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4.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 86(4): 449, 2023 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661283
8.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(6): 927-934, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427994

RESUMO

Endometriosis, manifested by pain and infertility, is a chronic inflammatory disease, associated with a large disability of daily living, causing a socio-economic diastrophic problem and burden. The main goal of therapy attempts to reduce pain, correct infertility and possibly avoid or delay occurrence of long-term endometriosis-associated sequelae, such as fibrosis, adhesion and malignant transformation. Although the advanced technology (minimally invasive diagnostic tools, magnetic resonance imaging, high-resolution vaginal ultrasound etc.) and the better understanding pathophysiology of endometriosis for development of new therapeutic strategy is continuous for both diagnosis and management of endometriosis, there is still presence of many debated issues, which commonly occur in routine clinical practice. For example, the timing and duration of medications may be one of most frequently discussed issues. In this part I, we would like to overview the general background knowledge (basic concept) about the endometriosis, and emphasize the role of clinical diagnosis and possible empirical medical treatment (therapeutic test) for the management of women with endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Infertilidade Feminina , Humanos , Feminino , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Endometriose/terapia , Endometriose/complicações , Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Ultrassonografia , Doença Crônica , Vagina , Dor
9.
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol ; 61(6): 951-959, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36427997

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer (EC) has become one of rapidly increasing women's cancers, contributing to the most common cancer of the female genital tract in high- and middle-incomed countries, including Taiwan. In general, EC is believed its favorable outcome; however, high-grade endometrial cancers have a tendency to recur and also have a high risk to be presented as an advanced stage or accompanied with metastatic lesions, which result in a biggest therapeutic challenge. The standard therapy includes complete staging surgery (sentinel node sampling)/optimal debulking surgery, and subsequent adjuvant therapy, by either radiotherapy locally or systemic therapy as chemotherapy or targeted therapy, or in combination or in subsequential strategy is made based on the risk stratification using clinicopathological prognostic factors. All efforts are made to minimize the risk of recurrence and possible therapeutic failure. In this part I, we would like to overview the general background knowledge (basic concept) about the cancer of uterine corpus, and discuss the recent transformation to patients-tailored therapy based on modern molecular technology as the optimal strategy to balance the therapeutic efficacy and treatment-related toxicity. Optimally, it is possible to reach the best benefits.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Terapia Combinada , Taiwan
10.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(12): 1109-1119, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279128

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by inability of faulty pancreatic ß-cells to secret a normal amount of insulin to maintain normal body consumption, and/or peripheral tissue has a decreased susceptibility to insulin, resulting in hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Similar to other chronic systemic inflammatory diseases, DM is a result from dysregulated interactions between ethnic, genetic, epigenetic, immunoregulatory, hormonal, and environmental factors. Therefore, it is rational to suppose the concept as "To do one and to get more", while using antidiabetic agents (ADA), a main pharmacologic agent for the treatment of DM, can provide an extraglycemia effect on comorbidities or concomittent comorbidities to DM. In this review, based on the much strong correlation between DM and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver diseases (MAFLD) shown by similar pathophysiological mechanisms and a high prevalence of DM in MAFLD and its vice versa (a high prevalence of MAFLD in DM), it is possible to use the strategy to target both diseases simultaneously. We focus on a new classification of ADA, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP1R) agonist and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors to show the potential benefits of extraglycemic effect on MAFLD. We conclude that the management of DM patients, especially for those who need ADA as adjuvant therapy should include healthy lifestyle modification to overcome the metabolic syndrome, contributing to the urgent need of an effective weight-reduction strategy. GLP1R agonist is one of effective body weight-lowering medications, which may be a better choice for DM complicated with MAFLD or its-associated severe form as metabolic associated steatohepatitis (MASH), although the role of SGLT-2 inhibitors is also impressive. The prescription of these two classes of ADA may satisfy the concept "To do one and to get more", based on successful sugar-lowering effect for controlling DM and extraglycemia benefits of hepatoprotective activity in DM patients.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico
13.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 85(10): 965-971, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066352

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a chronic metabolic disease, characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The key treatment strategies for T2DM include modification of lifestyle, medications, and continuous glucose monitoring. DM patients often have DM-associated morbidities and comorbidities; however, disorders of musculoskeletal system are often neglected, compared to other major systems in DM patients. Based on sharing similar pathophysiology of DM and osteoporosis, it is supposed that the use of antidiabetic agents (ADAs) may not only provide the lowering glucose level effect and the maintenance of the sugar homeostasis to directly delay the tissue damage secondary to hyperglycemia but also offer the benefits, such as the prevention of developing osteoporosis and fractures. Based on the current review, evidence shows the positive correlation between DM and osteoporosis or fracture, but the effectiveness of using ADA in the prevention of osteoporosis and subsequent reduction of fracture seems to be inconclusive. Although the benefits of ADA on bone health are uncertain, the potential value of "To do one and to get more" therapeutic strategy should be always persuaded. At least, one of the key treatment strategies as an establishment of healthy lifestyle may work, because it improves the status of insulin resistance and subsequently helps DM control, prevents the DM-related micro- and macrovascular injury, and possibly strengthens the general performance of musculoskeletal system. With stronger musculoskeletal system support, the risk of "fall" may be decreased, because it is associated with fracture. Although the ADA available in the market does not satisfy the policy of "To do one and to get more" yet, we are looking forward to seeing the continuously advanced technology of drug development on diabetic control, and hope to see their extra-sugar-lowering effects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fraturas Ósseas , Hiperglicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Osteoporose , Glicemia , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/prevenção & controle
16.
Am J Cancer Res ; 12(4): 1686-1706, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35530273

RESUMO

Ovarian clear cell cancer stem-like/spheroid cells (OCCCSCs) were associated with recurrence, metastasis, and chemoresistance in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC). We evaluated the anti-tumor effects of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) combined with everolimus (RAD001) on human OCCC. We investigated parental OCCCSCs and paclitaxel-resistant cell lines derived from OCCCSCs in vitro and in vivo. A Western blot analysis showed that the 5-aza-dC and RAD001 combination therapy was associated with the COL6A3-AKT-mTOR pathway. The OCCCSCs expressed high levels of stemness markers: CD117, ALDH1, NANOG, OCT4, and CD133. The 5-aza-dC and RAD001 combination inhibited proliferation and survival with up to 100-fold more potency in OCCCSCs compared to OCCC cells. This combination showed significant anti-tumor activity; it preferentially diminished OCCCSC stemness levels and spheroid numbers in vitro. Limiting dilution assays showed that OCCCSCs possessed tumor-initiating capacity. The 5-aza-dC and RAD001 combination significantly enhanced the inhibition of tumor growth compared to the 5-aza-dC or RAD001 alone. OCCCSCs showed higher expression levels of COL6A3, phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-Rictor compared to OCCCs. Silencing COL6A3 or abolishing the phospho-AKT-mTOR-Rictor pathway with 5-aza-dC and RAD001 treatment further enhanced OCCCSC apoptosis and reduced OCCCSC stemness. In conclusion, 5-aza-dC combined with RAD001 effectively controlled OCCC and OCCCSC growth by inhibiting the COL6A3-AKT-mTOR pathway.

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