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1.
Hypertension ; 2024 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38634292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a risk factor for experiencing left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) declines during receipt of potentially cardiotoxic breast cancer (BC) treatment. We sought to determine whether the hypertension stage is associated with LVEF decline during BC treatment. METHODS: Across 24 centers, cardiac magnetic resonance measures of LVEF and brachial arterial blood pressure (BP) measurements were performed in women with stages I to III BC before and 3 months after initiating potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy. Using multivariable analysis, we assessed in a blinded fashion the association between 3-month ΔLVEF and precancer treatment American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology stages of hypertension. RESULTS: Among 204 women, age averaged 56±1 years with 75% being White and 20% of Black race. Participants received anthracycline (45.6%), trastuzumab (22.5%), cyclophosphamide (52.9%), or paclitaxel (50%). After accounting for pretreatment LVEF, diabetes status, tobacco use, age, the number of antihypertensive medications, and body mass index, those with stage II hypertension experienced an LVEF decline of -2.89% ([95% CI, -0.69% to -5.19%]; P=0.01) relative to individuals with normal BP. Other stages saw nonsignificant declines relative to normal BP to elevated BP (-1.63% [95% CI, -0.62% to 3.88%]; P=0.16) and stage I hypertension (-0.94% [95% CI, -0.90% to 2.78%]; P=0.32). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with women receiving treatment for BC with normal BP, there is a stronger association of decline in LVEF in women with stage II hypertension relative to women with other hypertension stages. This raises the possibility that stage along with hypertension presence may be associated with an increased risk for the LVEF decline among women receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy for BC. REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02791581 and NCT01719562.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2024 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573708

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Preventing Anthracycline Cardiovascular Toxicity with Statins (PREVENT) (NCT01988571) randomized breast cancer or lymphoma patients receiving anthracyclines to atorvastatin 40 mg daily or placebo. We evaluated the effects of atorvastatin on oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers, and explored whether these biomarkers could explain the lack of effect of atorvastatin on LVEF in PREVENT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed prior to doxorubicin initiation and at 6 and 24 months. Thirteen biomarkers (arginine-nitric oxide metabolites, paraoxonase-1 [PON-1] activity, and myeloperoxidase) were measured. Dimensionality reduction using principal component analysis was used to define biomarker clusters. Linear mixed-effects models determined the changes in biomarkers over time according to treatment group. Mediation analysis determined if biomarker clusters explained the lack of effect of atorvastatin on LVEF. RESULTS: Among 202 participants with available biomarkers, median age was 53 years; 86.6% had breast cancer; median LVEF was 62%. Cluster 1 levels, reflecting arginine methylation metabolites, were lower over time with atorvastatin, although this was not statistically significant (p=0.081); cluster 2 levels, reflecting PON-1 activity, were significantly lower with atorvastatin (p=0.024). There were no significant changes in other biomarker clusters (p>0.05). Biomarker clusters did not mediate an effect of atorvastatin on LVEF (p>0.05) Conclusions: Atorvastatin demonstrated very modest effects on oxidative/nitrosative stress biomarkers in this low cardiovascular risk population. Our findings provide potential mechanistic insight into the lack of effect of atorvastatin on LVEF in the PREVENT trial.

3.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 25(1): 27-41, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194149

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Frailty refers to a biologic process that results in reduced physiologic and functional reserve. Patients diagnosed with primary malignant brain tumors experience high symptom burden from tumor and tumor-directed treatments that, coupled with previous comorbidities, may contribute to frailty. Within the primary malignant brain tumor population, frailty is known to associate with mortality, higher healthcare utilization, and increased risk of postoperative complications. As such, methods to assess and manage frailty are paramount. However, there is currently no clear consensus on how to best assess and manage frailty throughout the entirety of the disease trajectory. Given the association between frailty and health outcomes, more research is needed to determine best practice protocols for the assessment and management of frailty among patients diagnosed with primary malignant brain tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Fragilidade , Humanos , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Comorbidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia
4.
PLoS One ; 19(1): e0291128, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38285688

RESUMO

PURPOSE: AT-101 is an oral bcl-2 family protein inhibitor (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, Bcl-W) and potent inducer of proapoptotic proteins. A prior study of the parent compound, racemic gossypol, demonstrated objective and durable responses in patients with malignant glioma. AT-101 has demonstrated synergy with radiation in animal models. The objectives of trial NABTT 0602 were to determine the MTD of AT-101 concurrent with temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation therapy (RT) (Arm I) and to determine the MTD of AT-101 when given with adjuvant TMZ after completion of standard chemoradiation (Arm 2). Separately in trial NABTT 0702, the survival and response rates of single agent AT-101 were evaluated in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. METHODS: In NABTT 0602 Phase I, a 3+3 design was used to define MTDs after maximal safe resection, patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma received standard concurrent RT (60 Gy) and TMZ 75 mg/m2/day followed by adjuvant TMZ 150-200 mg/m2 days 1-5 in 28-day cycles (Stupp regimen). In Arm I, AT-101 was administered M-F during the six weeks of RT beginning 20 mg qd. In Arm 2, concurrent with each adjuvant cycle of TMZ, AT-101 was administered at a starting dose of 20 mg, days 1-21 followed by 7-day break for a maximum of 6 cycles. The PK blood samples were collected in the first three patients in each cohort of arm 1. In NABTT 0702 patients with recurrent glioblastoma received 20 mg p.o. per day for 21 of 28 days in repeated cycles to assess overall survival (OS). RESULTS: A total of sixteen patients were enrolled on the two study arms of NABTT 0602. In Arm 1 AT-101 was escalated from 20 to 30 mg where one of six patients experienced DLT (grade 3 GI ulcer). On Arm 2 one patient treated at 20 mg experienced DLT (grade 3 ileus, nausea and diarrhea). The cohort was expanded to include seven patients without observation of DLT. PK results were consistent with drug levels from non-CNS studies. At study closure six patients are still alive. The median survival times for Arm I and Arm II are 15.2 months and 18.2 months, respectively. In NABTT 0702 fifty-six patients were enrolled and forty-three were eligible for imaging response. Sixteen patients (29%) had stable disease as best response and one partial response was observed. The median OS with single agent AT-101 was 5.7 months (95%CI: 3.8-7.6 months) for patients with rGBM. CONCLUSIONS: AT-101 can be safely administered with radiation therapy and TMZ in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma without toxicity unique to patients with CNS tumors. Because of toxicity observed in non-CNS AT-101 clinical trials, further dose-escalation was not attempted. The recommended dose for future studies that utilize continual AT-101 exposure is 20 mg days M-F concurrent with RT/TMZ and 20 mg days 1-21 for each 28-day cycle of TMZ. AT-101 has limited activity as a single agent in unselected patients with recurrent glioblastoma. Future trials should attempt to better understand resistance mechanisms and consider combination therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Gossipol , Humanos , Glioblastoma/patologia , Gossipol/farmacologia , Gossipol/uso terapêutico , Dacarbazina/farmacologia , Dacarbazina/uso terapêutico , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico
5.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 20(2): 239-246, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38175992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oncology advanced practice providers (APPs), including nurse practitioners, clinical nurse specialists, physician assistants, and clinical pharmacists, contribute significantly to quality cancer care. Understanding the research-related roles of APPs in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) could lead to enhanced protocol development, trial conduct, and accrual. METHODS: The 2022 NCORP Landscape Assessment Survey asked two questions about the utilization and roles of APPs in the NCORP. RESULTS: A total of 271 practice groups completed the 2022 survey, with a response rate of 90%. Of the 259 nonpediatric exclusive practice groups analyzed in this study, 92% used APPs for clinical care activities and 73% used APPs for research activities. APPs most often provided clinical care for patients enrolled in trials (97%), followed by assistance with coordination (65%), presenting/explaining clinical trials (59%), screening patients (49%), ordering investigational drugs (37%), and consenting participants (24%). Some groups reported APPs as an enrolling investigator (18%) and/or participating in institutional oversight/selection of trials (15%). Only 5% of NCORP sites reported APPs as a site primary investigator for trials, and very few (3%) reported APPs participating in protocol development. CONCLUSION: Practice groups report involving APPs in clinical research within the NCORP network; however, opportunities for growth exists. As team-based care has enhanced clinical practice in oncology, this same approach can be used to enhance successful research. Suggested strategies include supporting APP research-related time, recognition, and education. The findings of this survey and subsequent recommendations may be applied to all adult oncology practices that participate in clinical research.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Adulto , Estados Unidos , Humanos , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasias/terapia , Oncologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
6.
JACC CardioOncol ; 5(5): 641-652, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37969655

RESUMO

Background: Cancer treatment increases cardiovascular disease risk, but physical activity (PA) may prevent cardiovascular disease. Objectives: This study examined whether greater PA was associated with better submaximal exercise capacity and cardiac function during cancer therapy. Methods: Participants included 223 women with stage I to III breast cancer (BC) before and 3 months after undergoing treatment and 126 control participants. Leisure-time PA (LTPA) was reported using the Godin-Shephard LTPA questionnaire. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance. Submaximal exercise capacity was determined by 6-minute walk distance. Results: BC participants reported similar baseline LTPA scores (24.7; 95% CI: 21.7-28.0) as control participants (29.4; 95% CI: 25.0-34.2). The BC group declined to 16.9 (95% CI: 14.4-19.6) at 3 months relative to 30.8 (95% CI: 26.2-35.8) in control participants. Among BC participants, more LTPA was related to better exercise capacity (ß ± SE: 7.1 ± 1.6; 95% CI: 4.0-10.1) and left ventricular (LV) circumferential strain (-0.16 ± 0.07; 95% CI: -0.29 to -0.02). Increased LTPA over the 3 months was associated with decreased likelihood of treatment-induced cardiac dysfunction according to LV circumferential strain classifications (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.97-0.998). BC participants reporting insufficient LTPA according to PA guidelines exhibited deteriorations in exercise capacity (adjusted mean difference ± SE: -29 ± 10 m; P = 0.029), LV end-systolic volume (5.8 ± 1.3 mL; P < 0.001), LV ejection fraction (-3.2% ± 0.8%; P = 0.002), and LV circumferential strain (2.5% ± 0.5%; P < 0.001), but BC participants meeting LTPA guidelines did not exhibit these adverse changes. Conclusions: PA declined during BC therapy; however, PA participation was associated with attenuated declines in exercise capacity and cardiac function that are often observed in this population. (Understanding and Predicting Breast Cancer Events After Treatment [WF97415 UPBEAT]; NCT02791581).

7.
J Neurooncol ; 165(3): 499-507, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38015376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A multi-site Phase I trial was conducted to determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of Veliparib, a Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP] enzyme inhibitor, when administered with temozolomide (TMZ) alone and then with temozolomide and radiation (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. METHODS: Given the potential for myelosuppression when a PARP inhibitor is combined with chemotherapy, the first 6 patients accrued were given Veliparib 10 mg bid and TMZ 75 mg/m2/d daily for six weeks. If this was well tolerated, the same doses of Veliparib and TMZ would be tested along with standard radiation with plans to dose escalate the Veliparib in subsequent patient cohorts. Once a maximal tolerated dose was determined, a 78 patient phase II study was planned. Peripheral blood pharmacokinetics were assessed. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients were enrolled. In the first 6 patients who received 6 weeks of TMZ with Veliparib only one dose limiting toxicity (DLT) occurred. The next 12 patients received 6 weeks of RT + TMZ + veliparib and 4/12 (33%) had dose limiting hematologic toxicities. As a result, Veliparib was reduced by 50% to 10 mg BID every other week, but again 3/3 patients had dose limiting hematologic toxicities. The trial was then terminated. The mean clearance (± SD) CL/F of Veliparib for the initial dose (27.0 ± 9.0 L/h, n = 16) and at steady-state for 10 mg BID (23.5 ± 10.4 L/h, n = 18) were similar. Accumulation for BID dosing was 56% (± 33%). CONCLUSIONS: Although Veliparib 10 mg BID administered with TMZ 75 mg/m2 for six weeks was well tolerated, when this regimen was combined with standard partial brain irradiation it was severely myelosuppressive even when the dose was reduced by 50%. This study again highlights the potential of localized cranial radiotherapy to significantly increase hematologic toxicity of marginally myelosuppressive systemic therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Humanos , Temozolomida/uso terapêutico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/radioterapia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/radioterapia
8.
bioRxiv ; 2023 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37546807

RESUMO

The presence of cell surface protein CD47 allows cancer cells to evade innate and adaptive immune surveillance resulting in metastatic spread. CD47 binds to and activates SIRPα on the surface of myeloid cells, inhibiting their phagocytic activity. On the other hand, CD47 binds the matricellular protein Thrombospondin-1, limiting T-cell activation. Thus, blocking CD47 is a potential therapeutic strategy for preventing brain metastasis. To test this hypothesis, breast cancer patient biopsies were stained with antibodies against CD47 to determine differences in protein expression. An anti-CD47 antibody was used in a syngeneic orthotopic triple-negative breast cancer model, and CD47 null mice were used in a breast cancer brain metastasis model by intracardiac injection of the E0771-Br-Luc cell line. Immunohistochemical staining of patient biopsies revealed an 89% increase in CD47 expression in metastatic brain tumors compared to normal adjacent tissue (p ≤ 0.05). Anti-CD47 treatment in mice bearing brain metastatic 4T1br3 orthotopic tumors reduced tumor volume and tumor weight by over 50% compared to control mice (p ≤ 0.05) and increased IBA1 macrophage/microglia marker 5-fold in tumors compared to control (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, CD47 blockade increased the M1/M2 macrophage ratio in tumors 2.5-fold (p ≤ 0.05). CD47 null mice had an 89% decrease in metastatic brain burden (p ≤ 0.05) compared to control mice in a brain metastasis model. Additionally, RNA sequencing revealed several uniquely expressed genes and significantly enriched genes related to tissue development, cell death, and cell migration tumors treated with anti-CD47 antibodies. Thus, demonstrating that CD47 blockade affects cancer cell and tumor microenvironment signaling to limit metastatic spread and may be an effective therapeutic for triple-negative breast cancer brain metastasis.

11.
Curr Treat Options Oncol ; 24(9): 1293-1303, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37407888

RESUMO

OPINION STATEMENT: Patients with primary brain tumors are at a substantially elevated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) compared to other disease states or other forms of malignancy. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), often complicate the care of patients with primary brain tumors, and treatment may pose specific unique risks and considerations for management. This paper critically reviews the relevant literature and the most common treatment options in addition to a discussion regarding the relative risk considerations for neurooncology patients facing thromboembolic disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia Venosa , Trombose Venosa , Humanos , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico , Trombose Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/terapia , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Embolia Pulmonar/etiologia , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Fatores de Risco
12.
N Engl J Med ; 389(2): 118-126, 2023 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37437144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Craniopharyngiomas, primary brain tumors of the pituitary-hypothalamic axis, can cause clinically significant sequelae. Treatment with the use of surgery, radiation, or both is often associated with substantial morbidity related to vision loss, neuroendocrine dysfunction, and memory loss. Genotyping has shown that more than 90% of papillary craniopharyngiomas carry BRAF V600E mutations, but data are lacking with regard to the safety and efficacy of BRAF-MEK inhibition in patients with papillary craniopharyngiomas who have not undergone previous radiation therapy. METHODS: Eligible patients who had papillary craniopharyngiomas that tested positive for BRAF mutations, had not undergone radiation therapy previously, and had measurable disease received the BRAF-MEK inhibitor combination vemurafenib-cobimetinib in 28-day cycles. The primary end point of this single-group, phase 2 study was objective response at 4 months as determined with the use of centrally determined volumetric data. RESULTS: Of the 16 patients in the study, 15 (94%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 100) had a durable objective partial response or better to therapy. The median reduction in the volume of the tumor was 91% (range, 68 to 99). The median follow-up was 22 months (95% CI, 19 to 30) and the median number of treatment cycles was 8. Progression-free survival was 87% (95% CI, 57 to 98) at 12 months and 58% (95% CI, 10 to 89) at 24 months. Three patients had disease progression during follow-up after therapy had been discontinued; none have died. The sole patient who did not have a response stopped treatment after 8 days owing to toxic effects. Grade 3 adverse events that were at least possibly related to treatment occurred in 12 patients, including rash in 6 patients. In 2 patients, grade 4 adverse events (hyperglycemia in 1 patient and increased creatine kinase levels in 1 patient) were reported; 3 patients discontinued treatment owing to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In this small, single-group study involving patients with papillary craniopharyngiomas, 15 of 16 patients had a partial response or better to the BRAF-MEK inhibitor combination vemurafenib-cobimetinib. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03224767.).


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Craniofaringioma , Neoplasias Hipofisárias , Humanos , Craniofaringioma/tratamento farmacológico , Craniofaringioma/genética , Progressão da Doença , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Vemurafenib/efeitos adversos , Vemurafenib/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Indução de Remissão
13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 174: 208-212, 2023 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37224793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Despite considerable burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), data on endometrial cancer survivors' CVD perceptions are lacking. We assessed survivors' perspectives on addressing CVD risk during oncology care. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis utilized data from an ongoing trial of an EHR heart health tool (R01CA226078 & UG1CA189824) conducted through the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP, WF-1804CD). Endometrial cancer survivors post-potentially curative treatment were recruited from community practices and completed a pre-visit baseline survey, including American Heart Association Simple 7 CVD factors. Likert-type questions assessed confidence in understanding CVD risk, CVD risk perception, and desired discussion during oncology care. Medical record abstraction ascertained data on CVD and cancer characteristics. RESULTS: Survivors (N = 55, median age = 62; 62% 0-2 years post-diagnosis) were predominately white, non-Hispanic (87%). Most agreed/strongly agreed heart disease poses a risk to their health (87%) and oncology providers should talk to patients about heart health (76%). Few survivors reported smoking (12%) but many had poor/intermediate values for blood pressure (95%), body mass index (93%), fasting glucose/A1c (60%), diet (60%), exercise (47%) and total cholesterol (53%). 16% had not seen a PCP in the last year; these survivors were more likely to report financial hardship (22% vs 0%; p = 0.02). Most reported readiness to take steps to maintain or improve heart health (84%). CONCLUSIONS: Discussions of CVD risk during routine oncology care are likely to be well received by endometrial cancer survivors. Strategies are needed to implement CVD risk assessment guidelines and to enhance communication and referrals with primary care. Clinical Trials #: NCT03935282.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Neoplasias do Endométrio , Neoplasias , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/terapia , Neoplasias/terapia , Sobreviventes
14.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 22: 15347354231164406, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37029555

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anxiety and dyspnea are 2 common symptoms for lung cancer survivors. Although research suggests decreasing respiration rate can reduce anxiety in several populations, potential benefits of device-guided breathing have not been studied in lung cancer survivors. This feasibility study (WF-01213) provides estimates of accrual, adherence, retention, and preliminary efficacy of 2 doses of a device-guided breathing intervention versus a usual breathing control group for improving self-reported anxiety and dyspnea in post-treatment lung cancer survivors. METHODS: Stage I-IV lung cancer survivors were recruited through the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) and randomized to 12 weeks of a device-guided breathing intervention (high dose vs. low dose) or control device. Self-reported outcomes (anxiety, depression, dyspnea, cancer-related worry, fatigue) were assessed at baseline, mid-intervention (Week-6), and post-intervention (Week-12). RESULTS: Forty-six participants (ages 41-77, median = 65; 78% White) were randomized to the high-dose intervention (n = 14), low-dose intervention (n = 14), or control (n = 18) groups between July 2015 and September 2019. Study accrual rate was 0.92 per month for 50 months (projected accrual was 6.3/month). Fourteen participants (30%) withdrew early from the study, with almost half of those discontinuing at or immediately following baseline assessment. No participants were adherent with the intervention per protocol specifications. The proportion minimally adherent (using device at least 1x/week) was 43% (6/14), 64% (9/14), and 61% (11/18) for high-dose, low-dose, and control groups, respectively. Anxiety significantly decreased from baseline for all groups at Week 12. Adherence to the intervention was low across all treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not establish feasibility of a community-based randomized trial of 2 doses of device-guided breathing and a control group using an identical-looking device for lung cancer survivors. In both the high-dose and control groups, there were significant improvements from baseline for anxiety and dyspnea. In the low-dose group, there were significant improvements from baseline for anxiety and depression. Ratings and feedback on the intervention were mixed (although leaned in a positive direction). Participants reported liking the feeling of relaxation/calm, helping others, breathing awareness, and music. Participants reporting liking least finding/making time to use the device, frustration with the device, and completing study forms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: CLINICAL TRIALS ID: NCT02063828, clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Estudos de Viabilidade , Depressão/terapia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Pulmão , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Chest ; 164(2): 531-543, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36931460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One-half of all people who undergo lung cancer screening (LCS) currently use tobacco. However, few published studies have explored how to implement effective tobacco use treatment optimally during the LCS encounter. RESEARCH QUESTION: Was the Optimizing Lung Screening intervention (OaSiS) effective at reducing tobacco use among patients undergoing LCS in community-based radiology facilities? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The OaSiS study (National Cancer Institute [NCI] Protocol No.: WF-20817CD) is an effectiveness-implementation hybrid type II cluster randomized trial of radiology facilities conducted in partnership with the Wake Forest National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program research base. We randomly assigned 26 radiology facilities in 20 states to the intervention or usual care group. Staff at intervention facilities implemented a variety of strategies targeting the clinic and care team. Eligible patient participants were aged 55 to 77 years undergoing LCS and currently using tobacco. Of 1,094 who completed a baseline survey (523 intervention group, 471 control group) immediately before the LCS appointment, 956 completed the 6-month follow-up (86% retention rate). Fifty-four percent of those who reported not using tobacco at 6 months completed biochemical verification via mailed cotinine assay. Generalized estimating equation marginal models were used in an intention-to-treat analysis to predict 7-day tobacco use abstinence. RESULTS: The average self-reported abstinence among participants varied considerably across facilities (0%-27%). Despite a significant increase in average cessation rate over time (0% at baseline to approximately 13% at 6 months; P < .0001), tobacco use did not differ by trial group at 14 days (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.46-1.99; P = .90), 3 months (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.69-1.99; P = .56), or 6 months (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.65-1.43; P = .87). INTERPRETATION: The OaSiS trial participants showed a significant reduction in tobacco use over time, but no difference by trial arm was found. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT03291587; URL: www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Humanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Pulmão
16.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 50(1): 1-9, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711299

RESUMO

The surgical treatment of insular gliomas requires specialized knowledge. Over the last three decades, increased momentum in surgical resection of insular gliomas shifted the focus from one of expectant management to maximal safe resection to establish a diagnosis, characterize tumor genetics, treat preoperative symptoms (i.e., seizures), and delay malignant transformation through tumor cytoreduction. A comprehensive review of the literature was performed regarding insular glioma classification/genetics, insular anatomy, surgical approaches, and patient outcomes. Modern large, published series of insular resections have reported a median 80% resection, 80% improvement in preoperative seizures, and postsurgical permanent neurologic deficits of less than 10%. Major complication avoidance includes recognition and preservation of eloquent cortex for language and respecting the lateral lenticulostriate arteries.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioma , Humanos , Neoplasias Encefálicas/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Glioma/patologia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Convulsões/etiologia , Córtex Cerebral/patologia
17.
J Neurooncol ; 161(2): 259-266, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36222952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Data on the efficacy and safety of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for treatment of radiation-induced meningiomas (RIMs) are limited. METHODS: A single institution database of Cobalt-60 SRS cases from 08/1999 to 10/2020 was reviewed. Radiation-induced meningiomas were identified using Cahan's criteria. Endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS), local control (LC), treatment failure, and treatment toxicity. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: A total of 29 patients with 86 RIM lesions were identified. Median follow-up after SRS was 59 months. The median dose prescribed to the 50% isodose line was 14 Gy (range 12-20 Gy). The actuarial 5-yr OS and PFS were 96% and 68%, respectively. Patients treated for recurrent RIMs had a significantly lower PFS (45% vs 94% at 3 yr, p < 0.005) than patients treated in the upfront setting. Patients with presumed or WHO grade I RIMs had a significantly greater PFS (3-year PFS 96% vs 20%) than patients with WHO grade II RIMs (p < 0.005). On a per-lesion basis, local control (LC) at 1-, 3-, and 5-yrs was 82%, 76%, 74%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, female gender was associated with improved LC (p < 0.001), while marginal doses > 14 Gy were associated with worse local control (p < 0.001). Grade I-III toxicity following treatment was 9.0%. CONCLUSIONS: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a safe and effective treatment option for radiographic RIMs, WHO grade I RIMs, or lesions treated in the upfront setting. WHO grade II lesions and recurrent lesions are at increased risk for disease progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Meníngeas , Meningioma , Radiocirurgia , Humanos , Feminino , Meningioma/etiologia , Meningioma/radioterapia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/etiologia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/patologia , Radiocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Seguimentos
18.
Patterns (N Y) ; 3(11): 100613, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419451

RESUMO

Treatment decisions for brain metastatic disease rely on knowledge of the primary organ site and are currently made with biopsy and histology. Here, we develop a deep-learning approach for accurate non-invasive digital histology with whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Contrast-enhanced T1-weighted and fast spoiled gradient echo brain MRI exams (n = 1,582) were preprocessed and input to the proposed deep-learning workflow for tumor segmentation, modality transfer, and primary site classification into one of five classes. Tenfold cross-validation generated an overall area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.878 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.873,0.883). These data establish that whole-brain imaging features are discriminative enough to allow accurate diagnosis of the primary organ site of malignancy. Our end-to-end deep radiomic approach has great potential for classifying metastatic tumor types from whole-brain MRI images. Further refinement may offer an invaluable clinical tool to expedite primary cancer site identification for precision treatment and improved outcomes.

19.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 22(8): 762-770, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36216768

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking during breast radiotherapy (RT) may be associated with radiation-induced skin injury (RISI). We aimed to determine if a urinary biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure is associated with increased rates of RISI during and after breast RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with Stage 0-IIIA breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery or mastectomy followed by RT to the breast or chest wall with or without regional nodal irradiation were prospectively enrolled on a multicenter study assessing acute/late RISI. 980 patients with urinary cotinine (UCot) measurements (baseline and end-RT) were categorized into three groups. Acute and late RISI was assessed using the ONS Acute Skin Reaction scale and the LENT-SOMA Criteria. RESULTS: Late Grade 2+ and Grade 3+ RISI occurred in 18.2% and 1.9% of patients, respectively-primarily fibrosis, pain, edema, and hyperpigmentation. Grade 2+ late RISI was associated with UCot group (P= 006). Multivariable analysis identified UCot-based light smoker/secondhand smoke exposure (HR 1.79, P= .10) and smoking (HR 1.60, p = .06) as non-significantly associated with an increased risk of late RISI. Hypofractionated breast RT was associated with decreased risk of late RISI (HR 0.51, P=.03). UCot was not associated with acute RISI, multivariable analysis identified race, obesity, RT site/fractionation, and bra size to be associated with acute RISI. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco exposure during breast RT may be associated with an increased risk of late RISI without an effect on acute toxicity. Smoking cessation should be encouraged prior to radiotherapy to minimize these and other ill effects of smoking.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Lesões por Radiação , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Mastectomia Segmentar/efeitos adversos , Lesões por Radiação/diagnóstico , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos
20.
Neurooncol Pract ; 9(5): 390-401, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134018

RESUMO

Background: Re-irradiation for recurrent gliomas is a controversial treatment option with no clear standard dose or concurrent systemic therapy. Methods: This series represents a single-institution retrospective review of patients treated with re-irradiation for recurrent high-grade glioma. After 2012, patients were commonly offered concurrent bevacizumab as a cytoprotective agent against radiation necrosis. Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall survival and progression-free survival. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify factors associated with overall survival and progression-free survival. Results: Between 2001 and 2021, 52 patients underwent re-irradiation for a diagnosis of recurrent high-grade glioma. 36 patients (69.2%) had a histologic diagnosis of glioblastoma at the time of re-irradiation. The median BED10 (biological equivalent dose 10 Gy) of re-irradiation was 53.1 Gy. Twenty-one patients (40.4%) received concurrent bevacizumab with re-irradiation. Median survival for the entire cohort and for glioblastoma at the time of recurrence patients was 6.7 months and 6.0 months, respectively. For patients with glioblastoma at the time of recurrence, completing re-irradiation (HR 0.03, P < .001), use of concurrent bevacizumab (HR 0.3, P = .009), and the BED10 (HR 0.9, P = .005) were predictive of overall survival. Nine patients developed grade 3-5 toxicity; of these, 2 received concurrent bevacizumab and 7 did not (P = .15). Conclusion: High dose re-irradiation with concurrent bevacizumab is feasible in patients with recurrent gliomas. Concurrent bevacizumab and increasing radiation dose may improve survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma.

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