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1.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 30639-30652, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684308

RESUMO

In order to break through the inherent limitation of channel capacity, we employ a correlated multiple input multiple output (MIMO) framework over non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet (UV) turbulent channels. Subsequently, a method of segmented correlation is proposed to define the spatial correlation of UV MIMO structures. Furthermore, the correlation and channel capacity are studied with varying elevation angle, turbulence intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and number of transceiver in pairs (NTPs). The results show that this correlated MIMO framework can obtain higher channel capacity by reducing the elevation angle of the transceivers or increasing turbulence intensity or NTPs. Moreover, channel capacity increases with the SNR. But at low SNR, a larger gain of channel capacity can be provided. Therefore, this paper develops the capacity of UV turbulent channels and provides a guide for optimal parameter configuration of correlated UV MIMO.

2.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 27873-27881, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684548

RESUMO

A common-path dual-wavelength phase demodulation technique for extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric (EFPI) sensors is proposed on the basis of a broadly tunable modulated grating Y-branch (MG-Y) laser. It can address the three main concerns of existing dual-wavelength phase interrogation methods: the imbalances and disturbances caused by two optical paths utilizing two lasers or two photodetectors, the restrictions between two operating wavelengths and the cavity length of EFPI, and the difficulty in eliminating the direct current (DC) component of the interferometric fringe. Dual-wavelength phase interrogation is achieved in a common optical path through high-speed wavelength switching. Taking advantage of the MG-Y laser's full spectrum scanning ability (1527 ∼ 1567 nm), initial cavity length and DC component can be directly measured by white light interferometry. Two quadrature wavelengths are then selected to perform high speed phase demodulation scheme. Three polyethylene terephthalate (PET) diaphragm based EFPI acoustic sensors with cavity lengths of 127.954 µm, 148.366 µm and 497.300 µm, are used to demonstrate the effectiveness.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654544

RESUMO

It is highly desirable to optimize the structure of photocatalysts at the atomic scale to facilitate the separation of electron-hole pairs for enhanced performance, but it still remains challenging. Here, we report a highly efficient photocatalyst by assembling single Pt atoms on defective TiO 2 support (Pt 1 /def-TiO 2 ). Except as proton reduction sites, single Pt atoms promote the neighboring TiO 2 units to generate surface oxygen vacancies and form Pt-O-Ti 3+ atomic interface. Experimental results and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that Pt-O-Ti 3+ atomic interface effectively facilitates photogenerated electrons to transfer from Ti 3+ defective sites to single Pt atoms, thereby enhancing the separation of electron-hole pairs. This unique structure makes Pt 1 /def-TiO 2 exhibit a recorded-level photocatalytic hydrogen production performance with an unexpectedly high turnover frequency of 51423 h -1 , exceeding the Pt nanoparticles supported TiO 2 catalyst by a factor of 591.

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629915

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nivolumab monotherapy is approved in the US for third-line or later metastatic SCLC based on pooled data from non-randomized and randomized cohorts of the multicenter, open-label, phase 1/2 trial of nivolumab ± ipilimumab (CheckMate 032; NCT01928394). We report updated results, including long-term overall survival (OS), from the randomized cohort. METHODS: Patients with SCLC and disease progression after 1-2 prior chemotherapy regimens were randomized 3:2 to nivolumab 3 mg/kg Q2W or nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg Q3W for four cycles followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg Q2W. Patients were stratified by number of prior chemotherapy regimens and treated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by blinded independent central review. RESULTS: Overall, 147 patients received nivolumab and 96 nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Minimum follow-up for ORR/PFS/safety was 11.9 months (nivolumab) and 11.2 months (nivolumab plus ipilimumab). ORR increased with nivolumab plus ipilimumab (21.9% versus 11.6% with nivolumab; odds ratio: 2.12 [95% CI: 1.06-4.26]; p=0.03). For long-term OS, minimum follow-up was 29.0 months (nivolumab) versus 28.4 months (nivolumab plus ipilimumab); median (95% CI) OS was 5.7 (3.8-7.6) versus 4.7 months (3.1-8.3). 24-month OS rates were 17.9% (nivolumab) and 16.9% (nivolumab plus ipilimumab). Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse event rates were 12.9% (nivolumab) versus 37.5% (nivolumab plus ipilimumab), and treatment-related deaths 1 versus 3. CONCLUSION: While ORR (primary endpoint) was higher with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus nivolumab, OS was similar between groups. In each group, OS remained encouraging with long-term follow-up. Toxicities were more common with combination therapy versus nivolumab monotherapy.

5.
J Clin Invest ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638600

RESUMO

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) usually display an antiinflammatory M2-like phenotype to facilitate tumor growth. However, what drives M2 polarization of TAMs and how TAMs suppress antitumor immunity within the tumor microenvironment (TME) remain largely undefined. Using several murine tumor models, we showed that hedgehog (Hh) signaling in myeloid cells is critical for TAM M2 polarization and tumor growth. We also found that tumor cells secrete sonic hedgehog (SHH), an Hh ligand, and that tumor-derived SHH drives TAM M2 polarization. Furthermore, Hh-induced functional polarization in TAMs suppresses CD8+ T cell recruitment to the TME through the inhibition of CXCL9 and CXCL10 production by TAMs. Last, we demonstrated that Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) mediates Hh-dependent TAM M2 polarization and the immunosuppressive function. Collectively, these findings highlight a critical role for tumor-derived SHH in promoting TAM M2 polarization, a mechanism for TAM-mediated immunosuppression, and may provide insights into the design of new cancer immunotherapeutic strategies.

6.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3062-3069, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648329

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is offered to selected patients after chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell (CAR-T) therapy. Lymphodepleting chemotherapy and CAR-T therapy have immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory effects that could alter the safety profile of subsequent allo-HCT. We reviewed our experience with 32 adults (acute lymphoblastic leukemia [ALL], n = 19; B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma [NHL]/chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL], n = 13) who received an allo-HCT after CAR-T therapy, with a focus on posttransplant toxicities. Myeloablative conditioning (MAC) was used in 74% of ALL patients and 39% of NHL/CLL patients. The median time from CAR-T therapy to allo-HCT was 72 days in ALL patients and 122 days in NHL/CLL patients. Cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD were 25% and 10%, respectively. All patients had neutrophil recovery (median, 18.5 days) and all but 3 had platelet recovery (median, 12 days). Twenty-two percent had viral or systemic fungal infection within 100 days after allo-HCT. The 100-day and 1-year cumulative incidences of NRM were 16% and 21%, respectively, for ALL patients and 15% and 33%, respectively, for NHL/CLL patients. In ALL patients, later utilization of allo-HCT after CAR-T therapy was associated with higher mortality. In NHL/CLL patients, MAC was associated with higher mortality. Toxicities did not exceed the expected incidences in this high-risk population.

7.
Stem Cells ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648402

RESUMO

Physical exercise-induced enhancement of learning and memory, and alleviation of age-related cognitive decline in humans have been widely acknowledged. However, the mechanistic relationship between exercise and cognitive improvement remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that exercise-elicited cognitive benefits were accompanied by adaptive hippocampal proteasome activation. Voluntary wheel running increased hippocampal proteasome activity in adult and middle-aged mice, contributing to an acceleration of neurogenesis that could be reversed by intra-hippocampal injection of the proteasome inhibitor MG132. We further found that increased levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in both serum and hippocampus may be essential for exercise-induced proteasome activation. Our in vitro study demonstrated that IGF-1 stimulated proteasome activity in cultured adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs) by promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), followed by elevated expressions of proteasome subunits such as PSMB5. In contrast, pretreating adult mice with the selective IGF-1R inhibitor picropodophyllin diminished exercise-induced neurogenesis, concurrent with reduced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and proteasome activity. Likewise, lowering Nrf2 expression by RNA interference with bilateral intrahippocampal injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral particles significantly suppressed exercise-induced proteasome activation and attenuated cognitive function. Collectively, our work demonstrates that proteasome activation in hippocampus through IGF-1/Nrf2 signaling is a key adaptive mechanism underlying exercise-related neurogenesis, which may serve as a potential targetable pathway in neurodegeneration. © AlphaMed Press 2019 SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study shows that voluntary exercise causes hippocampal proteasome activation to improve adult neural progenitor cells activity. Mechanistically, exercise induces the increase of insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in serum and hippocampus, which in turn triggers the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to promote the expression of the key proteasome subunit PSMB5 to enhance adult neurogenesis. This finding reveals novel insights into the modulation of adult neurogenesis through proteasome activation, which could be achieved by targeting the IGF-1/Nrf2 signaling pathway.

8.
mSphere ; 4(5)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619503

RESUMO

Gellan gum is a microbial exopolysaccharide, produced after aerobic fermentation using the Gram-negative bacterium strain Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461. Due to its unique structure and excellent physical characteristics, gellan gum has a broad range of applications in food, pharmaceutical, and other industries where it is used for stabilizing, emulsifying, thickening, and suspending. During the fermentative production of gellan, strain ATCC 31461 also accumulates large amounts of the metabolic by-products yellow carotenoid pigments and poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB), which is decreasing the gellan production and increasing processing costs. A pigment PHB-free mutant was obtained by knocking out the phytoene desaturase gene (crtI) in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway and the phaC gene, encoding a PHB synthase for the polymerization of PHB. Unfortunately, the double gene knockout mutant produced only 0.56 g liter-1 gellan. Furthermore, blocking PHB and carotenoid synthesis resulted in the accumulation of pyruvate, which reduced gellan production. To elevate gellan production, combined UV irradiation and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenesis treatment were used. A mutant strain with the same level of pyruvate as that of the wild-type strain and higher gellan production was isolated (1.35 g liter-1, 132.8% higher than the double gene knockout mutant and 14.4% higher than the wild-type strain ATCC 31461). In addition, a new gellan gum recovery method based on the new mutant strain was investigated, in which only 30% isopropanol was required, which is twice for the wild-type strains, and the performance of the final product was improved. Thus, the mutant strain could be an ideal strain for the commercial production of gellan.IMPORTANCE A carotenoid- and PHB-free double gene knockout strain mutant was constructed to simplify the purification steps normally involved in gellan production. However, the production of gellan gum was unexpectedly reduced. A mutant with 14.4% higher gellan production than that of the wild-type strain was obtained and isolated after employing UV and EMS combined mutagenesis. Based on this high-yield and low-impurity-producing mutant, a new recovery method requiring less organic solvent and fewer operating steps was developed. This method will effectively reduce the production costs and improve the economic benefits of large-scale gellan production.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640856

RESUMO

Before fertilization, ovulated mammalian oocytes are arrested at the metaphase of second meiosis (MII), which is maintained by the so-called cytostatic factor (CSF). It is well known that the continuous synthesis and accumulation of cyclin B is critical for maintaining the CSF-mediated MII arrest. Recent studies by us and others have shown that Ccnb3 is required for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during the first meiosis of mouse oocytes, but whether Ccnb3 plays a role in MII arrest and exit remains unknown. Here, we showed that the protein level of Ccnb3 gradually decreased during oocyte meiotic maturation, and exogenous expression of Ccnb3 led to release of MII arrest, degradation of securin, separation of sister chromatids, extrusion of the second polar body (PB2), and finally entry into interphase. These phenotypes could be rescued by inhibition of Wee1B or CDK2. Our results indicate that Ccnb3 plays a critical regulatory role in MII arrest and exit in mouse oocytes.

10.
J Mater Chem B ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641711

RESUMO

Micro-nano based fibrous scaffolds have been extensively studied in regenerative medicine. Bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and BMP2-derived peptides, two other important components for tissue engineering, have been successfully used for bone regeneration. However, a scaffold that specifically captures BMSCs and delivers BMP2-derived peptides to promote osteogenic differentiation of enriched BMSCs has not been reported. In this study, a microfiber scaffold was constructed by coaxial electrospinning technology using a polyvinylpyrrolidone/bovine serum albumin/BMP2-derived peptide compound as the core solution and a polycaprolactone/collagen I compound as the shell solution. The scaffolds were further functionalized by covalent grafting of a BMSC affinity peptide (E7) to develop a dual drug release system for the delivery of the BMP2-derived peptide and E7. Structural analysis indicated that the microfibers had a uniform diameter and homogeneous core-shell structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed that E7 was covalently bonded onto the surface of the fibers. In vitro, the E7-modified scaffolds promoted the initial adhesion of BMSCs and were more favorable for BMSC survival. Furthermore, the BMP2-derived peptide loaded in the E7-modified scaffolds was released in a sustained manner and retained bioactivity, significantly improving the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In vivo, scaffolds loaded with the BMP2-derived peptide and E7 (PCME scaffolds) led to enhanced new bone formation and defect closure in a rat calvarial defect model. Overall, the PCME scaffold simultaneously facilitated all three of the essential elements needed for bone tissue engineering, providing a promising method for bone regeneration.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642019

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic disease worldwide. Ambient air pollution has long been proven to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progression, but the underlying mechanism is not clear yet. In addition, previous studies mainly focused on the prevention of healthy people against the incidence of T2DM. We designed a panel study including two follow-ups and enrolled 39 patients with T2DM living in Beijing. Linear mixed model was fitted to assess the association between two pairs of variables (ambient air pollution exposure and C3 levels, ambient air pollution exposures and T2DM index). Mediation analysis of C3 between ambient air pollution exposure and indicators of T2DM progression was conducted. We found that PM2.5 exposures is are negatively associated with serum complement C3. Given that C3 might act as a protector of pancreas ß cell, PM2.5 exposures could accelerate disease in T2DM populations. No mediation effects were found. This study reveals that exposures to PM2.5 can cause progression of diseases among T2DM populations.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e1904771, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588636

RESUMO

Bismuth has emerged as a promising anode material for sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), owing to its high capacity and suitable operating potential. However, large volume changes during alloying/dealloying processes lead to poor cycling performance. Herein, bismuth nanoparticle@carbon (Bi@C) composite is prepared via a facile annealing method using a commercial coordination compound precursor of bismuth citrate. The composite has a uniform structure with Bi nanoparticles embedded within a carbon framework. The nanosized structure ensures a fast kinetics and efficient alleviation of stress/strain caused by the volume change, and the resilient and conductive carbon matrix provides an interconnected electron transportation pathway. The Bi@C composite delivers outstanding sodium-storage performance with an ultralong cycle life of 30 000 cycles at a high current density of 8 A g-1 and an excellent rate capability of 71% capacity retention at an ultrahigh current rate of 60 A g-1 . Even at a high mass loading of 11.5 mg cm-2 , a stable reversible capacity of 280 mA h g-1 can be obtained after 200 cycles. More importantly, full SIBs by pairing with a Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 cathode demonstrates superior performance. Combining the facile synthesis and the commercial precursor, the exceptional performance makes the Bi@C composite very promising for practical large-scale applications.

13.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(42): 16569-16573, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588748

RESUMO

The electrocatalytic reduction reaction of CO2 (CO2RR) is a promising strategy to promote the global carbon balance and combat global climate change. Herein, exclusive Bi-N4 sites on porous carbon networks can be achieved through thermal decomposition of a bismuth-based metal-organic framework (Bi-MOF) and dicyandiamide (DCD) for CO2RR. Interestingly, in situ environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) analysis not only directly shows the reduction from Bi-MOF into Bi nanoparticles (NPs) but also exhibits subsequent atomization of Bi NPs assisted by the NH3 released from the decomposition of DCD. Our catalyst exhibits high intrinsic CO2 reduction activity for CO conversion, with a high Faradaic efficiency (FECO up to 97%) and high turnover frequency of 5535 h-1 at a low overpotential of 0.39 V versus reversible hydrogen electrode. Further experiments and density functional theory results demonstrate that the single-atom Bi-N4 site is the dominating active center simultaneously for CO2 activation and the rapid formation of key intermediate COOH* with a low free energy barrier.

14.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624991

RESUMO

Osmoregulation mechanism underlying acclimation of migratory fish to different salinities has been a classical research topic for decades. In this study, the roughskin sculpin (Trachidermus fasciatus) were subjected to two different acute osmotic treatments (one extreme acute and one acute treatment, i.e., E-acute and acute group). Comparisons of branchial enzyme activity, as well as the time-course expression profiling of sirt1, hsf1, and hsp70 were performed to reveal changes at the physiological and molecular levels. As a result, the branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity was significantly inhibited and the caspase 3/7 relating to apoptosis was significantly induced in the E-acute group; no significant difference of branchial enzyme activity was detected in the acute group. These results suggested that T. fasciatus could keep stable physiological levels when experiencing the acute salinity change but not under extreme osmotic stress. Significant variations of sirt1, hsf1, and hsp70 expression were determined in the four target tissues (gill, intestine, kidney, and liver). Similar profiling was detected between the time-course expression of sirt1 and hsf1, suggesting their association in the osmoregulation process. Tissue-specific gene expression patterns in all the three target genes showed that each tissue possesses its own gene expression pattern in response to salinity changes. The overall different expression profiling of sirt1, hsf1, and hsp70 under the extreme acute and acute osmotic treatments might respectively represent the molecular regulation of stress response and acclimation. The findings make it possible to provide more reliable data to decipher the mechanism of osmoregulation in migratory fish.

15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647665

RESUMO

Direct selective oxidation of light alkanes, such as ethane, into value-added chemical products under mild reaction conditions remains a challenge in both industry and academia. Herein, the iridium cluster and atomically dispersed iridium catalysts have been successfully fabricated using nanodiamond as support. The obtained iridium cluster catalyst shows remarkable performance for selective oxidation of ethane under oxygen at 100 °C, with an initial activity as high as 7.5 mol/mol/h and a selectivity to acetic acid higher than 70% after five in situ recycles. The presence of CO in the reaction feed is pivotal for the excellent reaction performance. On the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, the critical role of CO was revealed, which is to maintain the metallic state of reactive Ir species during the oxidation cycles.

16.
Biophys J ; 117(9): 1702-1713, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630809

RESUMO

Interstitial fluid flow plays a critical role in tumor cell invasion, yet this role has not been explored extensively in combination with other microenvironmental factors. Here, we establish a novel computational model of three-dimensional breast cancer cell migration to unveil the effect of interstitial fluid flow in the dependence of various extracellular matrix (ECM) physical properties. Our model integrates several principal factors: fluid dynamics, autologous chemotaxis, collagen fiber network structure, ECM stiffness, and cell-fiber and cell-flow interaction. First, independently with an aligned collagen fiber network and interstitial fluid flow, this model is validated by successfully reproducing the cell migration patterns. In the model, the interstitial fluid flow leads to directional symmetry breaking of chemotactic migration and synergizes with the ECM orientation to regulate cell migration. This synergy is universal in both the mesenchymal and the amoeboid migration modes, despite the fact that the cell-ECM interaction are different. Consequently, we construct a cell displacement function depending on these factors. Our cell migration model enables three-dimensional cancer migration prediction, mechanism exploration, and inhibition treatment design in a complex tumor microenvironment.

17.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 20(7): 302, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489504

RESUMO

Docetaxel (DTX) was effective in the treatment of neoplasm but could only be administered intravenously with the poor oral bioavailability owing to its undesirable solubility, remarkably metabolic conversion, and other factors. Cimetidine (CMD), a classic CYP3A4 isozyme inhibitor, had exhibited a wide range of inhibition on the metabolism of many drugs. The aim of this study was to construct the novel docetaxel-cimetidine (DTX-CMD) complex and the chitosan-deoxycholate nanoparticles based on it to confirm whether this formulation could show advantages in terms of solubility, dissolution rate, small intestinal absorption, and oral bioavailability in comparison with the pure drug. The solid-state characterization was carried out by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and simultaneous DSC-TGA (SDT). Dissolution rate and kinetic solubility study were determined by evaluating the amount of DTX in distilled water and phosphate buffer solution (pH = 7.4), respectively. And small intestinal absorption and pharmacokinetics study were conducted in rats. The results of this study demonstrated that we successfully constructed DTX-CMD complex and its chitosan-deoxycholate nanoparticles. Furthermore, the DTX-CMD complex increased the solubility of DTX by 2.3-fold and 2.1-fold in distilled water and phosphate buffer solution, respectively. The ultimate accumulative amount of DTX-CMD complex nanoparticles through rat small intestinal in 2 h was approximately 4.9-fold and the oral bioavailability of the novel nanoparticles was enhanced 2.8-fold, compared with the pure DTX. The superior properties of the complex nanoparticles could both improve oral bioavailability and provide much more feasibility for other formulations of DTX.

18.
ISA Trans ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515096

RESUMO

A multiple-zero-pole (MZP) method is proposed for general SISO fractional order dynamic systems in this paper. Based on amplitude-frequency curve, a new rational approach to fractional differentiator is designed. There are three advantages of MZP method. 1) A more generalized form of approximation system is proposed by design the distribution of zeros and poles in a new way. 2) The same fractional differentiator can be approximated in many different forms. 3) The robustness of the approximation system is enhanced by using integer order integrators to construct fractional differentiator. The feasibility of the method is assessed in the illustrative examples, and the simulations prove the effectiveness.

19.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 15(9): 1385-1387, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538615

RESUMO

None: In this manuscript we describe a case of electroencephalography artifact during polysomnography that occurred in the context of mother co-sleeping with her child. The potential interference from a co-sleeping parent's electrocardiography, as illustrated in this case, may be an under-recognized source of electroencephalography artifact in pediatric patients. CITATION: Li A, Matthews CK, Plante DT. A case of EEG artifact by proxy. J Clin Sleep Med. 2019;15(9):1385-1387.

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