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1.
Soft Matter ; 15(21): 4326-4333, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070654

RESUMO

A persistent problem in the studies of membrane-active peptides, including antimicrobial peptides and pathogenic amyloidal peptides, is the lack of methods for investigating their molecular configurations in membranes. These peptides spontaneously bind to membranes from solutions, and often form oligomers that induce changes of membrane permeability. For antimicrobials, such actions appear to relate to the antimicrobial mechanisms, but for amyloidal peptides, the oligomerization has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. In many cases, no further understanding of such oligomerization has been achieved due to the lack of structural information. In this article, we will demonstrate a method of trapping such peptide oligomers in a rhombohedral (R) phase of lipid so that the oligomers can be subjected to 3D diffraction analysis. The conditions for forming the R phase and the electron density distribution in the rhombohedral unit cell provide information about peptide-lipid interactions and the molecular size of the trapped oligomer. Such information cannot be obtained from membranes in the planar configuration. For illustration, we apply this method to daptomycin, an FDA-approved antibiotic that attacks membranes containing phosphatidylglycerol, in the presence of calcium ions. We have successfully used the brominated phosphatidylglycerol to perform bromine-atom anomalous diffraction in the rhombohedral phase containing daptomycin and calcium ions. The preliminary results apparently exhibit diffraction data related to daptomycin oligomers. We believe that this method will also be applicable to the difficult problems related to amyloidal peptides, such as amyloid beta of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Daptomicina/química , Multimerização Proteica , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Daptomicina/metabolismo , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Água/química
2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(16): 8418-8427, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945704

RESUMO

The efficient oxidation of iodide and bromide at the aqueous solution-air interface of the ocean or of sea spray aerosol particles had been suggested to be related to their surface propensity. The ubiquitous presence of organic material at the ocean surface calls for an assessment of the impact of often surface-active organic compounds on the interfacial density of halide ions. We used in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy with a liquid micro-jet to obtain chemical composition information at aqueous solution-vapor interfaces from mixed aqueous solutions containing bromide or iodide and 1-butanol or butyric acid as organic surfactants. Core level spectra of Br 3d, Na 2s, C 1s and O 1s at ca. 160 eV kinetic energy and core level spectra of I 4d and O 1s at ca. 400 eV kinetic energy are compared for solutions with 1-butanol and butyric acid as a function of organic concentration. A simple model was developed to account for the attenuation of photoelectrons by the aliphatic carbon layer of the surfactants and for changing local density of bromide and iodide in response to the presence of the surfactants. We observed that 1-butanol increases the interfacial density of bromide by 25%, while butyric acid reduces it by 40%, both in comparison to the pure aqueous halide solution. Qualitatively similar behavior was observed for the case of iodide. Classical molecular dynamics simulations failed to reproduce the details of the response of the halide ions to the presence of the two organics. This is attributed to the lack of correct monovalent ion parameters at low concentration possibly leading to an overestimation of the halide ion concentration at the interface in absence of organics. The results clearly demonstrate that organic surfactants change the electrostatic interactions near the interface with headgroup specific effects. This has implications for halogen activation processes specifically when oxidants interact with halide ions at the aqueous solution-air interfaces of the ocean surface or sea spray aerosol particles.

3.
Biochemistry ; 57(38): 5629-5639, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153001

RESUMO

Daptomycin is a phosphatidylglycerol specific, calcium-dependent membrane-active antibiotic that has been approved for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. A recent Bacillus subtilis study found that daptomycin clustered into fluid lipid domains of bacterial membranes and the membrane binding was correlated with dislocation of peripheral membrane proteins and depolarization of membrane potential. In particular, the study disproved the existence of daptomycin ion channels. Our purpose here is to study how daptomycin interacts with lipid bilayers to understand the observed phenomena on bacterial membranes. We performed new types of experiments using aspirated giant vesicles with an ion leakage indicator, making comparisons between daptomycin and ionomycin, performing vesicle-vesicle transfers, and measuring daptomycin binding to fluid phase versus gel phase bilayers and bilayers including cholesterol. Our findings are entirely consistent with the observations for bacterial membranes. In addition, daptomycin is found to cause ion leakage through the membrane only if its concentration in the membrane is over a certain threshold. The ion leakage caused by daptomycin is transient. It occurs only when daptomycin binds the membrane for the first time; afterward, they cease to induce ion leakage. The ion leakage effect of daptomycin cannot be transferred from one membrane to another. The level of membrane binding of daptomycin is reduced in the gel phase versus the fluid phase. Cholesterol also weakens the membrane binding of daptomycin. The combination of membrane concentration threshold and differential binding is significant. This could be a reason why daptomycin discriminates between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/química , Daptomicina/farmacologia , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fluidez de Membrana , Potássio/metabolismo
4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 20(42): 26830-26836, 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137074

RESUMO

Membrane thinning that resulted from peptide-binding is observed via temperature dependent small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The result reveals a mean thermal thinning rate of 0.038 Å K-1 for the neat unilamellar vesicles (ULVs) of a zwitterionic phospholipid of 1,2-dieicosenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (diC20:1PC) in the temperature range of 285-312 K. The thinning effect promotes greatly the association between a model antimicrobial peptide melittin and the ULV. Scaling the observed isothermal melittin-ULV bilayer thinning to that measured using low-angle X-ray diffraction from the melittin-multilamellar membranes of defined peptide-to-lipid ratios establishes temperature-dependent binding isotherms χb of the peptide-ULV as a function of free peptide concentration in solution. From the binding isotherms, temperature-dependent peptide-membrane binding constant K(T) is extracted on the basis of a modified Gouy-Chapman model. Changes in K(T) follow the linearized van't Hoff equation ln K(T) ∝ -ΔHT-1 with a constant enthalpy change ΔH = 9.6 kcal mol-1, suggesting an entropy-driven binding process prior to membrane pore formation. Correspondingly, a five-fold enhancement of K is observed in the temperature range studied. The peptide-binding strength is found to follow the growth trend of the membrane thermal thinning rate better than the lipid chain length of the three phosphocholine-based ULVs of diCn:1PC with n = 18, 20, and 22.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Meliteno/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Entropia , Ligação Proteica , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Temperatura , Termodinâmica , Difração de Raios X
5.
Langmuir ; 34(30): 9036-9046, 2018 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29986585

RESUMO

Hanatoxin (HaTx) from spider venom works as an inhibitor of Kv2.1 channels, most likely by interacting with the voltage sensor (VS). However, the way in which this water-soluble peptide modifies the gating remains poorly understood as the VS is deeply embedded within the bilayer, although it would change its position depending on the membrane potential. To determine whether HaTx can indeed bind to the VS, the depth at which HaTx penetrates into the POPC membranes was measured with neutron reflectivity. Our results successfully demonstrate that HaTx penetrates into the membrane hydrocarbon core (∼9 Šfrom the membrane surface), not lying on the membrane-water interface as reported for another voltage sensor toxin (VSTx). This difference in penetration depth suggests that the two toxins fix the voltage sensors at different positions with respect to the membrane normal, thereby explaining their different inhibitory effects on the channels. In particular, results from MD simulations constrained by our penetration data clearly demonstrate an appropriate orientation for HaTx to interact with the membranes, which is in line with the biochemical information derived from stopped-flow analysis through delineation of the toxin-VS binding interface.

7.
Langmuir ; 33(41): 10886-10897, 2017 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28938799

RESUMO

Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers of thiolated gold nanoparticles mixed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine/sodium dodecyl sulfate (DPPC/SDS) were investigated by combining the X-ray reflectivity, grazing-incident scattering, and TEM analyses to reveal the in-depth and in-plane organization and the 2D morphology of such mixed monolayers. It was found that the addition of a charged single-tail surfactant to the thiolated Au nanoparticle monolayer helps to stabilize the Au nanoparticle monolayer and to strengthen the mechanical property of the mixed monolayer film. For mixing with lipids, it was found that the thiolated gold nanoparticles could be pushed on top of the lipid monolayer when the mixed monolayer is compressed. At a typical comparable total surface area ratio of gold nanoparticle to lipid, the thiolated gold nanoparticles could form a uniform domain on top of the DPPC monolayer. When there are more thiolated gold nanoparticles than that could be supported by the lipid monolayer, domain overlapping could occur to form bilayer gold nanoparticle domains at some regions. At low total surface area ratio of thiolated gold nanoparticle to lipid, the thiolated gold nanoparticles tend to form a connected threadlike aggregation structure. Evidently, the morphology of the thiolated gold nanoparticle monolayer is highly depending on the total surface area ratio of the thiolated gold nanoparticle to lipid. SDS is found to have a dispersion power capable of dispersing the originally uniform Au-8C nanoparticle domain of the mixed Au-8C/DPPC monolayer into a foamlike structure for the mixed Au-8C/SDS/DPPC monolayer. It is evident that not only the concentration ratio but also the size and shape of the template formed by the amphiphilic molecules and their interaction with the thiolated gold nanoparticles can all have great effects on the organizational structure as well as morphology of the thiolated gold nanoparticle monolayer.

8.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 700, 2017 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951540

RESUMO

Oxidation of bromide in aqueous environments initiates the formation of molecular halogen compounds, which is important for the global tropospheric ozone budget. In the aqueous bulk, oxidation of bromide by ozone involves a [Br•OOO-] complex as intermediate. Here we report liquid jet X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements that provide direct experimental evidence for the ozonide and establish its propensity for the solution-vapour interface. Theoretical calculations support these findings, showing that water stabilizes the ozonide and lowers the energy of the transition state at neutral pH. Kinetic experiments confirm the dominance of the heterogeneous oxidation route established by this precursor at low, atmospherically relevant ozone concentrations. Taken together, our results provide a strong case of different reaction kinetics and mechanisms of reactions occurring at the aqueous phase-vapour interface compared with the bulk aqueous phase.Heterogeneous oxidation of bromide in atmospheric aqueous environments has long been suspected to be accelerated at the interface between aqueous solution and air. Here, the authors provide spectroscopic, kinetic and theoretical evidence for a rate limiting, surface active ozonide formed at the interface.

9.
Biophys J ; 113(1): 82-90, 2017 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700928

RESUMO

Membrane-active antibiotics are potential alternatives to the resistance-prone conventional antibiotics. Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, is the only membrane-active antibiotic approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration so far. The drug interacts with the cytoplasmic membranes of Gram-positive pathogens, causing membrane permeabilization to ions and cell death. The antibiotic activity is calcium-ion dependent and correlates with the target membrane's content of phosphatidylglycerol (PG). For such a complex reaction with membranes, it has been difficult to uncover the molecular process that underlies its antibacterial activity. The role of the cofactor, calcium ions, has been confusing. Many have proposed that calcium ions binding to daptomycin is a precondition for membrane interaction. Here, we report our findings on the molecular state of daptomycin before and after its membrane-binding reaction, particularly at therapeutic concentrations in the low micromolar range. We were able to perform small-angle x-ray scattering at sufficiently low daptomycin concentrations to determine that the molecules are monomeric before membrane binding. By careful circular dichroism (CD) analyses of daptomycin with Ca2+ and PG-containing membranes, we found that there are only two states identifiable by CD, one before and another after membrane binding; all other CD spectra are linear combinations of the two. Before membrane binding, the molecular state of daptomycin as defined by CD is the same with or without calcium ions. We are able to determine the stoichiometric ratios of the membrane-binding reaction. The stoichiometric ratio of daptomycin to calcium is 2:3. The stoichiometric ratio of daptomycin to PG is ∼1:1 if only the PG lipids in the outer leaflets of membranes are accessible to daptomycin.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Daptomicina/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cálcio/química , Cátions Bivalentes/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Daptomicina/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Difração de Raios X
10.
Langmuir ; 33(11): 2885-2889, 2017 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28260386

RESUMO

Membrane perturbation induced by cysteine-rich peptides is a crucial biological phenomenon but scarcely investigated, in particular with effective biophysical-chemical methodologies. Hanatoxin (HaTx), a 35-residue polypeptide from spider venom, works as an inhibitor of drk1 (Kv2.1) channels, most likely by interacting with the voltage-sensor. However, how this water-soluble peptide modifies the gating remains poorly understood, as the voltage sensor was proposed to be deeply embedded within the bilayer. To see how HaTx interacts with phospholipid bilayers, we observe the toxin-induced perturbation on POPC/DOPG-membranes through measurements of the change in membrane thickness. Lamellar X-ray diffraction (LXD) was applied on stacked planar bilayers in the near-fully hydrated state. The results provide quantitative evidence for the membrane thinning in a concentration-dependent manner, leading to novel and direct combinatory approaches by discovering how to investigate such a biologically relevant interaction between gating-modifier toxins and phospholipid bilayers.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Difração de Raios X/métodos , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Venenos de Aranha/química
11.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1859(5): 917-923, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28143758

RESUMO

Hanatoxin (HaTx), a 35-residue polypeptide from spider venom, functions as an inhibitor of Kv2.1 channels by interacting with phospholipids prior to affecting the voltage-sensor. However, how this water-soluble peptide modifies the gating remains poorly understood, as the voltage-sensor is deeply embedded within the bilayer. To determine how HaTx interacts with phospholipid bilayers, in this study, we examined the toxin-induced partitioning of liposomal membranes. HPLC-results from high-speed spin-down vesicles with HaTx demonstrated direct binding. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and leakage assay results further indicated that neither membrane pores nor membrane fragmentations were observed in the presence of HaTx. To clarify the binding details, Langmuir trough experiments were performed with phospholipid monolayers by mimicking the external leaflet of membrane bilayers, indicating the involvement of acyl chains in such interactions between HaTx and phospholipids. Our current study thus describes the interaction pattern of HaTx with vesicle membranes, defining a membrane-partitioning mechanism for peptide insertion involving the membrane hydrocarbon core without pore formation.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Peptídeos/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , 1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Luz , Espalhamento de Radiação
12.
J Phys Chem A ; 120(49): 9749-9758, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27973794

RESUMO

The liquid-vapor interface is playing an important role in aerosol and cloud chemistry in cloud droplet activation by aerosol particles and potentially also in ice nucleation. We have employed the surface sensitive and chemically selective X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique to examine the liquid-vapor interface for mixtures of water and small alcohols or small carboxylic acids (C1 to C4), abundant chemicals in the atmosphere in concentration ranges relevant for cloud chemistry or aerosol particles at the point of activation into a cloud droplet. A linear correlation was found between the headgroup carbon 1s core-level signal intensity and the surface excess derived from literature surface tension data with the offset being explained by the bulk contribution to the photoemission signal. The relative interfacial enhancement of the carboxylic acids over the carboxylates at the same bulk concentration was found to be highest (nearly 20) for propionic acid/propionate and still about 5 for formic acid/formate, also in fair agreement with surface tension measurements. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for high carboxylic acid concentrations at aqueous solution-air interfaces that may be responsible for acid catalyzed chemistry under moderately acidic conditions with respect to their bulk aqueous phase acidity constant. By assessing the ratio of aliphatic to headgroup C 1s signal intensities XPS also provides information about the orientation of the molecules. The results indicate an increasing orientation of alcohols and neutral acids toward the surface normal as a function of chain length, along with increasing importance of lateral hydrophobic interactions at higher surface coverage. In turn, the carboxylate ions exhibit stronger orientation toward the surface normal than the corresponding neutral acids, likely caused by the stronger hydration of the charged headgroup.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 45(31): 12393-9, 2016 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27430045

RESUMO

Multiferroic YMn1-xFexO3(020) (x = 0.125, 0.25, 0.50) epitaxial thin films with an orthorhombic structure (space group Pbnm) were prepared on a YAlO3(010) substrate by pulsed-laser deposition. Upon Fe substitution, the b-axis was clearly shortened, whereas the a- and c-axes were slightly lengthened based on XRD analysis. To understand the influence of orbital polarization and the Jahn-Teller effect of Mn(3+) on Fe substitution and also the local octahedral-site distortion of Fe(3+) in an environment of Jahn-Teller-active Mn(3+) ions in YMn1-xFexO3 films, we measured the polarization-dependent X-ray absorption spectra at the Mn-L2,3 and Fe-L2,3 edges, and also simulated the experimental spectra using configuration-interaction multiplet calculations. Although Δeg for the Mn(3+) ion decreased from 0.9 eV in pure YMnO3 to 0.6 eV in the half-Fe-substituted sample, a single eg electron was still strongly constrained to the d3y(2)-r(2) orbital for all the Fe concentrations tested. The largest Δeg, 0.5 eV, for the Fe(3+) ion was derived for a sample with 12.5% Fe substitution, and gradually decreased to 0.15 eV for the half-Fe-substituted sample. The local octahedral-site distortion of the Fe(3+) ion inside the YMnO3 lattice was similar to that of the Mn(3+) ion, whereas the Jahn-Teller distortion and GdFeO3-type distortion of the Mn(3+) ion were decreased by the spherical high-spin Fe(3+) ions. The combination of the experimental and theoretical data provides both profound insight into the variation of the Jahn-Teller distortion and orbital anisotropy and instructive information about the magnetic structures in these orthorhombic YMn1-xFexO3 thin films.

14.
Biophys J ; 110(9): 2026-33, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27166810

RESUMO

Cholesterol, due to its condensing effect, is considered an important regulator of membrane thickness. Other sterols, due to their structural similarities to cholesterol, are often assumed to have a universal effect on membrane properties similar to the condensing effect of cholesterol, albeit possibly to different degrees. We used x-ray diffraction to investigate this assumption. By the combination of lamellar diffraction and grazing-angle scattering, we measured the membrane thickness and the tilt-angle distribution of the lipid's hydrocarbon chains. This method is sensitive to phase separation, which is important for examining the miscibility of sterols and phospholipids. Mixtures of ergosterol or cholesterol with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine were systematically studied. We found that mixing ergosterol with phospholipids into a single phase became increasingly difficult with higher sterol concentrations and also with higher concentrations of unsaturated lipid chains. The only condensing effect of ergosterol was found in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, although the effect was less than one-third of the effect of cholesterol. Unlike cholesterol, ergosterol could not maintain a fixed electron density profile of the surrounding lipids independent of hydration. In dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, ergosterol made the membranes thinner, opposite to the effect of cholesterol. In all cases, the tilt-angle variation of the chain diffraction was consistent with the membrane thickness changes measured by lamellar diffraction, i.e., a thickening was always associated with a reduction of chain tilt angles. Our findings do not support the notion that different sterols have a universal behavior that differs only in degree.


Assuntos
Membrana Celular/química , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/farmacologia , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Fosfolipídeos/química
15.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1848(10 Pt A): 2422-9, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26215743

RESUMO

PrP 106-126 conserves the pathogenic and physicochemical properties of the Scrapie isoform of the prion protein. PrP 106-126 and other amyloidal proteins are capable of inducing ion permeability through cell membranes, and this property may represent the common primary mechanism of pathogenesis in the amyloid-related degenerative diseases. However, for many amyloidal proteins, despite numerous phenomenological observations of their interactions with membranes, it has been difficult to determine the molecular mechanisms by which the proteins cause ion permeability. One approach that has not been undertaken is the kinetic study of protein-membrane interactions. We found that the reaction time constant of the interaction between PrP 106-126 and membranes is suitable for such studies. The kinetic experiment with giant lipid vesicles showed that the membrane area first increased by peptide binding but then decreased. The membrane area decrease was coincidental with appearance of extramembranous aggregates including lipid molecules. Sometimes, the membrane area would increase again followed by another decrease. The kinetic experiment with small vesicles was monitored by circular dichroism for peptide conformation changes. The results are consistent with a molecular simulation following a simple set of well-defined rules. We deduced that at the molecular level the formation of peptide amyloids incorporated lipid molecules as part of the aggregates. Most importantly the amyloid aggregates desorbed from the lipid bilayer, consistent with the macroscopic phenomena observed with giant vesicles. Thus we conclude that the main effect of membrane-mediated amyloid formation is extraction of lipid molecules from the membrane. We discuss the likelihood of this effect on membrane ion permeability.


Assuntos
Amiloide/síntese química , Amiloide/ultraestrutura , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/ultraestrutura , Fosfolipídeos/química , Príons/química , Príons/ultraestrutura , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Cinética
16.
FEBS Open Bio ; 5: 515-21, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26155459

RESUMO

Antibiotic drug resistance is a serious issue for the treatment of bacterial infection. Understanding the resistance to antibiotics is a key issue for developing new drugs. We used penicillin and sulbactam as model antibiotics to study their interaction with model membranes. Cholesterol was used to target the membrane for comparison with the well-known insertion model. Lamellar X-ray diffraction (LXD) was used to determine membrane thickness using successive drug-to-lipid molar ratios. The aspiration method for a single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) was used to monitor the kinetic binding process of antibiotic-membrane interactions in an aqueous solution. Both penicillin and sulbactam are found positioned outside the model membrane, while cholesterol inserts perpendicularly into the hydrophobic region of the membrane in aqueous solution. This result provides structural insights for understanding the antibiotic-membrane interaction and the mechanism of antibiotics.

17.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 17(7): 5078-83, 2015 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25599521

RESUMO

The redox property of ceria is a key factor in the catalytic activity of ceria-based catalysts. The oxidation state of well-defined ceria nanocubes in gas environments was analysed in situ by a novel combination of near-ambient pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and high-energy XPS at a synchrotron X-ray source. In situ high-energy XPS is a promising new tool to determine the electronic structure of matter under defined conditions. The aim was to quantitatively determine the degree of cerium reduction in a nano-structured ceria-supported platinum catalyst as a function of the gas environment. To obtain a non-destructive depth profile at near-ambient pressure, in situ high-energy XPS analysis was performed by varying the kinetic energy of photoelectrons from 1 to 5 keV, and, thus, the probing depth. In ceria nanocubes doped with platinum, oxygen vacancies formed only in the uppermost layers of ceria in an atmosphere of 1 mbar hydrogen and 403 K. For pristine ceria nanocubes, no change in the cerium oxidation state in various hydrogen or oxygen atmospheres was observed as a function of probing depth. In the absence of platinum, hydrogen does not dissociate and, thus, does not lead to reduction of ceria.

18.
J Phys Chem A ; 119(19): 4600-8, 2015 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25530167

RESUMO

A more detailed understanding of the heterogeneous chemistry of halogenated species in the marine boundary layer is required. Here, we studied the reaction of ozone (O3) with NaBr solutions in the presence and absence of citric acid (C6H8O7) under ambient conditions. Citric acid is used as a proxy for oxidized organic material present at the ocean surface or in sea spray aerosol. On neat NaBr solutions, the observed kinetics is consistent with bulk reaction-limited uptake, and a second-order rate constant for the reaction of O3 + Br(-) is 57 ± 10 M(-1) s(-1). On mixed NaBr-citric acid aqueous solutions, the uptake kinetics was faster than that predicted by bulk reaction-limited uptake and also faster than expected based on an acid-catalyzed mechanism. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) on a liquid microjet of the same solutions at 1.0 × 10(-3)-1.0 × 10(-4) mbar was used to obtain quantitative insight into the interfacial composition relative to that of the bulk solutions. It revealed that the bromide anion becomes depleted by 30 ± 10% while the sodium cation gets enhanced by 40 ± 20% at the aqueous solution-air interface of a 0.12 M NaBr solution mixed with 2.5 M citric acid in the bulk, attributed to the role of citric acid as a weak surfactant. Therefore, the enhanced reactivity of bromide solutions observed in the presence of citric acid is not necessarily attributable to a surface reaction but could also result from an increased solubility of ozone at higher citric acid concentrations. Whether the acid-catalyzed chemistry may have a larger effect on the surface than in the bulk to offset the effect of bromide depletion also remains open.


Assuntos
Ar , Brometos/química , Ozônio/química , Compostos de Sódio/química , Água/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Cinética , Oceanos e Mares , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Soluções , Propriedades de Superfície , Tensoativos/química
19.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 84(7): 073904, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23902081

RESUMO

A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II α lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(35): 14243-8, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23940362

RESUMO

Melittin is a prototype of the ubiquitous antimicrobial peptides that induce pores in membranes. It is commonly used as a molecular device for membrane permeabilization. Even at concentrations in the nanomolar range, melittin can induce transient pores that allow transmembrane conduction of atomic ions but not leakage of glucose or larger molecules. At micromolar concentrations, melittin induces stable pores allowing transmembrane leakage of molecules up to tens of kilodaltons, corresponding to its antimicrobial activities. Despite extensive studies, aspects of the molecular mechanism for pore formation remain unclear. To clarify the mechanism, one must know the states of the melittin-bound membrane before and after the process. By correlating experiments using giant unilamellar vesicles with those of peptide-lipid multilayers, we found that melittin bound on the vesicle translocated and redistributed to both sides of the membrane before the formation of stable pores. Furthermore, stable pores are formed only above a critical peptide-to-lipid ratio. The initial states for transient and stable pores are different, which implies different mechanisms at low and high peptide concentrations. To determine the lipidic structure of the pore, the pores in peptide-lipid multilayers were induced to form a lattice and examined by anomalous X-ray diffraction. The electron density distribution of lipid labels shows that the pore is formed by merging of two interfaces through a hole. The molecular property of melittin is such that it adsorbs strongly to the bilayer interface. Pore formation can be viewed as the bilayer adopting a lipid configuration to accommodate its excessive interfacial area.


Assuntos
Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Meliteno/química , Membranas Artificiais , Transporte de Íons , Difração de Raios X
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