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1.
Int Ophthalmol ; 44(1): 176, 2024 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619629

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Conventional diagnosis of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) needs a combination of ophthalmic examinations. An efficient assay is urgently needed for a timely POAG diagnosis. We aim to explore differential expressions of circulating microRNAs (miRNA) and provide novel miRNA biomarkers for POAG diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 180 POAG patients and 210 age-related cataract (ARC) patients were enrolled. We collected aqueous humor (AH) and plasma samples from the recruited patients. The expressions of candidate miRNAs were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. The diagnostic ability of candidate miRNAs was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: The expressions of miR-21-5p and miR-29b-3p were downregulated significantly in AH and plasma of POAG and miR-24-3p expression was significantly increased in AH and plasma of POAG, comparing with those of ARC. A three-miRNA panel was constructed by a binary logistic regression. And the panel could differentiate between POAG and ARC with an area under the curve of 0.8867 (sensitivity = 78.0%, specificity = 83.3%) in aqueous humor and 0.7547 (sensitivity = 73.8%, specificity = 81.2%) in plasma. Next, we verified the three-miRNA panel working as a potential diagnostic biomarker stable and reliable. At last, we identified related function and regulation pathways in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we built and identified a circulating three-miRNA panel as a potential diagnostic biomarker for POAG. It may be developed into an efficient assay and help improve the POAG diagnosis in the future.


Assuntos
MicroRNA Circulante , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Humor Aquoso , Biomarcadores
2.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298261, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38598458

RESUMO

In the realm of targeted advertising, the demand for precision is paramount, and the traditional centralized machine learning paradigm fails to address this necessity effectively. Two critical challenges persist in the current advertising ecosystem: the data privacy concerns leading to isolated data islands and the complexity in handling non-Independent and Identically Distributed (non-IID) data and concept drift due to the specificity and diversity in user behavior data. Current federated learning frameworks struggle to overcome these hurdles satisfactorily. This paper introduces Fed-GANCC, an innovative federated learning framework that synergizes Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) and Group Clustering. The framework incorporates a user data augmentation algorithm predicated on adversarial generative networks to enrich user behavior data, curtail the impact of non-uniform data distribution, and enhance the applicability of the global machine learning model. Unlike traditional approaches, our framework offers user data augmentation algorithms based on adversarial generative networks, which not only enriches user behavior data but also reduces the challenges posed by non-uniform data distribution, thereby enhancing the applicability of the global machine learning (ML) model. The effectiveness of Fed-GANCC is distinctly showcased through experimental results, outperforming contemporary methods like FED-AVG and FED-SGD in terms of accuracy, loss value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) indicators within the same computing time. Experimental results vindicate the effectiveness of Fed-GANCC, revealing substantial enhancements in accuracy, loss value, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) metrics compared to FED-AVG and FED-SGD given the same computational time. These outcomes underline Fed-GANCC's exceptional prowess in mitigating issues such as isolated data islands, non-IID data, and concept drift. With its novel approach to addressing the prevailing challenges in targeted advertising such as isolated data islands, non-IID data, and concept drift, the Fed-GANCC framework stands as a benchmark, paving the way for future advancements in federated learning solutions tailored for the advertising domain. The Fed-GANCC framework promises to offer pivotal insights for the future development of efficient and advanced federated learning solutions for targeted advertising.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Algoritmos , Análise por Conglomerados , Poder Psicológico
3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 265(Pt 2): 130736, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479672

RESUMO

The manuscript aimed to study the immune function maintenance effect of Achyranthes bidentata polysaccharides (ABPs). The mice were divided into the control group, cyclophosphamide-induced (CTX) group, and ABPs-treated (ABP) group. The results showed that, compared with the CTX group, ABPs could significantly improve the spleen index and alleviate the pathological changes in immune organs. Ex vivo study of whole spleen cells, the levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were increased. The proliferation of lymphocytes and the proportion of CD3+CD4+ Th cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were increased. The transcription of GATA-3, Foxp3, and ROR γ t were decreased, while the transcription of T-bet was increased. The transcriptome sequencing analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) caused by ABPs-treated were mostly downregulated in CTX-induced mice. The Th2-related genes were significantly enriched in DEGs, with representative genes, including Il4, II13, Il9, etc., while increasing the expression of immune effector genes simultaneously, including Ccl3, Ccr5, and Il12rb2. It was suggested that ABPs possibly regulated the balance of cytokines in helper T cells to ameliorate the immune function of CTX-induced mice.


Assuntos
Achyranthes , Citocinas , Camundongos , Animais , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Receptores de Interleucina-12
4.
Int J Ophthalmol ; 17(2): 219-227, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38371251

RESUMO

AIM: To directly quantify peroxynitrite (ONOO-) using a highly sensitive fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe RN-NA, investigate the association between ONOO- and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), and clarify whether RN-NA could be used as a potential tool for POAG diagnosis. METHODS: Plasma and aqueous humor (AH) samples were collected from POAG patients (n=100, age: 59.70±6.87y) and age-related cataract (ARC) patients (n=100, age: 61.15±4.60y) admitted to our hospital. Next, RN-NA was used to detect ONOO- in plasma and AH samples, and the relationship between ONOO- level and POAG was analyzed using binary logistic regression. Besides, Pearson correlation analysis was applied to characterize the correlation of the levels of ONOO- with the patients' age, intraocular pressure (IOP), and mean deviation of visual field testing. The ONOO- scavenger MnTMPyP was employed to treat the 3-morpholinosyndnomine (SIN-1)-induced ocular hypertension in mice (n=7, 6-8wk). Finally, the IOP and ONOO- in both eyes were measured 30min after the last drug treatment. RESULTS: ONOO- levels of AH and plasma were significantly higher in the POAG group than in the ARC group (P<0.01). Additionally, ONOO- levels were closely correlated with POAG in a binary logistic regression analysis [odds ratio (OR)=1.008, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.002-1.013, P<0.01 for AH; OR=1.004, 95%CI: 1.002-1.006, P<0.001 for plasma]. Pearson correlation analysis showed that ONOO- levels in AH or plasma were positively associated with visual field defects (R=0.51, P<0.01 for AH; R=0.45, P<0.001 for plasma), and ONOO- levels in plasma and AH were correlated in the POAG group (R=0.69, P<0.001). However, administering MnTMPyP to mouse eyes reversed the elevated IOP caused by SIN-1 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: ONOO- levels in AH and plasma, detected by RN-NA, are significantly related to POAG and positively correlated with visual field defects in POAG patients. Hence, ONOO- is a potential biomarker of POAG, especially advanced POAG. Besides, anti-nitration compounds may be novel ocular hypotensive agents based on the animal study.

5.
Science ; 383(6682): eadh4859, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301022

RESUMO

Ribozymes are catalytic RNAs with diverse functions including self-splicing and polymerization. This work aims to discover natural ribozymes that behave as hydrolytic and sequence-specific DNA endonucleases, which could be repurposed as DNA manipulation tools. Focused on bacterial group II-C introns, we found that many systems without intron-encoded protein propagate multiple copies in their resident genomes. These introns, named HYdrolytic Endonucleolytic Ribozymes (HYERs), cleaved RNA, single-stranded DNA, bubbled double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), and plasmids in vitro. HYER1 generated dsDNA breaks in the mammalian genome. Cryo-electron microscopy analysis revealed a homodimer structure for HYER1, where each monomer contains a Mg2+-dependent hydrolysis pocket and captures DNA complementary to the target recognition site (TRS). Rational designs including TRS extension, recruiting sequence insertion, and heterodimerization yielded engineered HYERs showing improved specificity and flexibility for DNA manipulation.


Assuntos
Clivagem do DNA , Endonucleases , RNA Catalítico , Animais , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Endonucleases/química , Endonucleases/genética , Hidrólise , Íntrons , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Splicing de RNA , RNA Catalítico/química , RNA Catalítico/genética
6.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123601, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38373624

RESUMO

The pesticide application method is one of the important factors affecting its effectiveness and residues, and the risk of pesticides to non-target organisms. To elucidate the effect of application methods on the efficacy and residue of cyenopyrafen, and the toxic effects on pollinators honeybees in strawberry cultivation, the efficacy and residual behavior of cyenopyrafen were investigated using foliar spray and backward leaf spray in field trials. The results showed that the initial deposition of cyenopyrafen using backward leaf spray on target leaves reached 5.06-9.81 mg/kg at the dose of 67.5-101.25 g a.i./ha, which was higher than that using foliar spray (2.62-3.71 mg/kg). The half-lives of cyenopyrafen in leaves for foliar and backward leaf spray was 2.3-3.3 and 5.3-5.9 d, respectively. The residues (10 d) of cyenopyrafen in leaves after backward leaf spray was 1.41-3.02 mg/kg, which was higher than that after foliar spraying (0.25-0.37 mg/kg). It is the main reason for the better efficacy after backward leaf spray. However, the residues (10 d) in strawberry after backward leaf spray and foliar spray was 0.04-0.10 and < 0.01 mg/kg, which were well below the established maximum residue levels of cyenopyrafen in Japan and South Korea for food safety. To further investigate the effects of cyenopyrafen residues after backward leaf spray application on pollinator honeybees, sublethal effects of cyenopyrafen on honeybees were studied. The results indicated a significant inhibition in the detoxification metabolic enzymes of honeybees under continuous exposure of cyenopyrafen (0.54 and 5.4 mg/L) over 8 d. The cyenopyrafen exposure also alters the composition of honeybee gut microbiota, such as increasing the relative abundance of Rhizobiales and decreasing the relative abundance of Acetobacterales. The comprehensive data on cyenopyrafen provide basic theoretical for environmental and ecological risk assessment, while backward leaf spray proved to be effective and safe for strawberry cultivation.


Assuntos
Acrilonitrila/análogos & derivados , Fragaria , Praguicidas , Abelhas , Animais , Pirazóis
7.
Dalton Trans ; 53(9): 3985-3989, 2024 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38369874

RESUMO

The construction of functional interlayers for separator modification in Li-S batteries has been proven to be a feasible and effective strategy to alleviate the shuttle effect. However, several challenging issues in interlayer design and fabrication, including the tedious material preparation process and high weight loading of the interlayer on the pristine separator, jeopardize the battery energy density. In this work, a nitrogen-abundant nanoporous carbon/graphene (NC/G) composite was synthesized by a facile method and fabricated into a lightweight membrane, which was investigated as a multifunctional interlayer in a Li-S battery. The abundant nitrogen sites and nanoporous structure of NC/G can effectively anchor and trap polysulfides; graphene (G) can create an excellent conductive network in NC/G. These attributes of NC/G are able to efficiently boost the sulfur redox reaction kinetics and significantly suppress the shuttle effect, leading to superb battery performance. More importantly, the low density of NC/G was conducive to reducing the load on the separator, thus reducing the decline in battery energy density, which is promising for practical applications. Even at an ultra-low loading of NC/G on the pristine separator (0.08 mg cm-2), the battery showed a competitive electrochemical performance compared with many reported materials. We believe this work provides a strategic guidance for the future fabrication of promising functional interlayers for practical Li-S battery applications.

8.
Nat Biotechnol ; 42(2): 316-327, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37095350

RESUMO

A technique for chromosomal insertion of large DNA segments is much needed in plant breeding and synthetic biology to facilitate the introduction of desired agronomic traits and signaling and metabolic pathways. Here we describe PrimeRoot, a genome editing approach to generate targeted precise large DNA insertions in plants. Third-generation PrimeRoot editors employ optimized prime editing guide RNA designs, an enhanced plant prime editor and superior recombinases to enable precise large DNA insertions of up to 11.1 kilobases into plant genomes. We demonstrate the use of PrimeRoot to accurately introduce gene regulatory elements in rice. In this study, we also integrated a gene cassette comprising PigmR, which confers rice blast resistance driven by an Act1 promoter, into a predicted genomic safe harbor site of Kitaake rice and obtain edited plants harboring the expected insertion with an efficiency of 6.3%. We found that these rice plants have increased blast resistance. These results establish PrimeRoot as a promising approach to precisely insert large segments of DNA in plants.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Oryza , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Sequência de Bases , RNA Guia de Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Genoma de Planta/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Plantas/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo
10.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(12)2023 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38131766

RESUMO

Integrating biosensors with smartphones is becoming an increasingly popular method for detecting various biomolecules and could replace expensive laboratory-based instruments. In this work, we demonstrate a novel smartphone-based biosensor system with a gradient grating period guided-mode resonance (GGP-GMR) sensor. The sensor comprises numerous gratings which each correspond to and block the light of a specific resonant wavelength. This results in a dark band, which is observed using a CCD underneath the GGP-GMR sensor. By monitoring the shift in the dark band, the concentration of a molecule in a sample can be determined. The sensor is illuminated by a light-emitting diode, and the light transmitted through the GGP-GMR sensor is directly captured by a smartphone, which then displays the results. Experiments were performed to validate the proposed smartphone biosensor and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.50 × 10-3 RIU was achieved for sucrose solutions. Additionally, multiplexed detection was demonstrated for albumin and creatinine solutions at concentrations of 0-500 and 0-1 mg/mL, respectively; the corresponding LODs were 1.18 and 20.56 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Smartphone , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Limite de Detecção
12.
ACS Nano ; 17(21): 20979-20990, 2023 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37906948

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is a promising approach for treating ocular hypertension and glaucoma. However, its clinical application is limited by its uncontrollable release and the unwanted overproduction of peroxynitrite. Herein, a denitrifying hollow mesoporous organosilica nanoparticle (HMMN) with framework cohybridization is first constructed to encapsulate S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) to produce SNAP@HMMN with dual capacities of selective peroxynitrite removal and controllable NO release. Featuring a large corneal permeability, the well-designed SNAP@HMMN can achieve trans-corneal delivery to reach the target trabecular meshwork (TM)/Schlemm's canal (SC) site. Upon light irradiation, the intraocular pressure (IOP) is appropriately lowered in an adjustable and long-lasting manner while the outflow tissues are protected from nitrative damage, which is expected to realize precision on-demand glaucoma therapy with little biosafety concern, promising significant clinical translational potential.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Óxido Nítrico , Humanos , Ácido Peroxinitroso , Nanomedicina , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Intraocular
13.
J Mater Chem B ; 11(43): 10433-10445, 2023 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37885402

RESUMO

The therapeutic value of microRNA (miRNA) for the treatment of glaucoma has become a focus of attention. However, naked miRNA cannot cross the corneal barrier and reach the target tissue by itself. Thus, the precise transport of miRNA to the target sites is key to the success of gene therapy. Herein, we selected a miRNA, namely miR-21-5p, based on its unique intraocular pressure (IOP) mechano-sensing property. Moreover, a biocompatible polymeric poly(L-lysine) (PLL) micelle conjugated with collagenase and ABCA1 antibody was judiciously constructed to achieve the trans-corneal and target delivery of miR-21-5p to the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC) tissues inside the eye. The topically administrated PLL micelles as an eye drop successfully crossed the cornea with the help of collagenase and then preferentially accumulated in the target TM/SC tissues under the guidance of the ABCA1 antibody. When endocytosed by TM/SC cells, the PLL micelles could be decomposed in the reductive lysosomal environment to release miR-21-5p for successfully lowering the IOP by activating the miR-21-5p/eNOS/MMP9 signaling axis, which will open new prospects for glaucoma-specific gene therapy.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , MicroRNAs , Humanos , Micelas , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Córnea , MicroRNAs/genética , Colagenases
14.
Discov Med ; 35(178): 805-814, 2023 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37811618

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) could seriously affect the patient's health quality by its recurrence. There is a great medical and social need to explore the mechanisms and new treatment strategies of IBS. OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) gene knockout on IBS visceral sensitivity, stress behaviors, and colonic electrical activities. METHODS: The PAR2 gene knockout and IBS model rats were generated and divided into PAR2+/+ wild control (WC) group, PAR2+/+ wild IBS model (WM) group, PAR2-/- knockout control (KC) group and PAR2-/- knockout IBS model (KM) group. The stress behaviors scores, minimum rectal fluid injection capacity threshold value of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) = 3, and the colonic electrical activities indexes were recorded and the experimental results were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: (1) PAR2 gene deletion and IBS models were successfully generated. (2) The scores of aggressive and exploratory behaviors in WM and KM groups were higher than WC and KC groups (p < 0.05). The grooming behavior scores in WC and KC groups were higher than the WM and KM groups (p < 0.05). WM group had the highest aggressive and exploratory behavior scores; WC group had the highest grooming behavior scores. (3) The minimum rectal fluid injection capacity threshold value of AWR = 3 in WM and KM groups were lower than WC and KC groups (p < 0.05); WM group had the lowest value. (4) The maximum amplitude and wave frequency of colonic fast and slow waves in WM and WC groups were greater than in the KM and KC groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The amplitude index and number of colonic contraction waves in WM and KM groups were greater than the WC and KC groups (p < 0.05). Colonic electrical activity indexes were highest in the WM group. CONCLUSIONS: The PAR2 gene deletion could have a beneficial effect on visceral sensitivity, stress behaviors and colonic electrical activities in rats with IBS.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Receptor PAR-2/genética , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes
15.
PeerJ Comput Sci ; 9: e1496, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37705669

RESUMO

The rise of targeted advertising has led to frequent privacy data leaks, as advertisers are reluctant to share information to safeguard their interests. This has resulted in isolated data islands and model heterogeneity challenges. To address these issues, we have proposed a C-means clustering algorithm based on maximum average difference to improve the evaluation of the difference in distribution between local and global parameters. Additionally, we have introduced an innovative dynamic selection algorithm that leverages knowledge distillation and weight correction to reduce the impact of model heterogeneity. Our framework was tested on various datasets and its performance was evaluated using accuracy, loss, and AUC (area under the ROC curve) metrics. Results showed that the framework outperformed other models in terms of higher accuracy, lower loss, and better AUC while requiring the same computation time. Our research aims to provide a more reliable, controllable, and secure data sharing framework to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of targeted advertising.

16.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 44(21): e2300354, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37572076

RESUMO

Adopting only a small amount of azobenzene molecular to design liquid crystal photo-responsive materials capable of quick response and flexible adjustability is in high demand but is challenging. Herein, azobenzenemolecules into polyurethane elastomer containing crystalline structure for preparing azobenzene liquid-crystal elastomers (ALCEs) are demonstrated and this phenomenon of the synergistic effects between liquid crystal and crystalline phase is discovered. The key point of the work is that the synthetic ALCEs can utilize the reversible isomerism capability of azobenzene molecules under light irradiation, which can pry the motion of the macromolecular crystalline region in system to realize the large macroscopic deformation of the photo-responsive behavior. Obviously, the ALCEs sample containing azobenzene molecule and polyethylene glycol crystallization can quickly bend, illuminated by ultraviolet light and rapidly straighten under green light. Under the same ultraviolet irradiation, the bending speed, final bending angle, recovery rate and recovery ratio of ALCEs are larger than that of ALCEs without any crystalline structure. This ALCEs based on the synergistic effects between liquid crystal and crystalline phase can break through the current dilemma that the application of traditional azobenzene photo-responsive materials is limited by their concentration, greatly expanding the design thought and their scope of application.


Assuntos
Elastômeros , Cristais Líquidos , Elastômeros/química , Cristais Líquidos/química , Compostos Azo/química , Polietilenoglicóis
17.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37298763

RESUMO

One of the current challenges in the development of flame retardants is the preparation of an environmentally friendly multi-element synergistic flame retardant to improve the flame retardancy, mechanical performance, and thermal performance of composites. This study synthesized an organic flame retardant (APH) using (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (KH-550), 1,4-phthalaadehyde, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, and 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) as raw materials, through the Kabachnik-Fields reaction. Adding APH to epoxy resin (EP) composites could greatly improve their flame retardancy. For instance, UL-94 with 4 wt% APH/EP reached the V-0 rating and had an LOI as high as 31.2%. Additionally, the peak heat release rate (PHRR), average heat release rate (AvHRR), total heat release (THR), and total smoke produced (TSP) of 4% APH/EP were 34.1%, 31.8%, 15.2%, and 38.4% lower than EP, respectively. The addition of APH improved the mechanical performance and thermal performance of the composites. After adding 1% APH, the impact strength increased by 15.0%, which was attributed to the good compatibility between APH and EP. The TG and DSC analyses revealed that the APH/EP composites that incorporated rigid naphthalene ring groups had higher glass transition temperatures (Tg) and a higher amount of char residue (C700). The pyrolysis products of APH/EP were systematically investigated, and the results revealed that flame retardancy of APH was realized by the condensed-phase mechanism. APH has good compatibility with EP, excellent thermal performance, enhanced mechanical performance and rational flame retardancy, and the combustion products of the as-prepared composites complied with the green and environmental protection standards which are also broadly applied in industry.


Assuntos
Resinas Epóxi , Retardadores de Chama , Fumaça , Naftalenos
18.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 198: 114868, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37182700

RESUMO

The cornea is a remarkable tissue that possesses specialized structures designed to safeguard the eye against foreign objects. However, its unique properties also make it challenging to deliver drugs in a non-invasive manner. This review highlights recent advancements in achieving highly efficient drug transport across the cornea, focusing on nanomaterials. We have classified these strategies into three main categories based on their mechanisms and have analyzed their success and limitations in a systematic manner. The purpose of this review is to examine potential general principles that could improve drug penetration through the cornea and other natural barriers in the eye. We hope it will inspire the development of more effective drug delivery systems that can better treat ocular diseases.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Nanoestruturas , Humanos , Córnea , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Transporte Biológico
19.
J Pain Res ; 16: 773-784, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36923649

RESUMO

Aim: Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a long-term degenerative disease. Considering the risks and advantages of the patient's age range and the characteristics of the condition, non-surgical treatment is recommended. To determine the best first-line non-surgical therapy for LSS, few studies have examined different non-surgical therapies. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to determine whether the selection of comprehensive Chinese medicine (CM) treatment for LSS is more successful than non-surgical conservative treatment. Patients and Methods: In this two-armed, parallel, single-centered, pragmatic randomized controlled study, 94 LSS participants will be randomized to receive 24 sessions of comprehensive CM therapy or conservative treatment for 3 months, with follow-up assessments at 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. The primary outcome will be based on the success rate of the Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ) for the most clinical important difference (MCID) at 3 and 15 months. Secondary outcomes include Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) scores for back and leg pain, ZCQ scores, Oswestry Disability Index scores for lumbar dysfunction, and Short-Form 12 scores for health-related quality of life at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Adverse events and incidences of surgery will be reported anytime during the trial and follow-up. Conclusion: This protocol examines the comparative efficacy of comprehensive CM therapy compared with conventional care through a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to present data to facilitate clinical or policy decision-making. The outcomes will make it easier to decide which patient-centered treatments to prioritize for LSS.

20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 30(19): 56513-56521, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36920607

RESUMO

The prevalence of glaucoma has seasonal variation in population, but the role of ambient temperature and its variation remains unclear in this seasonal trend. So, we conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the association of ambient temperature and temperature change between neighboring days (TCN) with the risk of acute glaucoma. Data on meteorological parameters and glaucoma outpatient visit between 2015 and 2021 covered all districts of Shanghai. Conditional logistic regression with distributed lag nonlinear model was applied to estimate the association of temperature or TCN with the risk of acute glaucoma. A total of 7,746 patients diagnosed with acute primary angle-closure glaucoma (APACG) were included in this analysis. We observed a significant increase in the risk of acute glaucoma with cold temperature and temperature drop. Compared with the referent temperature (32℃), moderate low (12 °C) and extreme low (4 °C) temperature exposures were associated with higher risk of acute glaucoma outpatient visit, with the highest cumulative OR of 1.46 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.91) and 1.50 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.06) over lag 0-2 days. Temperature drop (TCN = - 4 °C) also increases the risk of acute glaucoma (OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.67) over lag 0-7 days, comparing with no temperature change. Patients of female and above age 65 were more vulnerable to cold exposure and temperature drop. This case-crossover study provided novel and robust individual-level evidence that low ambient temperature and temperature drop significantly increase the acute glaucoma risk. The findings provide protective strategies for glaucoma patient, especially for female and the old, under cold exposure and sudden temperature decline.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado , Glaucoma , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Temperatura Alta
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