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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127600, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736155

RESUMO

Toosendanin (TSN), as an important Chinese traditional insecticide, has been registered and commercialized in China. In this report, the residual analytical methods, residue dynamics and final residues of TSN in tobacco, cabbage and soil under field condition were studied by IC-ELISA and HPLC. The sensitivity, precision and repeatability of IC-ELISA method were more suitable in comparison with HPLC for the demand of TSN residue analysis. Using IC-ELISA, the half-lives (t1/2) of TSN were found to be 1.30 days in cabbage, 1.70 days in tabacco and 0.71 days in soil, respectively. At the recommended dose, the final residues of TSN detection by IC-ELISA was 0.009 mg·kg-1 in cabbage and 0.043 mg·kg-1 in tobacco, as well as was not detected in soil. Therefore, TSN is easily degradable, and IC-ELISA could be a convenient and supplemental analytical tool for monitoring TSN residue in crops and environment.

2.
J Biol Chem ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004438

RESUMO

Mammalian Asn-linked glycans are extensively processed as they transit the secretory pathway to generate diverse glycans on cell surface and secreted glycoproteins. Additional modification of the glycan core by α-1,6-fucose addition to the innermost GlcNAc residue (core fucosylation) is catalyzed by an α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8). The importance of core fucosylation can be seen in the complex pathological phenotypes of FUT8 null mice, which display defects in cellular signaling, development, and subsequent neonatal lethality. Elevated core fucosylation has also been identified in several human cancers. However, the structural basis for FUT8 substrate specificity remains unknown. Here, using various crystal structures of FUT8 in complex with a donor substrate analog, and with four distinct glycan acceptors, we identify the molecular basis for FUT8 specificity and activity. The ordering of three active site loops corresponds to an increased occupancy for bound GDP, suggesting an induced-fit folding of the donor binding subsite. Structures of the various acceptor complexes were compared with kinetic data on FUT8 active site mutants and with specificity data from a library of glycan acceptors to reveal how binding site complementarity and steric hindrance can tune substrate affinity. The FUT8 structure was also compared with other known fucosyltransferases to identify conserved and divergent structural features for donor and acceptor recognition and catalysis. These data provide insights into the evolution of modular templates for donor and acceptor recognition among GT-B fold glycosyltransferases in the synthesis of diverse glycan structures in biological systems.

3.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1868(1): 118878, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011193

RESUMO

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynaecologic malignancy, and the five-year survival rate of patients is less than 35% worldwide. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a population of cells with stem-like characteristics that are thought to cause chemoresistance and recurrence. TRIM29 is aberrantly expressed in various cancers and associated with cancer development and progression. Previous studies showed that the upregulation of TRIM29 expression in pancreatic cancer is related to stem-like characteristics. However, the role of TRIM29 in ovarian cancer is poorly understood. In this study, we found that TRIM29 expression was increased at the translational level in both the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells and clinical tissues. Increased TRIM29 expression was associated with a poor prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer. In addition, TRIM29 could enhance the CSC-like characteristics of the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Recruitment of YTHDF1 to m6A-modified TRIM29 was involved in promoting TRIM29 translation in the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Knockdown of YTHDF1 suppressed the CSC-like characteristics of the cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells, which could be rescued by ectopic expression of TRIM29. This study suggests TRIM29 may act as an oncogene to promote the CSC-like features of cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer in an m6A-YTHDF1-dependent manner. Due to the roles of TRIM29 and YTHDF1 in the promotion of CSC-like features, they may become potential therapeutic targets to combat the recurrence of ovarian cancer.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) remains the primary cause of in-hospital mortality after hepatectomy. Identifying predictors of PHLF is important to improve surgical safety. We sought to identify the predictive accuracy of two noninvasive markers, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) and aspartate aminotransferase to platelet count ratio index (APRI), to predict PHLF among patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and to build up an online prediction calculator. METHODS: Patients who underwent resection for HCC between 2013 and 2016 at 6 Chinese hospitals were retrospectively analyzed. The independent predictors of PHLF were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses; derivative data were used to construct preoperative and postoperative nomogram models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the two predictive models, and ALBI, APRI, Child-Pugh, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores were compared relative to predictive accuracy for PHLF. RESULTS: Among the 767 patients in the analytic cohort, 102 (13.3%) experienced PHLF. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified high ALBI grade (>-2.6) and high APRI grade (>1.5) as independent risk factors associated with PHLF in both the preoperative and postoperative models. Two nomogram predictive models and corresponding web-based calculators were subsequently constructed. The areas under the ROC curves for the postoperative and preoperative models, APRI, ALBI, MELD and Child-Pugh scores in predicting PHLF were 0.844, 0.789, 0.626, 0.609, 0.569, and 0.560, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ALBI and APRI demonstrated more accurate ability to predict PHLF than Child-Pugh and MELD. Two online calculators that combined ALBI and APRI were proposed as useful preoperative and postoperative tools for individually predicting the occurrence of PHLF among patients with HCC.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(10): 870, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067426

RESUMO

Recent studies have demonstrated that gastric cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a rare sub-group of gastric cancer (GC) cells and have an important role in promoting the tumor growth and progression of GC. In the present study, we demonstrated that the glycolytic enzyme Enolase 1 (ENO1) was involved in the regulation of the stem cell-like characteristics of GC cells, as compared to the parental cell lines PAMC-82 and SNU16, the expression of ENO1 in spheroids markedly increased. We then observed that ENO1 could enhance stem cell-like characteristics, including self-renewal capacity, cell invasion and migration, chemoresistance, and even the tumorigenicity of GC cells. ENO1 is known as an enzyme that is involved in glycolysis, but our results showed that ENO1 could markedly promote the glycolytic activity of cells. Furthermore, inhibiting glycolysis activity using 2-deoxy-D-glucose treatment significantly reduced the stemness of GC cells. Therefore, ENO1 could improve the stemness of CSCs by enhancing the cells' glycolysis. Subsequently, to further confirm our results, we found that the inhibition of ENO1 using AP-III-a4 (ENOblock) could reduce the stemness of GC cells to a similar extent as the knockdown of ENO1 by shRNA. Finally, increased expression of ENO1 was related to poor prognosis in GC patients. Taken together, our results demonstrated that ENO1 is a significant biomarker associated with the stemness of GC cells.

6.
Ecotoxicology ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068202

RESUMO

The fate and toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and ions in water bodies is largely determined by the natural organic matter (NOM)-mediated redox cycling. However, the process of NOM-mediated redox cycling in the day/night cycles remains elusive. In this study, the inter-transformation between AgNPs and Ag+ ion caused by humic acid (HA) was investigated under controlled light and dark conditions. It was shown that HA induced the reduction of Ag+ into AgNPs in simulated sunlight, and also oxidize AgNPs to release Ag+ in darkness. Kinetics data demonstrated that the rates of AgNPs formation and dissolution increased along with the increment of HA concentrations. Along with the pH increase, the reduction of Ag+ accelerated, but the oxidative dissolution of AgNPs was inhibited. In day-night cycles, the AgNPs and Ag+ concentrations exhibited similar wave-shaped change curves. The peaks of AgNPs and Ag+ ion appeared at 7 p.m. and 7 a.m., respectively. The toxicity of AgNPs/Ag+ to Escherichia coli was determined primarily by the concentration of dissolved Ag+, but also affected by the particle-specific toxicity. The dual role of HA implied that previous reports about the photo-reduction of Ag+ to AgNPs by NOM should be reconsidered, and the oxidizability of HA in darkness strongly affect the transformation and toxicity of AgNPs in water.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046904

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

8.
Inflammation ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029757

RESUMO

Sepsis is an inflammatory disease characterized by dysregulation of inflammation. Macrophage-mediated inflammation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of sepsis. Itaconate is a metabolite produced in activated macrophages which has anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated the potential effects of a cell-permeable itaconate derivative dimethyl itaconate on inflammation in sepsis. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic mouse model and administered dimethyl itaconate to the septic mice. The survival rate, serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and lung pathology were evaluated. We also administered dimethyl itaconate to LPS-treated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), and measured the cytokine production and Nrf2 expression. We also evaluated the effects of dimethyl itaconate on Nrf2-deficient mice. Administration of dimethyl itaconate enhanced survival rate, decreased serum level of TNF-α and IL-6, and ameliorated lung injury in septic mice. Dimethyl itaconate also suppressed LPS-induced production of TNF-α, IL-6, and NOS2 in BMDMs. Dimethyl itaconate activated Nrf2 and promoted the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream factor HO-1 and NQO-1. The regulatory activities of dimethyl itaconate on inflammatory cytokine production, mouse survival rate were abolished in septic Nrf2-/- mice. Dimethyl itaconate suppressed the inflammatory responses of macrophages in sepsis.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036443

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that excessive screen time in early childhood is related to children's physical and mental health. This study aimed to review the relationships between screen media use and several health indicators in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. A systematic search was conducted by two independent reviewers on PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library to identify the eligible studies, with an end date of 13 August 2019. Included studies (published in English) were peer-reviewed and met the determinate population (children aged 0-7 years with screen media exposure and related health outcomes). The AHRQ, NOS, and the Cochrane Handbook were used to evaluate the cross-sectional study, cohort study, and RCT, respectively. A meta-analysis and narrative syntheses were employed separately. Eighty studies (23 studies for meta-analysis) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Strong evidence of the meta-analysis suggested that excessive screen time was associated with overweight/obesity and shorter sleep duration among toddlers and preschoolers. Excessive screen use was associated with various health indicators in physical, behavioral, and psychosocial aspects. Better-quality research on newer media devices, on various kinds of contents in young children, and on dose-response relationships between excessive screen use and health indicators are needed to update recommendations of screen use.

10.
Genes Genomics ; 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The overexpression of TSLP and DNA methylation in asthma were both risk factors the relationship was not clear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between methylation status of TSLP promoter and mRNA/protein expression in asthmatic airway epithelial cells. METHODS: Human bronchial epithelial cells were cultured in vitro and divided into: Control group, treated with PBS, model group, sensitized with LPS (10 µg/mL) for 12 h (37 °C, 5% CO2). Other groups were cultured with the pCMV3 plasmid (M + NC/pCMV), pGPH1 plasmid (M + NC/pGPH), DNMT1/pCMV3 plasmid (M + DNMT1/pCMV), and DNMT1/pGPH1 plasmid (M + DNMT1/pGPH) for 48 h. The expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 and TSLP were measured using real-time PCR and western blotting. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, TSLP mRNA (1.00 ± 0.00 vs. 2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 1, P < 0.001) and protein (1.07 ± 0.04 vs. 1.46 ± 0.11, P < 0.01) were significantly greater, and the methylation of promoter was lower (92.75 ± 1.26 vs. 58.57 ± 3.34, P < 0.05) in the model group. Compared with the model group, TSLP mRNA (2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 1.17 ± 0.10, P < 0.001) decreased, but TSLP promoter methylation increased (58.57 ± 3.34 vs. 92.58 ± 7.30, P < 0.05) in M + DNMT1/pCMV. TSLP mRNA and protein were higher (2.82 ± 0.81 vs. 5.32 ± 0.21, P < 0.001; 1.46 ± 0.11 vs. 1.94 ± 0.11, respectively, P < 0.01), TSLP promoter methylation was lower (58.57 ± 3.34 vs. 33.57 ± 4.29, P < 0.05) in M + DNMT1/pGPH. CONCLUSIONS: Overexpression of TSLP in asthmatic airway epithelial cells may be regulated by DNA demethylation.

11.
Plant Signal Behav ; : 1827782, 2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040671

RESUMO

Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine or 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) has many functions in animals, but also shows several other functions in plants. Since the discovery of dopamine in plants in 1968, many studies have provided insight into physiological and biochemical functions, and stress responses of this molecule. In this review, we describe the biosynthesis of dopamine, as well as its role in plant growth and development. In addition, endogenous or exogenously applied dopamine improved the tolerance against several abiotic stresses, such as drought, salt, and nutrient stress. There are also several studies that dopamine contributes to the plant immune response against plant disease. Dopamine affects the expression of many abiotic stresses related genes, which highlights its role as a multi-regulatory molecule and can coordinate many aspects of plant development. Our review emphasized the effects of dopamine against environmental stresses along with future research directions, which will help improve the yield of eco-friendly crops and ensure food security.

12.
Technol Cancer Res Treat ; 19: 1533033820963662, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy of salvage percutaneous radiofrequency ablation in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer liver metastases. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 81 patients with 126 colorectal cancer liver metastases who underwent radiofrequency ablation between January 2012 and September 2016. The clinical data and ablation data were retrospectively analyzed. The local tumor progression-free survival, overall survival, and prognostic factors were analyzed using the log-rank test and Cox regression model. RESULTS: The technique success rate was 99.21%. The primary efficacy rate was 100% at the 1-month follow-up. Minor complications were observed in 2 patients, which recovered within 1 week. The median local tumor progression-free survival time of all patients was 29.8 months. The absence of subsequent chemotherapy was an independent predictor of a shorter local tumor progression-free survival time (P < 0.001, hazard ratio: 2.823, 95% confidence interval: 1.603, 4.972). The median overall survival time was 26.8 months. A lesion size greater than 3 cm (P = 0.011, hazard ratio: 2.112, 95% confidence interval: 1.188, 3.754) and the presence of early local tumor progression (P = 0.011, hazard ratio: 2.352, 95% confidence interval: 1.217, 4.545) were related to a shorter survival time. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation is safe in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases refractory from chemotherapy. Subsequent chemotherapy is important to enhance local control. Small lesions and favorable early responses are related to prolonged overall survival.

13.
Nanoscale ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026006

RESUMO

Transition-metal oxides with low valence states are promising candidates as anodes for advanced rechargeable Li-ion batteries. Surprisingly, the capacities of such anode materials initially decrease and then increase after long-term cycling. Herein, MnO is selected as a representative material to study the structure-function relationship and elucidate the above-mentioned phenomena during long-term cycling. To this end, the surface reconstruction to bulk transformation of MnO anode materials during the cycling procedures has been revealed. The atomic scanning transmission electron microscopy images and theoretical modeling results illustrate the formation of stable surface-phase Mn3O4 and Li2MnO4, which promote the migration of Li ions. The complete bulk-phase transformation of MnO is then revealed, during which Mn2+ was found to be initially oxidized to Mn4+ and subsequently reduced to a mixed valence of Mn2+ and Mn3+, correlating with the tendency of their discharge capacity variation upon cycling. These direct atomic-scale observations of the migration behavior of Li ions in the MnO anode offer an essential step toward understanding the electrochemical performance evolution of transition-metal oxide anodes and guide the anode preparation for Li-ion batteries.

14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105335, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI)2b/3 has been considered the criterion for successful reperfusion in endovascular treatment. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic safety and efficacy of mTICI2b and mTICI3 recanalization, and to analyze the factors related to outcomes in everyday clinical practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single-center retrospective analysis of 224 patients who underwent successful thrombectomy (achieving a mTICI score ≥2b). The primary outcomes included a modified Rankin score (mRS) of 0-2 at 90-day, mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: A total of 111 patients achieved mTICI2b status (49.6%), and 113 achieved mTICI3 status (50.4%). The comparison between mTICI2b and 3 reperfusions showed no differences in short-term outcomes, 90-day mRS, complications, and mortality. There was a trend toward more passes in mTICI2b patients, although the difference was not significant. The univariate analysis showed that poor outcomes after endovascular treatment were associated with older age, previous history of coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation, diabetes, tandem occlusions, high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission, and general anesthesia. A previous history of coronary heart disease, a high NIHSS score on admission, and the use of general anesthesia were independent factors that affected the therapeutic effects. CONCLUSION: The superiority (efficacy and safety) of mTICI3 reperfusion was not significant compared with that of mTICI2b reperfusion. Prolonged efforts to achieve mTICI3 after achieving mTICI2b should be considered prudently for those with difficulty achieving 100% reperfusion.

15.
Life Sci ; 262: 118544, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035586

RESUMO

AIMS: Our previous study has demonstrated that high expression of ALDH1B1 promoted osteosarcoma tumor progression and was correlated with unfavorable prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. In the current study, we investigated the underlying mechanism and regulation of ALDH1B1 in osteosarcoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: qRT-PCR assay was applied to detect miR-761 expression. CCK-8, colony formation and EdU assays were conducted to explore the functional role of miR-761/ALDH1B1 axis in osteosarcoma. Bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay was utilized to assess the regulation between miR-761 and ALDH1B1. Mechanism experiments were implemented to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism of miR-761/ALDH1B1 axis. KEY FINDINGS: ALDH1B1 was negatively regulated by microRNA-761 (miR-761). Functionally, miR-761 suppressed cell growth, migration, and invasion in osteosarcoma via targeting ALDH1B1 in vitro. Xenograft tumor model demonstrated that miR-761 inhibited osteosarcoma tumor development in vivo through regulating ALDH1B1. Consistently, we showed that miR-761 expression was decreased in osteosarcoma patients and low expression of miR-761 was correlated with worse prognosis in osteosarcoma patients. Mechanistically, we revealed that high expression of ALDH1B1 was significantly associated with enhanced TGF-ß signaling, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and cell adhesion. Furthermore, miR-761 regulated TGF-ß and EMT/cell adhesion in osteosarcoma via targeting ALDH1B1. SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our findings suggest that the oncogenic ALDH1B1 is regulated by miR-761 during osteosarcoma development and progression, which might provide a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma treatment.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 53-58, 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the modification of DSM-5 mixed features specifier, a brief scale to screen mixed features in patients with mood disorders is needed in clinical practice. This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Clinically Useful Depression Outcome Scale supplemented with DSM-5 Mixed subtype (CUDOS-M-C) for the Chinese patients with mood disorders. METHODS: Overall, 300 patients with major depressive episode were recruited. All participants were assessed using CUDOS-M-C, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate the optimal cut-off values of CUDOS-M-C score. The reliability and validity of CUDOS-M-C were examined using Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and principal component analysis (PCA). RESULTS: The results of PCA indicated two-factor structure as the best solution for CUDOS-M-C, which explained 54.82% of cumulative variance. The Cronbach's alpha was 0.892 and the ICC was 0.853. The area under the ROC curve of the CUDOS-M-C for participants with mixed depression was 0.927 (p<0.001) and the suitable cut-off value was 8, with a sensitivity of 91.6% and specificity of 79.9%. LIMITATIONS: Most of the patients were recruited from eastern China and further research with larger sample is warranted. And this study did not perform confirmatory factor analysis to identify the generalization of factor structure of CUDOS-M-C. Besides, the study performed the test-retest reliability of CUDOS-M-C and further analysis is needed to ascertain the patient's post-treatment changes. CONCLUSION: The CUDOS-M-C demonstrated to have satisfactory psychometric properties as a self-report scale, and could be applied to screen patients with mixed depression in clinical practice.

17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 749, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Two months after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, tens of thousands of hospitalized patients had recovered, and little is known about the follow-up of the recovered patients. METHODS: The clinical characteristics, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results from throat swab specimens and the results of serological COVID-19 rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were retrospectively reviewed for a total of 758 recovered patients who were previously hospitalized in 17 hospitals and quarantined at 32 rehabilitation stations in Wuhan, China. RESULTS: In total, 59 patients (7.78%) had recurrent positive findings for COVID-19 on RT-PCR from throat swabs. With regard to antibody detection, 50/59 (84.75%) and 4/59 (6.78%) patients had positive IgG or dual positive IgG/IgM RDT results, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Some patients who had been quarantined and had subsequently recovered from COVID-19 had recurrent positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2, and the possibility of transmission of the virus by recovered patients needs further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ChiCTR2000033580 , Jun 6th 2020. Retrospectively registered.

18.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954617

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective for the treatment of macrovascular complications and nephropathy in type 2 diabetes, but effects on microvascular eye outcomes are unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the effect of SGLT2 inhibition on total ocular events and retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for the period from database inception date to October 11, 2019. Two reviewers working independently extracted relevant data. Random-effects models with inverse variance weighting were selected to estimate summary risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We included nine studies, involving 39 982 patients with a mean follow-up of 2.8 years. There were 1414 total ocular events, of which 624 were retinopathy events. SGLT2 inhibition was not associated with a change in the risk of total ocular events (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.85, 1.11) or retinopathy (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.84, 1.16), with consistent effects across studies (P for heterogeneity = 0.35 and 0.45, respectively). The effects of SGLT2 inhibition on eye disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes are probably null, although the available data cannot exclude small to moderate benefits or harms.

19.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 254: 114-118, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957008

RESUMO

TORCH, the acronym of Toxoplasma gondii (TOX), others, rubella virus (RUV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a major contributor to congenital infection. National population-based study on the seroepidemiology of TORCH in women is yet lacking, and it is still obscure whether TORCH infection in the women was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. A total of 48,406 asymptomatic women from eight hospitals in China which covered the most areas of mainland China were enrolled in this study, and 26,400 were simultaneously subjected to 7 detection tests for TORCH specific antibodies. Chemiluminescent immunoassay was performed to detect TORCH Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and/or Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and IgG avidities of TOX and CMV IgM and IgG positive serum samples. The overall IgG prevalence of TOX, RUV, CMV and HSV-(1 + 2) in the reproductive-aged women was 1.71 %, 81.97 %, 95.09 % and 90.15 % respectively. The corresponding IgM prevalence of TOX, RUV and CMV was 0.30 %, 0.89 % and 0.52 %. Moreover, the rates of primary TOX and CMV infections were at least 0.08 % (21/26,400) and 0.03 % (7/26,400) in the studied population. The distributions of TORCH positive women in various age, season and region groups were different (P < 0.05). The CMV IgM-positive rate was higher in the pregnant women than those in non-pregnant women (P < 0.05). The higher past infection rates of RUV, CMV and HSV in women with bad obstetric history (BOH) imply that TORCH infections are associated with BOH. These data suggest that TORCH infections in the prenatal women, especially with BOH, are worthwhile to be screened by detections of specific IgG and IgM antibodies, and even IgG avidities.

20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 248: 116782, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919570

RESUMO

Due to the poor solubility and permeability of rifaximin (RFX), it is not effective against intracellular pathogens although it shows strong activity against most bacteria. To develop an effective mucoadhesive drug delivery system with a targeted release in bacterial infection site, RFX-loaded chitosan (CS)/carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMCS) nanogel was designed and systematically evaluated. FTIR, DSC, and XRD demonstrated that the nanogel was formed by interactions between the positively charged NH3+ on CS and CMCS, and the negatively charged COO on CMCS. RFX was encapsulated into the optimized nanogel in amorphous form. The nanogel was a uniform spherical shape with a mean diameter of 171.07 nm. It had excellent sustained release, strong mucin binding ability, and pH-responsive properties of quicker swelling and release at acidic pH. It showed low hemolytic ratio and high antioxidant activity. The present investigation indicated that the CS-nanogel could be potentially used as a promising bacterial responsiveness drug delivery system.

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