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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e26918, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radical pancreaticoduodenectomy is the only possible cure for pancreatic head adenocarcinoma, and although several RCT studies have suggested the extent of lymph node dissection, this issue remains controversial. This article wanted to evaluate the survival benefit of different lymph node dissection extent for radical surgical treatment of pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 240 patients were assessed for eligibility in the study, 212 of whom were randomly divided into standard lymphadenectomy group (SG) or extended lymphadenectomy group (EG), there were 97 patients in SG and 95 patients in EG receiving the radical pancreaticoduodenectomy. RESULT: The demography, histopathology and clinical characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. The 2-year overall survival rate in the SG was higher than the EG (39.5% vs 25.3%; P = .034). The 2-year overall survival rate in the SG who received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy was higher than the EG (60.7% vs 37.1%; P = .021). There was no significant difference in the overall incidence of complications between the 2 groups (P = .502). The overall recurrence rate in the SG and EG (70.7% vs 77.5%; P = .349), and the patterns of recurrence between 2 groups were no significant differences. CONCLUSION: In multimodality therapy system, the efficacy of chemotherapy should be based on the appropriate lymphadenectomy extent, and the standard extent of lymphadenectomy is optimal for resectable pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. The postoperative slowing of peripheral blood lymphocyte recovery might be 1 of the reasons why extended lymphadenectomy did not result in survival benefits. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02928081) in October 7, 2016. https://clinicaltrials.gov/.


Assuntos
Adenoma/cirurgia , Excisão de Linfonodo/normas , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Adenoma/epidemiologia , Adenoma/mortalidade , Idoso , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Excisão de Linfonodo/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/métodos , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/normas , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego
2.
Ecol Appl ; : e02450, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515410

RESUMO

Across the world, social-ecological rangeland systems have been transformed from a preindustrial extensive status to intensive exploitation, often leading to long-term livestock population booms, overgrazing and rangeland degradation. To understand the regulatory mechanisms involved in such historical social-ecological transformations, we collected population data on the native sheep of the last nomadic county in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (1961-2005). We detected changes in internal feedbacks (e.g., density-dependent effects) and external disturbance (e.g., winter harshness, rainfall, harvest) between the extensive and intensive management periods using regression models of sheep population growth rate and counterfactual analyses. We found that, in the extensive period, sheep populations were regulated during harsh winters by climate, while they were regulated during mild winters by negative density dependence. In the intensive period, the negative feedback of density dependence was removed through the provision of additional forage and shelter, and only winter climate and growing season rainfall regulated sheep populations. Counterfactual analyses also confirmed the irreplaceable role of density-dependence in maintaining a sustainable rangeland ecosystem. Although herders attempted to adapt to the removal of negative feedbacks by improving livestock harvest, overgrazing and grassland degradation remain a challenge in this system. We conclude that internal feedbacks within social-ecological systems should be carefully anticipated and accounted for when managing rangelands for sustainability.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546028

RESUMO

Fiber-based nanogenerators have great potential applications in wearable electronics such as portable nanodevices, e-skin, and artificial intelligence system. Here, we report a kind of fiber-based electret nanogenerator (FENG) with a semisupported core-shell structure. Owing to its unique structure, the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current of the FENG reach 40 V and 0.6 µA, respectively, under a short working distance (∼25 µm). No obvious degradation of the output performance under a long-time continuous work (>16 h) and different humidity environments (20-95%) is observed, which demonstrates the FENG's good reliability and stability. Many universal materials, such as cotton rope, conductive sewing thread, and polyvinyl chloride tube, have been successfully used to fabricate FENG. Meanwhile, the FENG-based wearable fabric has been successfully developed to effectively harvest mechanical energy of human motion. The FENG is highly effective, reliable, and stable, promoting the development of fiber-based nanogenerators and their applications in self-powered wearable electronics.

4.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489161

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The 5 year survival rate for patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) not amenable for definitive resection with historical standard-of-care concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) ranges from 15% to 32%. cCRT primes anti-tumor immunity and also upregulates programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), providing a rationale for combining an immune checkpoint inhibitor with cCRT to improve outcomes. In the PACIFIC trial, consolidation therapy with the PD-L1 inhibitor durvalumab improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) vs. placebo in patients with stage III NSCLC who did not have disease progression after cCRT. CheckMate73L (NCT04026412), a randomized phase 3 study, evaluates the efficacy of nivolumab plus cCRT followed by nivolumab with or without ipilimumab vs. cCRT followed by durvalumab for untreated, stage III NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with untreated, stage III NSCLC will be randomized 1:1:1 to nivolumab plus cCRT followed by nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab (Arm A) or nivolumab alone (Arm B); or cCRT followed by durvalumab (Arm C). Primary endpoints are PFS and OS (Arm A vs. Arm C). Secondary endpoints include additional analyses of PFS and OS (Arm A vs. Arm B; Arm B vs. Arm C), as well as objective response rate, complete response rate, time to response, duration of response, time to death or distant metastases, and safety and tolerability. Recruitment began on August 20, 2019, and the estimated primary completion date is October 17, 2022.

5.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498858

RESUMO

TiO2 nanohelices (NHs) have attracted extensive attention owing to their high aspect ratio, excellent flexibility, elasticity, and optical properties, which endow promising performances in a vast range of vital fields, such as optics, electronics, and micro/nanodevices. However, preparing rigid TiO2 nanowires (TiO2 NWs) into spatially anisotropic helical structures remains a challenge. Here, a pressure-induced hydrothermal strategy was designed to assemble individual TiO2 NWs into a DNA-like helical structure, in which a Teflon block was placed in an autoclave liner to regulate system pressure and simulate a cell-rich environment. The synthesized TiO2 NHs of 50 nm in diameter and 5-7 mm in length approximately were intertwined into nanohelix bundles (TiO2 NHBs) with a diameter of 20 µm and then assembled into vertical TiO2 nanohelix arrays (NHAs). Theoretical calculations further confirmed that straight TiO2 NWs prefer to convert into helical conformations with minimal entropy (S) and free energy (F) for continuous growth in a confined space. The excellent elastic properties exhibit great potential for applications in flexible devices or buffer materials.

6.
Cancer Med ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533269

RESUMO

METHODS: We sought to compare the prognostic impact of tumor differentiation with respect to adverse risk factors (RFs) identified by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines--including extranodal extension (ENE), positive/close margins, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, and vascular invasion--in patients with locally advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2018, 1179 consecutive patients with first primary pT3-4 OCSCC were included. A three-level grading system was adopted--in which the final classification was assigned according to the most prevalent tumor grade. We identified 382/669/128 patients with well/moderately/poorly differentiated tumors, respectively. Compared with well/moderately differentiated tumors, poorly differentiated OCSCC had a higher prevalence of the following variables: female sex (4%/6%/11%), ENE, (14%/36%/61%), positive margins (0.5%/2%/4%), close margins (10%/14%/22%), perineural invasion (22%/50%/63%), lymphatic invasion (2%/9%/17%), vascular invasion (1%/4%/10%), and adjuvant therapy (64%/80%/87%). The 5-year rates of patients with well/moderately/poorly differentiated OCSCC were as follows: local control (LC, 85%/82%/84%, p = 0.439), neck control (NC, 91%/83%/70%, p < 0.001), distant metastases (DM, 6%/18%/40%, p < 0.001), disease-free survival (DFS, 78%/63%/46%, p < 0.001), disease-specific survival (DSS, 85%/71%/49%, p < 0.001), and overall survival (OS, 68%/55%/39%, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis identified the following variables as independent prognosticators for 5-year outcomes: ENE (LC/NC/DM/DFS/DSS/OS), poorly differentiated tumors (NC/DM/DFS/DSS/OS), positive margins (LC/DFS), lymphatic invasion (DFS/DSS/OS), perineural invasion (DM), and age ≥65 years (OS). CONCLUSIONS: In addition to ENE, poor tumor differentiation was identified as the second most relevant adverse RF for patients with pT3-4 OCSCC. We suggest that the NCCN guidelines should include poor tumor differentiation as an adverse RF to refine and tailor clinical management.

7.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536183

RESUMO

This review aims to evaluate the adjunctive clinical effectiveness of diode laser (DL) to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the treatment of periodontitis, and identify the optimal combination of usage mode and application regimen of DL. Eight electronic databases were searched up to January 2021. Probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), and gingival index (GI) were assessed at short-term (4-6 weeks), 3-month, and 6-month follow-ups. Based on DL usage mode, studies were divided into three groups: inside, outside pocket, and combined modes. As for application regimen, studies in each group were further subdivided into single- and multiple-session subgroups. Thirty randomized controlled trials with 825 participants were included. For inside mode, single-session DL showed significant improvements for PPD (short-term, and 3-month, p < 0.05), CAL (short-term, and 3-month, p < 0.05), PI (3- and 6-month, p < 0.05), and GI (short-term, 3-month, and 6-month, p < 0.05). For outside mode, multiple-session DL showed notable improvements for most clinical outcomes (p < 0.05). The effect of combined mode was still uncertain. Adjunctive DL had additional clinical benefits in the treatment of periodontitis. One session laser treatment is suggested when DL is applied inside pocket in future clinical practice. Meanwhile, more than one session laser treatment presents better outcomes when DL is used outside pocket. PROSPERO: CRD42020156162.

8.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047041, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the Perx app improves medication adherence and clinical outcomes over 12 months compared with standard care in patients requiring polypharmacy. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial with 12-month follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient clinics in three tertiary hospitals in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Eligible participants were aged 18-75 years, with at least one chronic condition, taking ≥3 different medications (oral medications or injections), with smartphone accessibility. Participants were randomised in a 1:1 ratio. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention group used the Perx app that contained customised reminders and gamified interactions to reward verified medication adherence. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was medication adherence over 12 months measured using pill counts. Secondary outcomes included clinical outcomes (haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), cholesterol, blood glucose, triglycerides, creatinine, thyroid function, blood pressure and weight). RESULTS: Of 1412 participants screened for eligibility, 124 participants were randomised; 45 in the Perx arm and 40 in the control arm completed the study. The average age was 59.5, 58.9% were women, chronic conditions were cardiovascular disease (78%), type 2 diabetes (75%), obesity (65%) or other endocrine disorders (18%). On average, participants were taking six medications daily. The Perx group had greater improvements in adherence at month 2 (Coef. 8%; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.15), month 3 (Coef. 7%; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.14) and month 12 (Coef. 7%; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.13). The probability of HbA1c ≤6.5% was greater in the Perx group at months 9 and 12 and cholesterol (total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) was lower in the Perx group at month 3. The intervention was particularly effective for those with obesity, taking medications for diabetes and taking ≤4 medications. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that app-based behavioural change interventions can increase medication adherence and produce longer-term improvements in some clinical outcomes in adults managing multimorbidity. More trials are needed to build the evidence base. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12617001285347.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Smartphone
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 107: 1-13, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412773

RESUMO

Atmospheric aerosols have effects on atmospheric radiation assessments, global climate change, local air quality and visibility. In particular, aerosols are more likely transformed and accumulated in winter. In this paper, we used the Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrument to study the characteristics of aerosol type and contributions of PM2.5 chemical components to aerosol extinction (AE), vertical distribution of aerosols, and source. From December 30, 2018 to January 27, 2019, we conducted MAX-DOAS observations on Sanmenxia. The proportion of PM2.5 to PM10 was 69.48%-95.39%, indicating that the aerosol particles were mainly fine particles. By analyzing the ion data and modifying Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) method, we found that nitrate was the largest contributor to AE, accounting for 31.51%, 28.98%, and 27.95% of AE on heavily polluted, polluted, and clean days, respectively. NH4+, OC, and SO42- were also major contributors to AE. The near-surface aerosol extinction retrieved from MAX-DOAS measurement the PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations measured by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) have the same trend in vertical distribution. AE increased about 3 times from surface to 500 m. With the backward trajectory of the air mass during the haze, we also found that the continuous heavy pollution was mainly caused by transport of polluted air from the northeast, then followed by local industrial emissions and other sources of emissions under continuous and steady weather conditions.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Material Particulado/análise , Análise Espectral
10.
J Voice ; 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has revealed that cricothyroid (CT) muscle dysfunction in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) further impairs patients' voices. Given that CT muscle dysfunction does not influence vocal fold position, the mechanism of voice dysfunction induced by dysfunction of CT muscle in UVFP patients remains controversial. This study compares aerodynamics between UVFP patients with and without CT muscle involvement. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited patients with UVFP manifesting dysphonia, and UVFP was confirmed with videolaryngoscopy and laryngeal electromyography (LEMG). Voice analysis and aerodynamic tests were further performed. Patients with (CT+ group) and without (CT- group) CT muscle involvement were compared. RESULT: A total of 175 patients (40 in the CT+ group and 135 in the CT- group) with UVFP were analyzed. The CT+ group showed lower maximal sound pressure level (SPL) (P=0.039), mean SPL (P=0.042), peak air pressure (P<0.001), mean peak air pressure (P<0.001) and aerodynamic power (P=0.004) than the CT- group. CONCLUSION: The decrease in SPL, peak air pressure, and aerodynamic power in UVFP patients with CT muscle dysfunction suggests that the effect of CT muscle dysfunction is mediated by a change in aerodynamics.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436661

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of a novel modified Meso-Rex bypass surgical technique with umbilical vein recanalization and intra-operative stenting to treat portal vein cavernous transformation. METHODS: In total, 13 portal vein cavernous transformation patients underwent Meso-Rex bypass surgery, consisting of bypass grafts between the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) and the recess of Rex as well as through the ligamentum teres hepatis without stent implantation (Group A, n = 9) and umbilical vein recanalization with intra-operative stent implantation (Group B, n = 4). RESULTS: In Group A, the bypass diameter was 0-6 mm (median 3 mm) and blood flow velocity 25-115 cm/s (median 72 cm/s) 1 month after Meso-Rex bypass surgery, with open bypass times of 0-67 months (median 6 months); 6 patients in this group developed postoperative Meso-Rex bypass occlusions. A patient in Group A treated with ligamentum teres hepatis recanalization needed a thrombectomy and stent implantation during a second surgery 2 days after the Meso-Rex bypass, because of bypass thrombosis and umbilical vein stenosis. In Group B, the average modified Meso-Rex bypass diameter was 5.5-6.5 mm (median 6 mm), and the bypass vessels remained open in all patients, with blood flow rates of 45-100 cm/s (median 76.5 cm/s) 1 month after the modified Meso-Rex bypass, up to the endpoint (15-33 months, median 24 months). The rate of bypass occlusions in Group A and Group B were 22.2% and 0%, 30.0% and 0%, and 55.6% and 0% at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year, respectively, after bypass surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Our novel modified Meso-Rex bypass approach for portal vein cavernous transformation treatment was effective with excellent long-term bypass patency.

13.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 167: 113-122, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352514

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important regulator of plant response to cold stress. In this study, NO treatment delayed the development of chilling injury (CI), inhibited the increase in H2O2 content, O2- production rate and decrease in firmness of postharvest peach fruit. Meanwhile, through RNA-seq analysis, NO treatment up-regulated gene expression of PpG-6-PDH, Pp6-PGDH and PpAOX while it down-regulated the expression of PpGPI and PpHK, suggesting that the pentose phosphate respiratory pathway and cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway were promoted and the glycolysis pathway was inhibited. Furthermore, the PpAOX expression was consistent with the trend of PpPOD1/2 expression and H2O2 content, indicating that AOX may play a role in reducing oxidative damage of peach fruit by scavenging H2O2. Thus, it was concluded that NO treatment could induce the cyanide-resistant respiration pathway to enhance antioxidant ability and chilling tolerance in post-harvest peach fruit.

14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 74: 102007, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416547

RESUMO

PURPOSE: XPF variations might decrease the DNA repair capacity and further contribute to cancer development. This study aimed to investigate the association of XPF polymorphisms with risk of developing breast cancer. METHODS: TCGA, the Human Protein Atlas and Kaplan-Meier plotter were used to analyze the expression of XPF in breast cancer tissues and its effect on the survival of breast cancer patients. The expression of XPF in breast cancer tissues was detected by qRT-PCR. This case-control study included 467 breast cancer patients and 467 healthy controls. The genotype of genetic variation was detected by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. Correlations between XPF variation and clinicopathological parameters were assessed through Kendall's Tau-b test. The relationship between XPF gene function variation and XPF gene expression was analyzed by GTEx. RESULTS: The expression of XPF in breast cancer tissues is higher than that in normal tissues. Breast cancer patients with high XPF expression have a higher relapse free survival rate (HR = 0.88, 95 % CI = 0.80-0.97), but have no effect on the overall survival rate (logrank P = 0.28). XPF -673C > T variant can reduce the risk of breast cancer patients (OR = 0.35, 95 %CI = 0.20-0.63 for codominant mode; OR = 0.66, 95 %CI = 0.51-0.85 for dominant model; OR = 0.40, 95 %CI = 0.23-0.70 for recessive model). The XPF 11985 GG genotype reduced the risk of early breast cancer (OR = 0.49, 95 %CI = 0.24-0.97), but not the risk of advanced breast cancer (OR = 1.20, 95 % CI = 0.58-2.48). XPF 11985A > G variant can also reduce the risk of ERBB2 expression in patients (OR = 0.50, 95 %CI = 0.27-0.94). There is no correlation between XPF -673C > T/XPF11985A > G variants and ER and PR. XPF -673C > T variant can reduce XPF expression (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variations of XPF gene may affect its expression and the risk of breast cancer in the Chinese population.

15.
Am J Sports Med ; 49(11): 3021-3029, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcomes of single- versus double-row fixation in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair are not currently known. PURPOSE: To compare the treatment effects of the single- versus double-row suture technique in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of full-thickness tears at 10-year follow-up. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: Patients were evaluated at 10 years postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC). Secondary outcome measures included the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Constant score, strength, and incidence of revision surgery. Ultrasound was used to evaluate the rotator cuff to determine repair integrity. Statistical analyses consistent with those of the main trial were conducted. RESULTS: Of the original 90 participants, 77 (85%) returned at a mean follow-up of 10 years. At ten year follow-up, the WORC score was higher in the double row group (79.9 [95% CI, 16.2 to 99.1]) compared with the single row group (72.9, [95% CI, 4.3 to 100]), P = .020. From baseline to 2 years, the mean change in WORC scores for the single-row group was -48.5 compared with -40.6 for the double-row group, with a between-group difference of -7.8 (95% CI, -20.4 to 4.7). From 2 to 10 years, the change in WORC scores for the single-row group was 11.5 compared with -0.2 for the double-row group, with a between-group difference of 11.7 (95% CI, -0.7 to 24.3). From baseline to 10 years, the mean between-group difference was 3.9 (95% CI, -7.8 to 15.6). Similarly, a decrease in ASES scores was observed between 2 and 10 years for the single-row group (9.2 [95% CI, 0.9 to 17.5]; P = .029), with a nonsignificant decrease in ASES scores for the double-row group (6.2 [95% CI, -3.2 to 15.6]; P = .195) as well as a decrease in Constant scores for both the single- (9.5 [95% CI, 1.4 to 17.5]; P = .020) and double-row (14.4 [95% CI, 5.6 to 23.3]; P = .001) groups. Overall, 3 participants developed a full-thickness tear after 2 years: 2 from the double-row group and 1 from the single-row group. One participant from each study group underwent revision surgery after the 2-year time point. CONCLUSION: A statistically significant (but likely not clinically important) difference in WORC scores was seen at 10-year follow-up in favor of double-row fixation. Between baseline and 10-year follow-up, a decrease in most outcome scores was observed in both the single- and the double-row groups. REGISTRATION: NCT00508183 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).


Assuntos
Lesões do Manguito Rotador , Manguito Rotador , Artroscopia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Lesões do Manguito Rotador/cirurgia , Técnicas de Sutura , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 422, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376634

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have shown that the gut microbiota can play a role in schizophrenia (SCH) pathogenesis via the gut-brain axis. However, its role in the antipsychotic treatment response is unclear. Here, we present a 24-week follow-up study to identify gut microbial biomarkers for SCH diagnosis and treatment response, using a sample of 107 first-episode, drug-naïve SCH patients, and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected biological samples at baseline (all participants) and follow-up time points after risperidone treatment (SCH patients). Treatment response was assessed using the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale total (PANSS-T) score. False discovery rate was used to correct for multiple testing. We found that SCH patients showed lower α-diversity (the Shannon and Simpson's indices) compared to HCs at baseline (p = 1.21 × 10-9, 1.23 × 10-8, respectively). We also found a significant difference in ß-diversity between SCH patients and HCs (p = 0.001). At baseline, using microbes that showed different abundance between patients and controls as predictors, a prediction model can distinguish patients from HCs with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.867. In SCH patients, after 24 weeks of risperidone treatment, we observed an increase of α-diversity toward the basal level of HCs. At the genus level, we observed decreased abundance of Lachnoclostridium (p = 0.019) and increased abundance Romboutsia (p = 0.067). Moreover, the treatment response in SCH patients was significantly associated with the basal levels of Lachnoclostridium and Romboutsia (p = 0.005 and 0.006, respectively). Our results suggest that SCH patients may present characteristic microbiota, and certain microbiota biomarkers may predict treatment response in this patient population.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 885, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) posed an enormous threat to public health. The use of antiviral drugs in patients with this disease have triggered people's attentions. Whether interferon alfa-2b or lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus interferon alfa-2b treatment can against SARS-CoV-2 was unknown. The objectives of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of interferon alfa-2b and LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b for SARS-CoV-2 infection in adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 123 patients confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by PCR on nasopharyngeal swab and symptoms between Jan. 13 and Apr. 23, 2020. All patients received standard supportive care and regular clinical monitoring. Patients were assigned to standard care group (n = 12), interferon alfa-2b group (n = 44), and combination LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b group (n = 67). The primary endpoints were duration of required oxygen support and virus clearance time. Associations between therapies and these outcomes were assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics were not significantly different among the three groups (P > 0.05). No significant associations were observed between LPV/r/interferon alfa-2b and faster SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance (HR, 0.85 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-1.61]; P = 0.61 in interferon alfa-2b group vs HR, 0.59 [95% CI 0.32-1.11]; P = 0.10 in LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b group). Individual therapy groups also showed no significant association with duration of required oxygen support. There were no significant differences among the three groups in the incidence of adverse events (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, no benefit was observed from interferon alfa-2b or LPV/r plus interferon alfa-2b treatment. The findings may provide references for treatment guidelines of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

18.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343388

RESUMO

Higher ecosystem nitrogen (N) inputs resulting from human activities often suppress soil microbial biomass and respiration, thereby altering biogeochemical cycling. Soil acidification and carbon (C) limitation may drive these microbial responses, yet their relative importance remains elusive, which limits our understanding of the longer term effects of increasing N inputs. In a field experiment with continuous N addition at seven different rates from 0 to 50 g N m-2  year-1 over 6 years in a temperate grassland of Inner Mongolia, China, we examined the responses of soil microbial biomass and respiration to changes in soil acidity and C availability by adding lime and/or glucose to soil samples. Soil microbial biomass and respiration did only weakly respond to increasing soil pH, but increased strongly in response to higher C availability with increasing N addition rates. Soil net N immobilization increased in response to glucose addition, and soil microbial biomass increased at higher rates than microbial respiration along the gradient of previous N addition rates, both suggesting increasingly reinforced microbial C limitation with increasing N addition. Our results provide clear evidence for strong N-induced microbial C limitation, but only little support for soil acidity effects within the initial pH range of 4.73-7.86 covered by our study. Field data support this conclusion by showing reduced plant C allocation belowground in response to N addition, resulting in soil microbial C starvation over the long term. In conclusion, soil microbial biomass and respiration under N addition were strongly dependent on C availability, most likely originating from plant belowground C inputs, and was much less affected by changes in soil pH. Our data help clarify a long-standing debate about how increasing N input rates affect soil microbial biomass and respiration, and improve the mechanistic understanding of the linkages between ecosystem N enrichment and C cycling.

19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 633242, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368009

RESUMO

The number of people who smoke has increased in recent years, and the incidence of smoking-related diseases increases annually. This study was conducted to explore whether smoking affects diseases via changes in the gut microbiota. We enrolled 33 smokers and 121 non-smokers. We collected fecal samples from all participants and performed whole-genome sequencing. Smoking significantly affected the gut microbiota. At the phylum through genus levels, the smokers' microbiotas showed slight changes compared with those of the non-smokers. The α- and ß-diversities differed significantly between the smokers and non-smokers, and the smokers' gut microbiota compositions differed significantly from those of the non-smokers. At the species level, the relative abundances of Ruminococcus gnavus (P=0.00197) and Bacteroides vulgatus (P=0.0468) were significantly greater in the smokers than in the non-smokers, while the relative abundances of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P=0.0000052) and Akkermansia muciniphila (P=0.0057) were significantly lower in the smokers. Smoking increases inflammation in the body by inducing an increased abundance of proinflammatory bacteria. Non-smokers had higher abundances of anti-inflammatory microorganisms than did smokers; these microorganisms can produce short-chain fatty acids, which inhibit inflammation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , Clostridiales , Humanos , Fumar , Verrucomicrobia
20.
Environ Pollut ; 285: 117670, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380231

RESUMO

Severe surface ozone pollution has become widespread in China. To protect public health, Chinese scientific communities and government agencies have striven to mitigate ozone pollution. However, makers of pollution mitigation policies rarely consider epidemiological research, and communication between epidemiological researchers and the government is poor. Therefore, this article reviews the current mitigation policies and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone from an epidemiological perspective and proposes recommendations for researchers and policy makers on the basis of epidemiological evidence. We review current nationwide ozone control measures for mitigating ozone pollution from four dimensions: the integration of ozone and particulate matter control, ozone precursors control, ozone control in different seasons, and regional cooperation on the prevention of ozone pollution. In addition, we present environmental and epidemiological evidence and propose recommendations and discuss relevant ozone metrics and the criteria values of the NAAQS. We finally conclude that the disease burden attributable to ozone exposure in China may be underestimated and that the epidemiological research regarding the health effects of integrating ozone and particulate matter control is insufficient. Furthermore, atmospheric volatile organic compounds are severely detrimental to health, and related control policies are urgently required in China. We recommend a greater focus on winter ozone pollution and conclude that the health benefits of regional cooperation on ozone control and prevention are salient. We argue that daily average ozone concentration may be a more biologically relevant ozone metric than those currently used by the NAAQS, and accumulating epidemiological evidence supports revision of the standards. This review provides new insight for ozone mitigation policies and related epidemiological studies in China.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Ozônio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Ozônio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
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