injury include male gender, age of the child at the time of injury, advanced gross motor score, sleeping problems, birth order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis and below average score on the standard strengths and difficulties scale. Parental factors associated with unintentional injuries included younger parenthood, poor maternal mental health, hazardous or harmful drinking by an adult within the home, substance misuse, low maternal education, low paternal involvement in childcare and routine and manual socioeconomic classification. Household factors associated with injury were social rented accommodation, single-parent household, White ethnicity in the United Kingdom, number of children in the home and parental perception of a disorganised home environment. Area-level factors associated with injury were area-level deprivation and geographic remoteness. CONCLUSION: Child factors were the strongest risk factors for injury, whereas parental factors were the most consistent. Further research is needed to examine the role of supervision in the relationships between these risk factors and injury. Injury intent should be considered in studies using administrative healthcare data. Prospective research may consider utilising linked survey and administrative data to counter the inherent weaknesses of these research approaches.


Assuntos
Pais , Ferimentos e Lesões , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , Países Desenvolvidos , Estudos Prospectivos , Pai , Pais Solteiros
5.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1274253, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37886045

RESUMO

Background: A growing number of studies have suggested that adolescents' prosocial behavior can protect against depression and anxiety. It is known that anxiety and depression are often comorbid. However, it remains unclear if when depression is present, prosocial behavior remains protective against anxiety, and if when anxiety is present, prosocial behavior remains protective against depression. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of anxiety and depressive with prosocial behavior. Methods: A large representative sample of middle-school students was recruited for a cross-sectional study and completed standardized instruments (the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-Child version (SCARED-C), and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)). We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the protective effect of prosocial behavior against anxiety when depression was present. Results: A survey of 3,510 students was conducted, and the final analysis included 3,169 students, comprising 1,616 boys (51.0%) and 1,553 girls (49.0%), with a mean age of 13.09 years (SD = 1.31, range 11-16).The prevalence rates of anxiety and depression in early adolescents were 31.6 and 16.7%, respectively. More than two-thirds of depressed adolescents had comorbid anxiety, while more than one-third of anxious adolescents had comorbid depression. Regression models showed that compared with depressed adolescents, adolescents without depressive symptoms exhibited a significant negative correlation between prosocial behaviors and anxiety and depression (ß = -0.01, p > 0.01, ß = -0.06, p > 0.01; ß = -0.11, p < 0.01, and ß = -0.17, p < 0.01). There was no difference in the relationship between prosocial behavior and depression between anxious and non-anxious adolescents (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Anxiety and depression are common in adolescence and are often comorbid disorders. However, the comorbidity is not symmetrical. Specifically, the protective effect of prosocial behavior against anxiety is weaker in depressed adolescents. Findings are discussed in light of related research and theory, and insights for intervention programs and future research are presented.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Depressão , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudantes
6.
Eur Psychiatry ; 66(1): e70, 2023 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37578131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness (SMI) die prematurely, mostly due to preventable causes. OBJECTIVE: To examine multimorbidity and mortality in people living with SMI using linked administrative datasets. METHOD: Analysis of linked electronically captured routine hospital administrative data from Northern Ireland (2010-2021). We derived sex-specific age-standardised rates for seven chronic life-limiting physical conditions (chronic kidney disease, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic heart failure, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and used logistic regression to examine the relationship between SMI, socio-demographic indicators, and comorbid conditions; survival models quantified the relationship between all-cause mortality and SMI. RESULTS: Analysis was based on 929,412 hospital patients aged 20 years and above, of whom 10,965 (1.3%) recorded a diagnosis of SMI. Higher likelihoods of an SMI diagnosis were associated with living in socially deprived circumstances, urbanicity. SMI patients were more likely to have more comorbid physical conditions than non-SMI patients, and younger at referral to hospital for each condition, than non-SMI patients. Finally, in fully adjusted models, SMI patients had a twofold excess all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Multiple morbidities associated with SMI can drive excess mortality. While SMI patients are younger at referral to treatment for these life-limiting conditions, their relatively premature death suggests that these conditions are also quite advanced. There is a need for a more aggressive approach to improving the physical health of this population.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Neoplasias , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Hospitais
7.
BMJ Open ; 13(7): e070840, 2023 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37419636

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify service-provided information needs among dermatological caregivers of patients living with ichthyosis. DESIGN: This is the first online international qualitative study to explore caregiver-reported service-provided information needs, using transnational focus groups (n=6), individual interviews (n=7) and in-depth emails (n=5). NVivo facilitated the coding process and Framework Analysis was applied. SETTING: Caregivers were recruited through two online ichthyosis support groups and resided across 10 countries and 5 continents (USA, Greece, Netherlands, Ireland, UK, Canada, India, Philippines, Switzerland and Australia). PARTICIPANTS: A purposive sample of 8 male and 31 female caregivers participated (mean age range 35-44 years). Participants were aged 18 years old or older and fluent in English. Participants cared for a total of 46 children (1:1 ratio for child gender and clinical classification of disease severity). Participants represented all stages along the care continuum, including neonatal intensive care unit and bereavement. RESULTS: This study advances understanding of how to optimise information-sharing across hospital, community and online settings at three points along the care continuum (screening, active caregiving and survivorship). Timely, personalised and appropriate service-provided information support was considered key in influencing the self-efficacy, coping ability and psychosocial well-being of both the caregiver and their child. The modification of information support, through feedback loops, can result in a different bidirectional psychosocial impact for the caregiver and the affected child. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a novel insight into how existing gaps between caregiver expectations and needs, in terms of information support, can be addressed. As information support is a modifiable factor, improved healthcare education around these themes should become an urgent public health matter to inform future educational and psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Cuidadores , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Grupos Focais , Atenção à Saúde
8.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286860, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37285337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While evidence has emerged highlighting the potential benefits of the eye as a window to the central nervous system, research on severe mental illness (SMI) and eye health is rare. AIMS: We examine the association of SMI with a range of ophthalmic health outcomes, and whether any relationship is modified by age. METHODS: We used linked administrative data from general practitioner (GP), hospital and ophthalmic records to examine receipt of any Health and Social Care (HSC) eye-test; and (based on eligibility recorded for a sight test) any glaucoma, any diabetes, and any blindness among the Northern Ireland (NI) hospital population between January 2015 and November 2019 (N = 798,564). RESULTS: When compared with non-SMI patients, those with SMI recorded a higher prevalence of having had a sight test, diabetes, and blindness. In fully adjusted logistic regression models, higher likelihood of an eye-test and diabetes (OR = 1.71: 95%CI = 1.63, 1.79 and OR = 1.29: 1.19, 1.40 respectively); and lower likelihood of glaucoma remained (OR = 0.69: 0.53, 0.90). Amongst persons with SMI there was evidence that the likelihood of having had an eye-test was lower in the older age-groups. CONCLUSION: Our study provides new evidence on ophthalmic health inequalities associated with SMI. While the study has immediate relevance to its NI context, we believe it is generalizable to wider UK health concerns. We emphasize the need for more research of this type, using large linkable electronic administrative databases to further our understanding of both health inequalities associated with SMI and poor eye health, and health outcomes in general.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Cegueira , Hospitais , Irlanda do Norte/epidemiologia
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e071999, 2023 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37349093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we seek to explore the relationship between adolescent mental well-being, religion and family activities among a school-based adolescent sample from Northern Ireland. SETTING: The Northern Ireland Schools and Wellbeing Study is a cross-sectional study (2014-2016) of pupils in Northern Ireland aged 13-18 years. PARTICIPANTS: 1618 adolescents from eight schools participated in this study. OUTCOMES MEASURES: Our primary outcome measure was derived using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. We used hierarchical linear regression to explore the independent effects of a range of personal/social factors, including religious affiliation, importance of religion and family activities. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, older adolescents and females reported lower mental well-being scores-for the year-on-year increase in age ß=-0.45 (95% CI=-0.84, -0.06), and for females (compared with males) ß=-5.25 (95% CI=-6.16, -4.33). More affluent adolescents reported better mental well-being. No significant differences in mental well-being scores across religious groups was found: compared with Catholics, Protestant adolescents recorded ß=-0.83 (95% CI=-2.17, 0.51), other religious groups ß=-2.44 (95% CI=-5.49, 0.62) and atheist adolescents ß=-1.01 (95% CI=-2.60, 0.58). The importance of religion in the adolescents' lives was also tested: (compared with those for whom it was not important) those for whom it was very important had better mental well-being (ß=1.63: 95% CI=0.32, 2.95). Higher levels of family activities were associated with higher mental well-being: each unit increase in family activity produced a 1.45% increase in the mental well-being score (ß=0.78: 95% CI=0.67, 0.90). CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that non-religious adolescents may have lower mental well-being scores when compared with their more religious peers, irrespective of religious denomination. This may relate to both a sense of lack of firm identity and perceived marginalisation. Additionally, adolescents with poor family cohesion are more vulnerable to poor mental well-being.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Religião , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Irlanda do Norte , Protestantismo , Bem-Estar Psicológico
10.
Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 28(3): 1160-1174, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37015561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is the systematic review of psychological/psychosocial interventions for gender diverse youth under 18 years of age and their families, based on the published protocol: PROSPERO 2020 CRD42020163995. METHODS: A search strategy was developed using key terms. An electronic literature search was completed using the following data bases (OVID MEDLINE; EBSCO CINAHL; ProQuest MEDLINE; OVID PsycINFO). Only studies published in English between 2001-2021 were included. This review is based on PRISMA guidance. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were quality appraised using the Mixed Methods Assessment Tool (MMAT). RESULTS: 8405 studies were independently screened. Four studies met the inclusion criteria for the study. Parents of transgender youth attended between one and 11 psychological/psychosocial group interventions. Parents reported reduced isolation and increased knowledge, which enabled them to advocate for their young person`s needs. Psychological/psychosocial group interventions were creating challenges in terms of group processes, with some parents dominating interactions. Psychological/psychosocial group interventions were positive for parents, but no outcomes were collected for transgender young people. CONCLUSION: More research is required to understand the role of group facilitators, the optimal group size and the number of psychological/psychosocial intervention sessions required.


Assuntos
Intervenção Psicossocial , Pessoas Transgênero , Adolescente , Humanos , Pais
11.
Psychol Med ; 53(15): 7407-7417, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37092866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The psychosis continuum implies that subclinical psychotic experiences (PEs) can be differentiated from clinically relevant expressions since they are not accompanied by a 'need for care'. METHODS: Using data from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; N = 34 653), the current study examined variation in functioning, symptomology and aetiological risk across the psychosis phenotype [i.e. variation from (i) no PEs, 'No PEs' to (ii) non-distressing PEs, 'PE-Experienced Only' to (iii) distressing PEs, 'PE-Impaired' to (iv) clinically defined psychotic disorder, 'Diagnosed']. RESULTS: A graded trend was present such that, compared to those with no PEs, the Diagnosed group had the poorest functioning, followed by the PE-Impaired then PE-Experienced Only groups. In relation to symptom expression, the PE-Impaired group were more likely than the PE-Experienced Only and the Diagnosed groups to endorse most PEs. Predictors of group membership tended to vary quantitatively rather than qualitatively. Trauma, current mental health diagnoses (anxiety and depression) and drug use variables differentiated between all levels of the continuum, with the exception of the extreme end (PE-Impaired v. Diagnosed). Only a few variables distinguished groups at the upper end of the continuum: female sex, older age, unemployment, parental mental health hospitalisation and lower likelihood of having experienced physical assault. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of continuum-based interpretations of the psychosis phenotype and afford valuable opportunities to consider if and how impairment, symptom expression and risk change along the continuum.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Humanos , Feminino , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Fenótipo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36901421

RESUMO

(1) Background: Approximately half of all refugees living in Germany experience discrimination, which may negatively affect their mental health. Moreover, German refugees have experienced hostility, especially in eastern regions. (2) Aims: We examined the effect of perceived discrimination on refugees' mental health in Germany, with a particular focus on possible regional differences of refugee mental health and perceived discrimination. (3) Method: The data of 2075 refugees who arrived in Germany between 2013 and 2016, from a large-scale survey, was analysed using binary logistic regression. The refugee health screener, 13-item version, was used to assess psychological distress. All effects were investigated for the entire sample and both sexes independently. (4) Results: A third of refugees experienced discrimination which increased the risk of psychological distress (OR = 2.25 [1.80, 2.8]). Those living in eastern Germany were more than twice as likely to report experiences of discrimination, compared to their counterparts living in western Germany (OR = 2.52 [1.98, 3.21]). Differences were noted between males and females, and religious attendance. (5) Conclusions: Perceived discrimination is a risk factor for refugee mental health, particularly female refugees in eastern Germany. An east-west regional difference may be explained by socio-structural factors, rural placement, differential historical exposure to migrant populations, and a greater presence of right-wing and populist parties in eastern Germany.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Refugiados , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Refugiados/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Modelos Logísticos , Alemanha
13.
J Ment Health ; : 1-9, 2023 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36876750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While employment generally promotes positive health and wellbeing, some jobs may be less salutogenic than others. Few studies have examined mental health across a range of broadly defined occupation types using a large population sample. AIMS: To examine the prevalence of mental health problems across a wide range of occupation types, and further examine the association of family demands, controlling for key social determinants and health-related factors. METHODS: We used linked administrative data from 2011 NI Census returns; NI Properties data; and Enhanced Prescribing Data (EPD) 2011/12. We examined self-reported mental health problems and receipt of psychotropic medication among 553,925 workers aged 25 and 59 years. RESULTS: Self-reported chronic mental ill health was more prevalent among workers in lower paid occupations, while "public- facing" occupations had the highest rates of medication. In fully adjusted models, informal caregivers were less likely to report mental health problems but more likely to be in receipt of psychotropic medication, as were lone parents. The association of family demands also varied across occupational groupings. CONCLUSION: Future development of mental health at work plans should take cognisance of occupation specific mental health risk and wider family circumstances to support workers' mental wellbeing most effectively.

14.
Psychol Trauma ; 2023 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36757976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is growing need to strengthen support for older crime victims. We aimed to explore spiritual and/or religious (S/R) beliefs in a sample of older victims and understand how this shapes psychological responding and coping with crime. METHOD: Qualitative study with supplementary descriptive statistics nested within a clinical trial. We explored psychological responding and coping in-depth through semistructured interviews with 27 older victims of police-reported crime, purposefully sampled to achieve maximum variation. We inductively analyzed data using a reflexive thematic analysis. We assessed the breadth of S/R beliefs in a large sample (N = 402) of initially distressed older victims using an abbreviated version of The Royal Free Interview for Spiritual Beliefs. We assessed continued psychological distress using the two-item Generalised Anxiety Disorder and Patient Health Questionnaire 3 months postcrime. RESULTS: Over two-thirds (67%) identified as S/R, but psychological distress scores were similar, irrespective of religiosity. Our qualitative analysis suggests that crime may impact religious identity or practice in some older victims (hate crime) but influences attitudes or coping in others. Positive coping included acceptance, forgiveness, and/or turning to prayer or faith communities. Negative coping included fixation on retribution, superstition, perceived abandonment by God, or an inability to accommodate the crime within their beliefs, amplifying psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the psychological impact on older crime victims is enhanced by clarifying the role of S/R. Further research, especially on non-Christian religious victims, is needed. Cultural awareness training for trauma counselors and trauma awareness training for faith leaders is recommended. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36768002

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Common mental health disorders (CMD) (anxiety, depression, and sleep disorders) are among the leading causes of disease burden globally. The economic burden associated with such disorders is estimated at $2.4 trillion as of 2010 and is expected to reach $16 trillion by 2030. The UK has observed a 21-fold increase in the economic burden associated with CMD over the past decade. The recent COVID-19 pandemic was a catalyst for adopting technologies for mental health support and services, thereby increasing the reception of personal health data and wearables. Wearables hold considerable promise to empower users concerning the management of subclinical common mental health disorders. However, there are significant challenges to adopting wearables as a tool for the self-management of the symptoms of common mental health disorders. AIMS: This review aims to evaluate the potential utility of wearables for the self-management of sub-clinical anxiety and depressive mental health disorders. Furthermore, we seek to understand the potential of wearables to reduce the burden on the healthcare system. METHODOLOGY: a systematic review of research papers was conducted, focusing on wearable devices for the self-management of CMD released between 2018-2022, focusing primarily on mental health management using technology. RESULTS: We screened 445 papers and analysed the reports from 12 wearable devices concerning their device type, year, biometrics used, and machine learning algorithm deployed. Electrodermal activity (EDA/GSR/SC/Skin Temperature), physical activity, and heart rate (HR) are the most common biometrics with nine, six and six reference counts, respectively. Additionally, while smartwatches have greater penetration and integration within the marketplace, fitness trackers have the most significant public value benefit of £513.9 M, likely due to greater retention.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Autogestão , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
16.
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e068893, 2023 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36657764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ichthyoses comprise a heterogenous group of rare genetic skin disorders that involves the entire skin surface, often with additional syndromic features, and pose many clinical challenges. Without curative intervention, the mainstay of life-long symptom management is supportive in nature and can remain the responsibility of the caregiver. Although impact on the wider family is considered an important outcome of policies and services, there is a lack of caregiver consensus on what outcome domains to measure to fully assess the impact of ichthyosis on the patient and the caregiver. This project aims to identify a set of core outcome domains towards a core outcome set for ichthyosis that can measure all relevant concepts of ichthyosis in clinical practice, service delivery and research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Following the COMET (Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials) initiative, this project will employ a mixed-method study design which was developed using public and patient involvement and an international multidisciplinary expert group (clinical experts, patients and their representatives, policymakers, researchers and service providers). Experts by experience, or caregivers, will be recruited through online ichthyosis support groups. Phase one will focus on item generation and involve: (1) a systematic literature review, (2) a multimethods international qualitative study with ichthyosis caregivers and (3) co-development of items for an e-survey. Phase two, item refinement, will employ a novel four-pronged consensus approach: (1) an e-Delphi survey, (2) statistical analysis of e-Delphi survey results, (3) online qualitative feedback and (4) an online consensus discussion. All methodological considerations will be clearly linked with each Core Outcome Set-STAndards for Developing recommendation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Research Ethics Committee approval obtained from the School of Psychology, Ulster University (UK)(Ref:REC/20/0004). Results will be presented in published international peer-reviewed journals, at scientific meetings and support groups. REGISTRATION: COMET database (January 2019).


Assuntos
Ictiose , Dermatopatias , Humanos , Cuidadores , Técnica Delfos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Dermatopatias/terapia , Ictiose/terapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Resultado do Tratamento , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(20)2022 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36298352

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the world's leading cause of mortality. There is significant interest in using Artificial Intelligence (AI) to analyse data from novel sensors such as wearables to provide an earlier and more accurate prediction and diagnosis of heart disease. Digital health technologies that fuse AI and sensing devices may help disease prevention and reduce the substantial morbidity and mortality caused by CVD worldwide. In this review, we identify and describe recent developments in the application of digital health for CVD, focusing on AI approaches for CVD detection, diagnosis, and prediction through AI models driven by data collected from wearables. We summarise the literature on the use of wearables and AI in cardiovascular disease diagnosis, followed by a detailed description of the dominant AI approaches applied for modelling and prediction using data acquired from sensors such as wearables. We discuss the AI algorithms and models and clinical applications and find that AI and machine-learning-based approaches are superior to traditional or conventional statistical methods for predicting cardiovascular events. However, further studies evaluating the applicability of such algorithms in the real world are needed. In addition, improvements in wearable device data accuracy and better management of their application are required. Lastly, we discuss the challenges that the introduction of such technologies into routine healthcare may face.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Humanos , Inteligência Artificial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Algoritmos
18.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 152, 2022 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor parental bonding in childhood has been associated with loneliness in younger populations. Whether these associations persists into middle and older adulthood is unclear. Additionally, given the overlapping relationship between loneliness and social isolation we sought to explore the role of social isolation in any associations present i.e. are those reporting worse parental bonding lonely due to less connections or are they more likely to be lonely regardless of isolation. METHODS: Analysis of a nationally representative longitudinal sample of adults aged 50 and over from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing was undertaken. The current analysis was based on data for core participants across waves 3[2006/7] to 8[2016/17] with missing data across waves leading to analytical samples ranging from 4384 to 5173. Multivariate adjusted multinomial regression models were used to assess associations between parental bonding [PBI], isolation [score derived from data on living alone, frequency of contact with friends, family and children, and whether or not participate in social organisations] and loneliness [R-UCLA]. RESULTS: Parental bonding scores were associated with later life loneliness according to overall PBI score [RRR .93 95%CI .92-.95], care [RRR .90 95%CI .88-.92] and overprotection [RRR 1.11 95%CI 1.08-1.14] subscale scores as well as when separated into maternal and paternal scores, with effects larger in relation to chronic loneliness. Parental bonding scores were also associated with isolation in later life, with the exception of maternal overprotection which was non-significant. The addition of isolation to the loneliness models however had no impact on associations indicating that isolation is not a mediator of the association between parental bonding and later life loneliness. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between parental bonding and loneliness do persist into middle and older adulthood and were in line with hypothesis stronger for more chronic loneliness. Isolation did not explain these associations and those reporting more negative parental bonds were more likely to be lonely regardless of isolation.


Assuntos
Solidão , Isolamento Social , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais
19.
J Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral health of people with severe mental illness (SMI) remains an important public health issue, despite evidence pointing suboptimal dental health outcomes in this population. AIMS: We test the hypotheses that individuals with SMI have lower contact with dental services and higher levels of fillings and extractions. We also examine effect modification by age-group. METHODS: We used linked administrative data from general practitioner (GP), hospital and dental records to examine dental service use and treatments (extractions, fillings, crowns and x-rays) among the Northern Ireland hospital population between January 2015 and November 2019 (N = 798,564). RESULTS: After adjusting for available socio-demographic characteristics, analysis indicated lower levels of dental service use (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.77, 0.84), including lower likelihood of fillings (OR = 0.81, 0.77, 0.84) and x-rays (OR = 0.77, 0.74, 0.81), but higher levels of extractions (OR = 1.23, 1.18, 1.29) among patients with SMI. We also found effect modification by age-group, with older individuals with SMI less likely to have each of the four dental treatments. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that in the general area of physical healthcare for people with SMI, oral healthcare is neglected. There is a need for improved understanding of the barriers to routine care and treatment, and development of psychoeducational interventions.

20.
J Sport Exerc Psychol ; 44(4): 240-250, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512740

RESUMO

Participation in sport can paradoxically be a source of psychological needs satisfaction and psychological needs frustration. Self-determination theory was applied to explain temporal relationships of athletes' psychological needs satisfactions and psychological needs frustrations with burnout through a two-wave longitudinal study. Participants included 184 athletes (Mage = 24.04 years, SD = 5.56, 67.9% male) representing a range of competitive levels. A latent difference score model specifying longitudinal relationships between burnout and needs satisfactions and needs frustrations was tested. Significant within-variable changes were observed for all needs-satisfaction and needs-frustration variables. Longitudinal associations were found in Models 3 (autonomy frustration) and 6 (relatedness satisfaction). Higher burnout at baseline predicted an increase in autonomy frustration (ß = 0.13, p < .05), whereas higher relatedness satisfaction at baseline reduced burnout levels later in the season (ß = -0.22, p < .001). To conclude, continuous tracking of athlete burnout levels and fostering of needs-supportive climates that minimize autonomy-controlling behaviors are recommended for the burnout prevention in athletes.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Esgotamento Psicológico , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Autonomia Pessoal , Satisfação Pessoal , Estações do Ano
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