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1.
J Neurosci Res ; 98(1): 201-211, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895638

RESUMO

Approaches that facilitate the recovery from coma would have enormous impacts on patient outcomes and medical economics. Orexin-producing neurons release orexins (also known as hypocretins) energy-dependently to maintain arousal. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) could increase ATP levels by preserving mitochondrial function. We investigated, for the first time, the arousal effects of HBO and orexins mechanisms in a rat model of unconsciousness induced by ketamine or ethanol. A total of 120 Sprague-Dawley male rats were used in this study. Unconsciousness was induced either by intraperitoneal injection of ketamine or ethanol. The HBO treatment (100% O2 at 3 ATA) was administered immediately after unconsciousness induction for 1 hr. SB334867, orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) inhibitor, or JNJ10397049, orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) inhibitor was administered 30 min intraperitoneally before unconsciousness induction. Loss of righting reflex test (LORR) and Garcia test were used to evaluate the unconsciousness duration and neurological deficits after recovering from unconsciousness, respectively. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure brain tissue ATP and orexin A levels. Ketamine or ethanol injection resulted in LORR immediately and neurological deficits 6 hr after unconsciousness induction. HBO treatment significantly reduced the LORR duration, improved Garcia scores and unregulated ATP and orexin A levels in the brain tissue. Administration of OX1R inhibitor or OX2 R inhibitor abolished arousal and neurological benefits of HBO. In conclusion, HBO exerted arousal-promoting effects on unconscious rats induced by ketamine or ethanol. The underlying mechanism was via, at least in part, ATP/orexin A upregulation. HBO may be a practical clinical approach to accelerate unconsciousness recovery in patients.

2.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 224: 117448, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400746

RESUMO

Amounts of strategies implemented to obtain improved two-photon absorption responses but remains challenging. Herein, a serials zwitterionic chromophores, TSEO1-3, with D-π-A configuration were rational designed and synthesized. Notably, by minor modification of the side chain, the obtained TSEO3 exhibited enhanced two-photon activity and considerable two-photon imaging in vitro and in vivo. It manifested that appropriate modifications of side chains that are linked to conjugated frameworks can improve the intermolecular packing order and boost charge transfer favoring two-photon activity.

3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 228: 115400, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635750

RESUMO

Thermal drying for lignocellulosic fibers is a common procedure in laboratories and factories, which isn't a pretreatment traditionally used to enhance cellulose conversion but inevitably occurs. This study investigated the effects of thermal drying conditions on the characteristics and enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic fiber granules with high lignin content. The results showed that fiber characteristics decreased linearly with the increase of temperature, which caused the linear reduction of enzymatic digestibility. Then, the increase of time caused the exponential decrease of fiber characteristics and enzymatic digestibility. Moreover, the reduction of initial water content obtained by centrifugation resulted in almost the same porosity and slightly increased water retention value (WRV) of fibers, which caused slight changes of lignocellulose digestibility. Finally, repeated drying and swelling led to complex changes in fiber characteristics, which caused fluctuations in enzymatic hydrolysis with a downward trend. This article will provide a reference for lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolysis.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 383: 121236, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563046

RESUMO

Advanced oxidation methods based on photocatalysis and sulfate radicals have attached most interest towards contaminant degradation. However, there are a lack of coupling two methods in the field of pollutant degradation. In the present study, a new Bi2O3/CuNiFe LDHs composite was fabricated and it could efficiently activate persulfate (PS) for lomefloxacin (LOM) decomposition under simulated sunlight, in which 84.6% of LOM (10 mg·L-1) was degraded over 40 min with 0.4 g·L-1 of Bi2O3/CuNiFe LDHs composite and 0.74 mM of PS at natural pH. In addition, the Bi2O3/CuNiFe LDHs composite possessed good reusability and stability at least four runs. Moreover, active radical scavenging experiments indicated that hydroxyl radicals (HO·), sulfate radicals (SO4·-), superoxide radicals (O2·-) and hole (h+) were the main radicals under LOM degradation process. Subsequently, the possible degradation intermediates were determined and the decomposition pathways were put forward. At the same time, activated sludge inhibition experiments were performed to assess the variation of toxicity of LOM and its degradation intermediates during oxidation. Finally, possible reaction mechanism of Bi2O3/CuNiFe LDHs composite for PS activation under simulated sunlight was proposed.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 48(44): 16679-16686, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670345

RESUMO

Two mononuclear dysprosium(iii) complexes [Dy(H3NAP)2Cl2]Cl·EtOH (1) and [Dy(H3NAP)2(H2O)Cl2]Cl·-2CH3CN·MeOH·0.5H2O (2) were obtained by coordinating an in situ formed Schiff base ligand of 1,3-bis(2-hydroxynaphthalenemethyleneamino)-propan-2-ol (H3NAP) to the dysprosium(iii) ion. Their Dy(iii) centers are six and seven-coordinated in octahedral and pentagonal-bipyramidal coordination geometries, respectively. Their structural difference is caused by the additional coordinated water molecule in the equatorial positions of complex 2 in comparison with that of complex 1. The well designed semi-rigid ligand contributes significantly to the low coordination numbers of Dy(iii) ions in the two title complexes, as well as to their structural difference. Magnetic investigations revealed that complexes 1 and 2 are both field-induced single-ion magnets (SIMs) with their effective energy barriers being 22.9(6) and 153.9(5) K, respectively. They are typical SIM examples with their performances tuned by the coordination geometries of metal ions.

6.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713717

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human breast milk (HBM), which contains an abundant supply of exosomes, is known to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Preterm infants are commonly given pasteurized donor milk when HBM is unavailable. However, pasteurization can disrupt its components. This study investigates the effects of both raw and pasteurized HBM-derived exosomes on intestinal inflammation. METHODS: HBM exosomes were isolated and characterized by positive CD63 and negative calnexin markers from western blot, nanoparticle tracking analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Mouse intestine organoids were established and treated with exosomes from raw or pasteurized HBM in healthy and injury conditions. Following ethical approval (#44032), mice pups were randomly assigned to (1) breastfed control; (2) NEC; (3) NEC receiving raw HBM exosomes; (4) NEC receiving pasteurized HBM exosomes. NEC was induced by hypoxia, gavage feeding and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Ileum was evaluated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post-test. RESULTS: Both raw and pasteurized HBM exosomes decreased inflammation in hypoxia and LPS-treated organoids compared to control. In vivo, NEC-induced mucosal injury, inflammation and mucous production were improved by raw and pasteurized HBM-derived exosomes. CONCLUSIONS: Exosomes derived from raw and pasteurized HBM equally reduced intestinal damage. Exosome administration in clinical practice requires further investigation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of a novel, absorbable atrial septal defect (ASD) closure device made of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) in a swine model of ASD and for the first time in humans. METHODS: A preclinical safety study was conducted using a swine model of ASD. In a clinical setting, five pediatric patients underwent ASD closure with the PLLA device with fluoroscopic and transthoracic echocardiography guidance. The procedural results and clinical outcomes at 1 day, 30 days, 3 months, and 6 months after closure were analyzed. RESULTS: The 24- and 36-month follow-up results of the preclinical study demonstrated that the PLLA device exhibited good endothelialization and degradability in the swine model. In the clinical study, successful device implantation was achieved in all five patients (median age, 3.6 years; range, 3.1-6.5 years). The mean defect size was (13.6 ± 2.7) mm. Follow-up at 30 days, 3 months, and 6 months was completed in all five cases. The complete defect closure rates with no residual shunt at 30 days, 3 months, and 6 months follow-up were 60% (3/5), 80% (4/5), and 80% (4/5), respectively. No device dislodgement, significant aortic valve or mitral valve regurgitation, new onset cardiac arrhythmia, or other adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The study results demonstrated that it is feasible to implant the PLLA device for closure of small to medium sized ASDs without significant residual shunts or severe adverse events in humans. The PLLA device exhibited good endothelialization and degradability in the swine model at 24 and 36 months. Further studies to evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness with the device in a large cohort of patients are warranted.

8.
Protein Cell ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691903

RESUMO

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are capable of unlimited self-renewal in culture and differentiation into all functional cell types in the body, and thus hold great promise for regenerative medicine. To achieve their clinical potential, it is critical for PSCs to maintain genomic stability during the extended proliferation. The critical tumor suppressor p53 is required to maintain genomic stability of mammalian cells. In response to DNA damage or oncogenic stress, p53 plays multiple roles in maintaining genomic stability of somatic cells by inducing cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence to prevent the passage of genetic mutations to the daughter cells. p53 is also required to maintain the genomic stability of PSCs. However, in response to the genotoxic stresses, a primary role of p53 in PSCs is to induce the differentiation of PSCs and inhibit pluripotency, providing mechanisms to maintain the genomic stability of the self-renewing PSCs. In addition, the roles of p53 in cellular metabolism might also contribute to genomic stability of PSCs by limiting oxidative stress. In summary, the elucidation of the roles of p53 in PSCs will be a prerequisite for developing safe PSC-based cell therapy.

9.
Curr Pharm Des ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study was to examine the specific activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), namely IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the cochlear spiral ganglion of rats after ototoxicity induced by cisplatin. Since γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its receptors are involved in pathophysiological processes of ototoxicity, we further examined the role played by PICs in regulating expression of GABA transporter type 1 and 3 (GAT-1 and GAT-3), as two essential subtypes of GATs responsible for the regulation of extracellular GABA levels in the neuronal tissues. METHODS: ELISA and western blot analysis were employed to examine the levels of PICs and GATs; and auditory brainstem response was used to assess ototoxicity induced by cisplatin. RESULTS: IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as their receptors were significantly increased in the spiral ganglion of ototoxic rats as compared with sham control animals (P<0.05, ototoxic rats vs. control rats). Cisplatin-ototoxicity also induced upregulation of the protein levels of GAT-1 and GAT-3 in the spiral ganglion (P<0.05 vs. controls). In addition, administration of inhibitors to IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α attenuated amplification of GAT-1 and GAT-3 and improved hearing impairment induced by cisplatin. CONCLUSION: our data indicate that PIC signals are activated in the spiral ganglion during cisplatin-ototoxicity which thereby leads to upregulation of GABA transporters. As a result, it is likely that de-inhibition of GABA system is enhanced in the cochlear spiral ganglion. This support a role for PICs in engagement of the signal mechanisms associated with cisplatin-ototoxicity, and has pharmacological implications to target specific PICs for GABAergic dysfunction and vulnerability related to cisplatin-ototoxicity.

10.
Dis Model Mech ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704804

RESUMO

Major risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are formula feeding and prematurity, however, their pathogenic mechanisms are unknown. We found that insufficient arginine/nitric oxide synthesis limits blood flow in the intestinal microvasculature, leading to hypoxia, mucosa damage and NEC in the premature intestine after formula feeding. Formula feeding led to increased intestinal hypoxia in pups at postnatal day 1(P1) and P5, but not in more mature pups at P9. Accordingly, blood flow in the intestinal microvasculature increased after formula feeding only in P9 pups. mRNA profiling revealed that regulators of arginine/nitric oxide synthesis are at higher levels in endothelial cells of the intestine of P9 than P1 pups. Importantly, arginine supplementation increased intestinal microvasculature blood flow, and prevented NEC, whereas an arginine antagonist exacerbated NEC. Our results suggest that balancing intestinal oxygen demand and supply in the premature intestine by modulating arginine/nitric oxide could be used to prevent NEC.

11.
Biomaterials ; : 119601, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711715

RESUMO

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders worldwide. Oxidative stress initiated by excessive free radicals such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a leading cause of cartilage degradation and OA. However, conventional injection or oral intake of antioxidants usually cannot provide effective treatment due to rapid clearance and degradation or low bioavailability. Here, a new strategy is proposed based on nanofibers made of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL-grafted lignin (PCL-g-lignin) copolymer. Lignin offers intrinsic antioxidant activity while PCL tailors the mechanical properties. Electrospun PCL-lignin nanofibers show excellent antioxidant activity, low cytotoxicity and excellent anti-inflammatory effects as demonstrated using both H2O2-stimulated human chondrocytes and an OA rabbit model. PCL-lignin nanofibers inhibit ROS generation and activate antioxidant enzymes through autophagic mechanism. Arthroscopic implantation of nanofibrous membrane of PCL-lignin is effective to OA therapy because it is biocompatible, biodegradable and able to provide sustained antioxidant activity.

12.
Biofabrication ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756727

RESUMO

After surgical resection for bone tumor, the uncleared bone tumor cells can multiply and cause recurrence of bone tumor. It is worthwhile to design a scaffold that kills the remaining bone tumor and repairs bone defects that were given rise to by surgical resection. Additionally, it is extremely important to consider the function of angiogenesis at the process of bone regeneration because the newly-formed blood vessel can offer the nutrients for bone regeneration. In this work, a novel scaffold that is metal-organic framework Cu-TCPP nanosheets interface-structured ß-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffold (Cu-TCPP-TCP) was successfully prepared through integrating 3D printing technique with in situ growth method in a solvothermal system. Owing to the excellent photothermal effect of Cu-TCPP nanosheets, Cu-TCPP-TCP scaffolds that were illuminated by near infrared (NIR) light demonstrated photothermal performance, which was well regulated through varying the contents of Cu-TCPP nanosheets, ambient humidity and power density of NIR light. When cultured with osteosarcoma cells, Cu-TCPP-TCP scaffolds significantly killed osteosarcoma cells through the released heat energy. Similarly, Cu-TCPP-TCP scaffolds ablated the subcutaneous bone tumor tissues at the backs of naked mice and suppressed their growth because of transformed heat energy from NIR light. The in vitro studies found that Cu-TCPP-TCP scaffolds well supported the attachments of both human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and significantly stimulated expressions of osteogenesis differentiation-related genes in HBMSCs and angiogenesis differentiation-related genes in HUVECs. After implanting Cu-TCPP-TCP scaffolds into the bone defects of rabbits, they effectively promoted bone regeneration. Thus, the integration of the bone-forming bioactivity of TCP scaffolds with the photothermal property of Cu-TCPP nanosheets and angiogenesis activity of Cu ions awards Cu-TCPP-TCP scaffolds with multifunctions, representing a new horizon to develop biomaterials for simultaneously curing bone tumor and repairing bone defects.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 695: 133963, 2019 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756847

RESUMO

A kind of heterogeneous catalyst, FeMn layered double hydroxide (Fe-Mn-LDH), was fabricated by coprecipitation process and used as PMS activator to degrade a novel organic pollutant octadecylamine (ODA). And the X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microcopy (TEM), Mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) measurements were utilized to characterize the fresh and used Fe-Mn-LDH. After a serious of degradation experiments, it was clearly to see that the activator possessed excellent activation property for PMS and was capable of removing 85% ODA (10 mg·L-1) within 25 min obviously higher than pure PMS. Moreover, the effect of some elements (such as PMS consumption, catalyst consistence and initial pH value), different reaction system and catalyst repeatability on ODA degradation were also explored. And by identification of main radical experiment, SO4- and HO were both confirmed the primary radicals. What's more, extra anion and nature organic matter (NOM) addition experiment displayed that NOM, NO3- and CO32- perform a negative effect on ODA degradation but Cl- could promote it. In addition, repeated experiments and metal leaching after degradation showed good stability of Fe-Mn-LDH. Finally, based on the XPS and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GS-MS) technology, the possible degradation mechanism and pathway were proposed.

14.
Oncol Res ; 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757227

RESUMO

Here, we characterized a new circRNA, named circ_0071662, which was downregulated in human bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, compared with matched adjacent normal tissues and normal bladder epithelial cells. Lower circ_0071662 level was observed in patients with advanced bladder cancer and was positively associated with poorer prognosis, including higher degrees of lymph node invasion and distal metastasis, and lower survival rate. Gain- and loss-of-functions showed that circ_0071662 suppressed cell proliferation and invasion in human bladder cell lines T-24 and J82. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that there are six binding sites of miR-146b-3p on circ_0071662 sequence, and pull-down assays demonstrated miR-146b-3p directly bound with circ_0071662. Moreover, circ_0071662 negatively regulated miR-146b-3p expression and positively regulated expression of miR-146b-3p target genes HPGD and NF2. Furthermore, miR-146b-3p could rescue the inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion caused by circ_0071662 overexpression. In conclusion, circ_0071662 suppresses bladder cancer cell proliferation and invasion by sponging miR-146b-3p.

15.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; : e3243, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758631

RESUMO

Prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with diet or diet supplementation is challenging. This article aims to draw conclusive associations between magnesium intake and T2D incidence and evaluate the effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism. Databases were searched for related articles from inception to May 15, 2019. Prospective cohort studies investigating the relevant relationship as well as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of magnesium supplementation were eligible. We conducted trial sequential analysis (TSA) to prove the sufficiency of the current evidence. Twenty-six publications involving 35 cohorts were included in the analysis. Compared to the lowest magnesium intake, the highest level was associated with a 22% lower risk for T2D; the risk was reduced by 6% for each 100 mg increment in daily magnesium intake. Additional analysis of 26 RCTs (1168 participants) was performed, revealing that magnesium supplementation significantly reduced the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level (SMD, -0.32 [95% CI, -0.59 to -0.05], 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2-h OGTT) result (SMD, -0.30 [-0.58 to -0.02]), fasting insulin level (SMD, -0.17 [-0.30 to -0.04]), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score (SMD, -0.41 [-0.71 to -0.11]), triglyceride (TG) level, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). TSA showed an inverse association, with most benefits of magnesium supplementation on glucose metabolism being stable. In conclusion, magnesium intake has an inverse dose-response association with T2D incidence, and supplementation appears to be advisable in terms of glucose parameters in T2D/high-risk individuals.

16.
Ecol Appl ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758749

RESUMO

Saltmarshes are important natural carbon sinks with a large capacity to absorb exogenous nutrient inputs. The effects of nutrients on biogeographic productivity patterns, however, have been poorly explored in saltmarshes. We conducted field surveys to examine how complex environments affect productivity of two common saltmarsh plants, invasive Spartina alterniflora and native Phragmites australis, along an 18,000-km latitudinal gradient on the Chinese coastline. We harvested peak aboveground biomass as a proxy for productivity, and measured leaf functional traits (e.g., leaf area, specific leaf area [SLA], leaf nitrogen [N] and phosphorus [P]), soil nutrients (dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and available P (AP)), and salinity. We compiled data on mean annual temperature (MAT) and exogenous nutrients (both N and P). Then, we examined how these abiotic factors affect saltmarsh productivity using both linear mixed effect models and structural equation modelling. Using a trait-based approach, we also examined how saltmarsh productivity responds to changing environments across latitude. Exogenous nutrients (both N and P) compared with temperature and other variables (e.g., DIN, AP, salinity) were the dominant factors in explaining the biogeographic productivity patterns of both S. alterniflora and P. australis. Leaf size-related traits (e.g., leaf area), rather than leaf economic traits (e.g., SLA, leaf N and P), can be used to indicate the positive effects of exogenous nutrients on the productivity of these two species. Our results demonstrated that human eutrophication surpassed temperature as the major driver of biogeographic saltmarsh productivity pattern, challenging current models in which biogeographic productivity pattern is primarily controlled by temperature. Our findings have potential broad implications for the management of S. alterniflora, which is a global invader, as it has benefited from coastal eutrophication. Furthermore, exogenous nutrient availability and leaf size need to be integrated into earth system models that are used to predict global plant productivity in saltmarshes.

17.
Analyst ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729506

RESUMO

Carbon dots (CDs) have broad prospective applications in various fields, and expanding the applications of fluorescent CDs, especially for CDs derived from bacteria, is a major research goal. In this study, novel CDs derived from Escherichia coli BW25113 (WT) were successfully synthesized via a one-step hydrothermal method. Unlike previously developed CDs-E. coli, CDs-WT can be used for microbial imaging of both live and dead cells. We demonstrated the biocompatibility, excellent penetrability, and nontoxic characteristics of CDs-WT for use as fluorescent probes for bioimaging both in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we provide the first demonstration of CDs-WT distribution in various organs of mice, including the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and the potential for rapid excretion through the intestines. Additionally, CDs-WT can be instantly utilized as a fluorescent probe for the highly selective and rapid detection of p-nitrophenol (p-NP) by the inner filter effect, with a limit of detection for p-NP of 11 nM, the lowest value reported to date. Hence, our results demonstrate the feasibility of p-NP detection and extend the bio-imaging applications of CDs prepared from bacteria.

18.
J Vis Exp ; (152)2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710037

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and severe cardiopulmonary disorder. Mice are a popular animal model used to mimic this disease. However, the evaluation of right ventricular pressure (RVP) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) remains technically challenging in mice. RVP and PAP are more difficult to measure than left ventricular pressure because of the anatomical differences between the left and right heart systems. In this paper, we describe a stable right heart hemodynamic measurement method and its validation using healthy and PAH mice. This method is based on open-chest surgery and mechanical ventilation support. It is a complicated procedure compared to closed chest procedures. While a well-trained surgeon is required for this surgery, the advantage of this procedure is that it can generate both RVP and PAP parameters at the same time, so it is a preferable procedure for the evaluation of PAH models.

19.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109789, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731029

RESUMO

We use "China's sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions trading program" as a quasi-natural experiment to identify the causal effect of this market-based environmental regulation on firm's labor demand. Based on the difference-in-differences (DID) method and a series of robustness tests, we observe robust evidence that the emissions trading program significantly increases the labor demand of regulated firms, and that this positive employment effect is driven by the expansion of firm's production scale. The observable evidence leads us to cautiously conclude that the market-based environmental regulations in even developing countries could achieve the double dividend of coexistence of environmental protection and employment growth.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To assess the mRNA expression profile and explore the hub mRNAs and potential molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of human thoracic aortic dissection (TAD). METHODOLOGY: mRNA microarray expression signatures of TAD tissues (n = 6) and non-TAD tissues (NT; n = 6) were analyzed by an Arraystar human mRNA microarray. Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the results of the mRNA microarray. Bioinformatic tools, including Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis, were utilized. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were constructed based on data from the STRING database. Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) and cytoHubba analyses were used to predict the strongest hub gene and pathway. RESULTS: The top 10 hub genes were CDK1, CDC20, CCNB2, CCNB1, MAD2L1, AURKA, C3AR1, NCAPG, CXCL12 and ASPM, which were identified from the PPI network. Module analysis revealed that TAD was associated with the cell cycle, oocyte meiosis, the p53 signaling pathway, and progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of all hub genes was significantly increased in TAD samples (p < 0.05). Immunostaining of Ki-67 and CDK1 showed a high proliferation state and high expression in TAD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: CDK1 could be used as a potential diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target of TAD.

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