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1.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 43(1): 56, 2024 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38664782

RESUMO

Due to rising popularity of vegetarianism in recent years, research interest has surged in examining the relationship between vegetarianism and psychological health. However, given inconsistent findings in prior research, the answer to whether practicing vegetarianism is associated with better or worse psychological health is still elusive. The present investigation aimed to demonstrate that vegetarians are not homogeneous in terms of psychological experiences, such that it is crucial to consider the motives behind vegetarians' dietary choice when examining their psychological health. In a survey study with 266 vegetarians and 104 omnivores, it was shown that health vegetarians displayed higher levels of disordered eating as compared to moral vegetarians and omnivores. Mediation analyses further revealed that, among vegetarians, health motivation was positively correlated with disordered eating tendencies, indirectly linking it with poorer psychological health; moral motivation was positively correlated with prosocial behavior, which in turn predicted better psychological health. These findings have implications for understanding the psychological health of vegetarians with different dietary motives and for developing interventions to promote their psychological health.


Assuntos
Dieta Vegetariana , Saúde Mental , Princípios Morais , Motivação , Vegetarianos , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Vegetarianos/psicologia , Adulto , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , Adulto Jovem , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1893): 20220263, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37952613

RESUMO

Global consciousness (GC), encompassing cosmopolitan orientation, global orientations (i.e. openness to multicultural experiences) and identification with all humanity, is a relatively stable individual difference that is strongly associated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours, less ingroup favouritism and prejudice, and greater pandemic prevention safety behaviours. Little is known about how it is socialized in everyday life. Using stratified samples from six societies, socializing institution factors correlating positively with GC were education, white collar work (and its higher income) and religiosity. However, GC also decreased with increasing age, contradicting a 'wisdom of elders' transmission of social learning, and not replicating typical findings that general prosociality increases with age. Longitudinal findings were that empathy-building, network-enhancing elements like getting married or welcoming a new infant, increased GC the most across a three-month interval. Instrumental gains like receiving a promotion (or getting a better job) also showed positive effects. Less intuitively, death of a close-other enhanced rather than reduced GC. Perhaps this was achieved through the ritualized management of meaning where a sense of the smallness of self is associated with growth of empathy for the human condition, as a more discontinuous or opportunistic form of culture-based learning. This article is part of the theme issue 'Evolution and sustainability: gathering the strands for an Anthropocene synthesis'.


Assuntos
Evolução Cultural , Humanos , Idoso , Estado de Consciência , Comportamento Social , Preconceito , Diversidade Cultural
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 21413, 2023 12 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38049436

RESUMO

While national parochialism is commonplace, individual differences explain more variance in it than cross-national differences. Global consciousness (GC), a multi-dimensional concept that includes identification with all humanity, cosmopolitan orientation, and global orientation, transcends national parochialism. Across six societies (N = 11,163), most notably the USA and China, individuals high in GC were more generous allocating funds to the other in a dictator game, cooperated more in a one-shot prisoner's dilemma, and differentiated less between the ingroup and outgroup on these actions. They gave more to the world and kept less for the self in a multi-level public goods dilemma. GC profiles showed 80% test-retest stability over 8 months. Implications of GC for cultural evolution in the face of trans-border problems are discussed.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Evolução Cultural , Humanos , Teoria dos Jogos , Dilema do Prisioneiro , China , Comportamento Cooperativo
4.
Appetite ; 184: 106496, 2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36828077

RESUMO

It is evident that over-consumption of meat can contribute to the emission of hazardous greenhouse gases. One viable way to address such climate impact is to make people become more aware of more sustainable diet options, such as cultivated meat. However, it is challenging to instigate change in people's meat-eating habit, and empirical works have been examining the psychological factors that are related to consumers' willingness to consume cultivated meat. Research has suggested that psychological well-being can play a role in the meaning-making of food consumption, with higher well-being individuals showing more recognition of other sociocultural benefits of consuming food beyond just fulfilling their sustenance needs. As existing works have yet to understand the link between well-being and consumption of novel foods, the current research set out to fill this gap by examining the relationship between people's psychological well-being and their willingness to consume cultivated meat via different reasons (mediators) for consuming cultivated meat. We recruited a representative sample of 948 adults in Singapore to complete an online survey. The study offered the first evidence that there is a positive relationship between people's psychological well-being and their willingness to consume cultivated meat. Further, results revealed that their higher willingness can be motivated by the perception that cultivated meat is as healthy and nutritious, as safe as, and has the same sensory quality as real meat, and is beneficial to the society. This investigation adds to the growing literature on consumer acceptance of cultivated meat by showing the novel finding that well-being and receptivity to cultivated meat is positively linked, and such a positive link can be explained by people's better recognition of the prospective benefits offered by this alternative food.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Adulto , Humanos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Dieta , Carne , Singapura , Comportamento do Consumidor
5.
Cogn Emot ; 36(4): 773-780, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35333691

RESUMO

With postmodern societies placing a strong emphasis on making full use of one's time, it is increasingly common to extol busy individuals as more achieving. In this context, although feeling a social expectation to be busy might imply that individuals are regarded as competent and desirable, its accompanying stressors may also detrimentally impact their mental health. Utilising data from a seven-day diary study, the current research examined the relationship between people's daily perceived pressure to be busy and their daily emotional wellbeing. Multilevel modelling revealed that daily social pressure to be busy was a significant predictor of daily negative affect, anxiety, and depressive symptoms at the within-person level. Of import, individuals' trait emotional complexity acceptance moderated these relationships, with those lower on emotional complexity acceptance reporting significantly higher negative affect, anxiety, and depressive symptoms on days they felt greater social pressure to be busy. These effects were not observed among those higher on emotional complexity acceptance. Together, the current findings suggest that social pressure to feel busy is generally related to poorer daily emotional wellbeing, and that those with higher trait emotional complexity acceptance have an advantage of maintaining their emotional wellbeing in the face of such a social pressure.


Assuntos
Emoções , Relações Interpessoais , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Humanos , Saúde Mental
6.
Appetite ; 173: 105990, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245644

RESUMO

This research has three goals. First, it sets out to compare consumer acceptance of lab-grown meat in the U.S. and in Singapore. Second, it seeks to explain the difference in Americans' and Singaporeans' acceptance of lab-grown meat by examining their eating motivations. Specifically, we focused on social image motivations - the motivations to present oneself positively in social contexts. Third, this study also aims to assess if exposure to information about lab-grown meat communicated by celebrity versus expert social media influencers (SMIs) can impact people's acceptance of lab-grown meat products. Our analysis showed that Singaporean participants had greater acceptance of lab-grown meat compared to their American counterparts, and this cultural difference was explained by Singaporeans' stronger social image eating motivations. In other words, cross-country differences in motivation to eat for a favorable social image can explain differences in consumer acceptance of lab-grown meat. The Singaporean cultural trait of kiasuism, which is exemplified by the fear of losing out or being left behind, may explain Singaporeans' motivation to project an image of being 'trailblazers' (vis-a-vis other nationalities) by expressing a higher acceptance of novel foods such as lab-grown meat. Results also revealed that the information about lab-grown meat being communicated by a celebrity or an expert SMI did not make a difference in participants' acceptance of lab-grown meat in both countries. Together, this research suggests an interesting implication that novel food industries and marketers can promote product branding by boosting media coverage (including online social media) of their lab-grown products' 'firsts' (e.g., the first production line in the world, the first technological breakthrough), especially in markets with high social image concerns.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne , Motivação , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Carne , Singapura , Estados Unidos
8.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 44(6): 928-943, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29486634

RESUMO

Research conducted in Western cultures indicates that perspective-taking is an effective social strategy for reducing stereotyping. The current article explores whether and why the effects of perspective-taking on stereotyping differ across cultures. Studies 1 and 2 established that perspective-taking reduces stereotyping in Western but not in East Asian cultures. Using a socioecological framework, Studies 2 and 3 found that relational mobility, that is, the extent to which individuals' social environments provide them opportunities to choose new relationships and terminate old ones, explained our effect: Perspective-taking was negatively associated with stereotyping in relationally mobile (Western) but not in relationally stable (East Asian) environments. Finally, Study 4 examined the proximal psychological mechanism underlying the socioecological effect: Individuals in relationally mobile environments are more motivated to develop new relationships than those in relationally stable environments. Subsequently, when this motivation is high, perspective-taking increases self-target group overlap, which then decreases stereotyping.


Assuntos
Meio Social , Percepção Social , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Ásia Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Motivação , Autoimagem , Singapura , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 114(3): 443-464, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805402

RESUMO

Thriving in increasingly complex and ambiguous environments requires creativity and the capability to reconcile conflicting demands. Recent evidence with Western samples has suggested that paradoxical frames, or mental templates that encourage individuals to recognize and embrace contradictions, could produce creative benefits. We extended the timely, but understudied, topic by studying the nuances of for whom and why creative advantages of paradoxical frames emerge. We suggest that people endorsing a middle ground approach are less likely to scrutinize conflict and reconcile with integrative solutions, thus receiving less creative benefits of paradoxical frames. Five studies that examined individual and cultural differences in middle ground endorsement support our theory. Study 1 found that paradoxical frames increased creativity, but failed to replicate that experienced conflict mediated the relationship in a Taiwanese sample. In both within- and between-culture analysis, we showed that the creative advantages of thinking paradoxically and experiencing conflict emerged among individuals who endorse lower (vs. higher) levels of middle ground (Study 2) and among Israelis whose culture predominantly endorses middle ground strategy less, but not among Singaporeans whose culture predominantly endorses middle ground more (Study 3). Study 4 further demonstrated the causal role of middle ground in the paradox-conflict-creativity link. To answer "why," Study 5 situationally induced integrative complex thinking that sets distinctions and forms syntheses among contradictory elements, and found that low endorsers of middle ground performed more creatively when they engaged integrative complex thinking to cope with paradoxes. This program of studies offers important insights on harnessing paradoxical experiences to catalyze creativity. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Criatividade , Comparação Transcultural , Pensamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Singapura , Taiwan , Adulto Jovem
10.
Front Psychol ; 6: 314, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25883571

RESUMO

We report the results of three high-powered replications of Troisi and Gabriel's (2011) idea that writing about comfort food reduces feelings of loneliness amongst securely attached individuals after a belongingness threat. We conducted our studies amongst a large group of participants (Total N = 649) amongst American (MTurk), Dutch (Tilburg University; TiU), and Singaporean (Singapore Management University; SMU) samples. Participants first completed an attachment style scale, followed by writing two essays for manipulating a sense of belongingness and salience of comfort food, and then reporting their loneliness levels. We did not confirm the overall effect over all three countries. However, exploratory results provide the preliminary suggestion that (1) the comfort food explanation likely holds amongst the American samples (including Troisi and Gabriel's), but not amongst the TiU and SMU samples, and potentially that (2) the TiU and SMU participants self-regulate through warmer (vs. colder) temperature foods. Both of these should be regarded with great caution as these analyses were exploratory, and because the Ns for the different temperature foods were small. We suspect we have uncovered first cross-cultural differences in self-regulation through food, but further confirmatory work is required to understand the cultural significance of comfort food for self-regulation.

11.
Emotion ; 14(5): 846-56, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24866525

RESUMO

Based on the instrumental account of emotion regulation (Tamir, 2005), the current research seeks to offer a novel perspective to the emotions-creativity debate by investigating the instrumental value of trait-consistent emotions in creativity. We hypothesize that emotions such as worry (vs. happy) are trait-consistent experiences for individuals higher on trait neuroticism and experiencing these emotions can facilitate performance in a creativity task. In 3 studies, we found support for our hypothesis. First, individuals higher in neuroticism had a greater preference for recalling worrisome (vs. happy) events in anticipation of performing a creativity task (Study 1). Moreover, when induced to recall a worrisome (vs. happy) event, individuals higher in neuroticism came up with more creative design (Study 2) and more flexible uses of a brick (Study 3) when the task was a cognitively demanding one. Further, Study 3 offers preliminary support that increased intrinsic task enjoyment and motivation mediates the relationship between trait-consistent emotion regulation and creative performance. These findings offer a new perspective to the controversy concerning the emotions-creativity relationship and further demonstrate the role of instrumental emotion regulation in the domain of creative performance.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criatividade , Emoções , Felicidade , Rememoração Mental , Adulto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Neuroticismo , Prazer , Taiwan
12.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 148: 136-47, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24530552

RESUMO

Research in the cognitive and social psychological science has revealed the pervading relation between body and mind. Physical warmth leads people to perceive others as psychological closer to them and to be more generous towards others. More recently, physical warmth has also been implicated in the processing of information, specifically through perceiving relationships (via physical warmth) and contrasting from others (via coldness). In addition, social psychological work has linked social cues (such as mimicry and power cues) to creative performance. The present work integrates these two literatures, by providing an embodied model of creative performance through relational (warm = relational) and referential (cold = distant) processing. The authors predict and find that warm cues lead to greater creativity when 1) creating drawings, 2) categorizing objects, and 3) coming up with gifts for others. In contrast, cold cues lead to greater creativity, when 1) breaking set in a metaphor recognition task, 2) coming up with new pasta names, and 3) being abstract in coming up with gifts. Effects are found across different populations and age groups. The authors report implications for theory and discuss limitations of the present work.


Assuntos
Afeto , Criatividade , Comportamento Social , Temperatura , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metáfora , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Psychol Sci ; 23(5): 502-9, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22477105

RESUMO

Creativity is a highly sought-after skill. Prescriptive advice for inspiring creativity abounds in the form of metaphors: People are encouraged to "think outside the box", to consider a problem "on one hand, then on the other hand", and to "put two and two together" to achieve creative breakthroughs. These metaphors suggest a connection between concrete bodily experiences and creative cognition. Inspired by recent advances in the understanding of body-mind linkages in the research on embodied cognition, we explored whether enacting metaphors for creativity enhances creative problem solving. Our findings from five studies revealed that both physical and psychological embodiment of metaphors for creativity promoted convergent thinking and divergent thinking (i.e., fluency, flexibility, or originality) in problem solving. Going beyond prior research, which focused primarily on the kind of embodiment that primes preexisting knowledge, we provide the first evidence that embodiment can also activate cognitive processes that facilitate the generation of new ideas and connections.


Assuntos
Cognição , Criatividade , Metáfora , Pensamento , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 100(3): 507-26, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21244179

RESUMO

The CuPS (Culture × Person × Situation) approach attempts to jointly consider culture and individual differences, without treating either as noise and without reducing one to the other. Culture is important because it helps define psychological situations and create meaningful clusters of behavior according to particular logics. Individual differences are important because individuals vary in the extent to which they endorse or reject a culture's ideals. Further, because different cultures are organized by different logics, individual differences mean something different in each. Central to these studies are concepts of honor-related violence and individual worth as being inalienable versus socially conferred. We illustrate our argument with 2 experiments involving participants from honor, face, and dignity cultures. The studies showed that the same "type" of person who was most helpful, honest, and likely to behave with integrity in one culture was the "type" of person least likely to do so in another culture. We discuss how CuPS can provide a rudimentary but integrated approach to understanding both within- and between-culture variation.


Assuntos
Cultura , Individualidade , Pessoalidade , Atitude , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Lógica , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Personalidade , Comportamento Social , Desejabilidade Social , Percepção Social , Violência/psicologia
15.
Pers Soc Psychol Bull ; 36(11): 1529-42, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20947774

RESUMO

Recent research suggests that individuals reward honesty more than they punish deception. Five experiments showed that different patterns of rewards and punishments emerge for North American and East Asian cultures. Experiment 1 demonstrated that Americans rewarded more than they punished, whereas East Asians rewarded and punished in equivalent amounts. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed that these divergent patterns by culture could be explained by greater social mobility experienced by Americans. Experiments 4 and 5 examined how certain consequences of social mobility, approach-avoidance behavioral motivations and trust and felt obligation, can lead to disparate reward and punishment decisions within the two cultures. Moreover, Experiment 4 revealed that Americans exhibited stronger evaluative reactions toward deception but stronger behavioral intentions toward honesty; East Asians did not exhibit this evaluative-behavioral asymmetry. The cross-cultural implications for understanding rewards and punishments in an increasingly globalized world are discussed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Cultura , Enganação , Punição , Recompensa , Confiança , Asiático , Ásia Oriental , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Estudantes , Estados Unidos , População Branca , Adulto Jovem
16.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 154: 140-4, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20543286

RESUMO

This research aims to understand the psychological motives behind microblogging. We conducted two studies to investigate if social exclusion and existential anxiety would lead to a high tendency to microblog. Our results show that participants did not use microblogging to satisfy their needs for social connection and affiliation, but highly extraverted participants did use it to relieve their existential anxiety.


Assuntos
Blogging , Motivação , Humanos , Personalidade , Isolamento Social
17.
Psychol Sci ; 18(9): 824-30, 2007 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17760780

RESUMO

Cultural assumptions about one's relation to others and one's place in the world can be literally embodied in the way one cognitively maps out one's position and motion in time and space. In three experiments, we examined the psychological perspective that Asian American and Euro-American participants embodied as they both comprehended and produced narratives and mapped out metaphors of time and space. In social situations, Euro-American participants were more likely to embody their own perspective and a sense of their own motion (rather than those of a friend), whereas Asian American participants were more likely to embody a friend's perspective and sense of motion (rather than their own). We discuss how these psychological perspectives represent the soft embodiment of culture by implicitly instantiating cultural injunctions (a) to think about how you look to others and to harmonize with them or (b) to know yourself, trust yourself, and act with confidence.


Assuntos
Cultura , Movimento/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Percepção do Tempo/fisiologia , Asiático/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Idioma , Metáfora , Narração , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , População Branca/psicologia
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