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1.
Anxiety Stress Coping ; : 1-12, 2024 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38529565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perpetrating or witnessing acts that violate one's moral code are frequent among military personnel and active combatants. These events, termed potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs), were found to be associated with an increased risk of depression, in cross-sectional studies. However, the longitudinal contribution of PMIEs to depression among combatants remains unclear. METHOD: Participants were 374 active-duty combatants who participated in a longitudinal study with four measurement points: T1-one year before enlistment, T2-at discharge from army service, and then again 6- and 12-months following discharge (T3 and T4, respectively). At T1, personal characteristics assessed through semi-structured interviews. At T2-T4, PMIEs and depressive symptoms were assessed. RESULTS: At discharge (T2), a total of 48.7% of combatants reported experiencing PMIEs incident, compared with 42.4% at T3 and 30.7% at T4. We found a significant interaction effect in which combatants endorsing PMIEs at discharge reported higher severity of depression symptoms at discharge (T2) than combatants who reported no PMIEs. This effect decreased over time as depression levels were lower at T3 and T4. CONCLUSIONS: PMIE experiences, and especially PMIE-Betrayal experiences, were found to be valid predictors of higher severity of depression symptoms after the first year following discharge.

2.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 15(1): 2312773, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38334135

RESUMO

Background: Combatants who are exposed to events that transgress deeply held moral beliefs might face lasting psychopathological outcomes, referred to as Moral Injury (MI). However, knowledge about pre-deployment factors that might moderate the negative consequences of MI is sparse. In this prospective study, we examined pre-enlistment characteristics and pre-deployment personality factors as possible moderators in the link between exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) and psychiatric symptomatology among Israeli active-duty combatants.Methods: A sample of 335 active-duty Israeli combatants participated in a 2.5-year prospective study with three waves of measurements (T1: 12 months before enlistment, T2: Six months following enlistment - pre-deployment, and T3: 18 months following enlistment - post-deployment). Participants' characteristics were assessed via semi-structured interviews (T1) and validated self-report measures of personality factors: emotional regulation, impulsivity, and aggression (T2) and combat exposure, PMIEs, psychiatric symptomology and posttraumatic symptoms (T3) between 2019 and 2021.Results: Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and negative life events contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment. Higher levels of pre-deployment aggression and lower levels of emotional regulation and impulsivity moderated the association between betrayal, PMIEs and psychiatric symptomology post-deployment, above and beyond pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties and life events.Conclusions: Our results highlight that pre-deployment emotional regulation, impulsivity and aggressiveness levels should be assessed, screened, and identified among combatants, as they all facilitate psychiatric symptomology (and PTSS) after combatants are exposed to PMIEs of betrayal. Such pre-assessment will enable the identification of at-risk combatants and might provide them with tailor-made preparation regarding moral and ethical situations that should be investigated in future research.


Pre-enlistment psychiatric difficulties contributed to higher exposure to PMIEs post-deployment.Pre-deployment personality moderated the associations between PMIEs and psychiatric symptomatology among combatants.Higher levels of pre-deployment emotional regulation moderated the association between betrayal PMIEs and post-deployment PTSS symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Agressão , Personalidade
3.
J Affect Disord ; 350: 689-697, 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38224741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during military service is associated with heightened suicidal ideation (SI). However, no longitudinal study has established temporal associations between these variables and examined the possible mediating roles of depression and loneliness in this effect. METHODS: Participants were 374 active-duty Israeli combatants who participated in a five-year longitudinal study with four measurement points: T1- one year before enlistment, T2- one month before discharge from army service, and then again six months and twelve months following their discharge (T3 and T4, respectively). Data were assessed through semi-structured interviews and validated self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: Above and beyond pre-enlistment personal characteristics (T1) and combat exposure (T2), PMIEs-'betrayal' (T2) predicted more frequent SI over the past twelve months (T4) through the mediation of depression. Moreover, both PMIEs-'betrayal' and 'self' (T2) predicted more frequent SI over the past twelve months (T4) through the mediation of loneliness. LIMITATIONS: We used self-report measures to assess PMIEs and SI, which may suffer from various biases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are the first to provide evidence of longitudinal, temporal associations between exposure to PMIEs and SI. Notably, potential interventions might consider addressing the loneliness experienced following exposure to PMIEs during military service, among recently discharged traumatized veterans.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Depressão , Solidão , Estudos Longitudinais , Ideação Suicida
4.
Psychol Trauma ; 2024 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) during military service has been associated with heightened trauma-related guilt levels, which in turn, could increase suicide risk among combat veterans. However, no longitudinal study has established temporal associations between these variables while examining a Moderated mediation model with self-forgiveness as a possible moderator of the PMIEs-suicide risk links during the first year following discharge. METHOD: Participants were 374 active-duty Israeli combatants who participated in a 5-year longitudinal study with three measurement points: 1 month before discharge from army service (T1), then 6 months (T2), and 12 months (T3) following their discharge. Data were assessed through semistructured interviews and validated self-report questionnaires. RESULTS: All PMIE dimensions at T1 were negatively associated with self-forgiveness at T1 and positively associated with levels of trauma-related guilt at T2 and suicide risk at T3. Our longitudinal moderated mediation model findings indicate that, among those reporting low levels of self-forgiveness, higher levels of PMIE-Self and PMIE-Others at T1 contribute to trauma-related guilt levels at T2, which, in turn, are linked to a higher suicide risk at T3 among those reporting low levels of self-forgiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing PMIEs, especially PMIE-Self and PMIE-Other, proved to be validated predictors of trauma-related guilt and, in turn, of suicide risk during the first year after the veterans' discharge. Combatants at their discharge from the military should have access to targeted self-forgiveness interventions, as these interventions can have a buffering effect on the development of suicidal ideation and behaviors following PMIEs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 327: 115392, 2023 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37536145

RESUMO

We evaluated longitudinal associations between subjective appraisals of transgressions of moral beliefs, values, and expectations (potential morally injurious events; PMIEs) and suicidal ideation (SI) among recently discharged combat veterans. Participants were 374 active-duty Israeli combatants who participated in a five-year longitudinal study with four measurement points: T1- one year before enlistment, T2- one month before discharge from army service, and then again six months and twelve months following discharge (T3 and T4, respectively). A history of lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior was associated with higher levels of subjective appraisals of PMIEs, as compared to no history of suicidal ideation and behavior. Above and beyond pre-enlistment personal characteristics, cross-lagged pathway analyses indicated significant bi-directional pathways between subjective appraisals of PMIEs and SI. For all PMIEs dimensions, SI was associated with greater subjective appraisals of PMIEs, on subsequent measurement. However, cross-lagged effects of PMIEs-'other' (T2) predicting SI (T3) and PMIEs-'betrayal' (T3) predicting SI (T4) were also found. Our findings are the first to provide evidence of longitudinal, temporal associations between subjective appraisals of PMIEs and SI, which might serve as potential intervention targets among recently discharged traumatized veterans.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Longitudinais , Princípios Morais
6.
J Fam Psychol ; 30(1): 63-71, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26618520

RESUMO

The existing literature has shown that war veterans' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are associated with a higher level of distress in their female partners. However, less agreement exists regarding the sources of this distress and the mechanism by which this process occurs. The current study examined the consequences of Israeli war veterans' PTSD on their female partners, as manifested by the females' PTSD symptoms, mental health status, and functioning, while taking into account females' earlier traumatic events. Using the theory of ambiguous loss, it also suggested boundary ambiguity as a mediating variable by which the PTSD of the male veteran is transmitted to his female partner. Participants were 300 men who had served in the 2006 Israel-Lebanon War and their female partners. Results revealed direct associations between males' PTSD and their female partners' PTSD, functioning, and mental health. In addition, boundary ambiguity mediated the association between males' PTSD and females' adjustment. Finally, females' own earlier traumatic events were directly associated with their own PTSD symptoms. Implications of this model for intervention and research are further discussed.


Assuntos
Fadiga por Compaixão/epidemiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Cônjuges/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Cônjuges/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Guerra , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Trauma Stress ; 27(2): 232-239, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24604631

RESUMO

Cognitive theories implicate information-processing biases in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Results of attention-bias studies in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been inconsistent, suggesting biases towards and away from threat. Within-subject variability of attention biases in posttraumatic patients may be a useful marker for attentional control impairment and the development of posttrauma symptoms. This study reports 2 experiments investigating threat-related attention biases, mood and anxiety symptoms, and attention-bias variability following trauma. Experiment 1 included 3 groups in a cross-sectional design: (a) PTSD, (b) trauma-exposed without PTSD, and (c) healthy controls with no trauma or Axis I diagnoses. Greater attention-bias variability was found in the PTSD group compared to the other 2 groups (η(p)2=.23); attention-bias variability was significantly and positively correlated (r = .37) with PTSD symptoms. Experiment 2 evaluated combat-exposed and nonexposed soldiers before and during deployment. Attention-bias variability did not differentiate groups before deployment, but did differentiate groups during deployment (ηp2=.16); increased variability was observed in groups with acute posttraumatic stress symptoms and acute depression symptoms only. Attention-bias variability could be a useful marker for attentional impairment related to threat cues associated with mood and anxiety symptoms after trauma exposure.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Atenção , Transtorno Depressivo/diagnóstico , Militares/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Guerra , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica , Israel , Masculino , New York , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
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