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1.
Eur Radiol ; 30(1): 537-546, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372781

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish and validate a radiomics nomogram for prediction of induction chemotherapy (IC) response and survival in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS: One hundred twenty-three NPC patients (100 in training and 23 in validation cohort) with multi-MR images were enrolled. A radiomics nomogram was established by integrating the clinical data and radiomics signature generated by support vector machine. RESULTS: The radiomics signature consisting of 19 selected features from the joint T1-weighted (T1-WI), T2-weighted (T2-WI), and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MRI images (T1-C) showed good prognostic performance in terms of evaluating IC response in two cohorts. The radiomics nomogram established by integrating the radiomics signature with clinical data outperformed clinical nomogram alone (C-index in validation cohort, 0.863 vs 0.549; p < 0.01). Decision curve analysis demonstrated the clinical utility of the radiomics nomogram. Survival analysis showed that IC responders had significant better PFS (progression-free survival) than non-responders (3-year PFS 84.81% vs 39.75%, p < 0.001). Low-risk groups defined by radiomics signature had significant better PFS than high-risk groups (3-year PFS 76.24% vs 48.04%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Multiparametric MRI-based radiomics could be helpful for personalized risk stratification and treatment in NPC patients receiving IC. KEY POINTS: • MRI Radiomics can predict IC response and survival in non-endemic NPC. • Radiomics signature in combination with clinical data showed excellent predictive performance. • Radiomics signature could separate patients into two groups with different prognosis.

2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 398-410, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791513

RESUMO

To manage potential microbial risks and meet increasingly strict drinking water health standards, UV treatment has attracted increasing attention for use in drinking water systems in China. However, the effects of UV treatment on microbial control and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation in real municipal drinking water systems are poorly understood. Here, we collected water samples from three real drinking water systems in Beijing and Tianjin to investigate the impacts of UV treatment on microbial control and DBP formation. We employed heterotrophic plate count (HPC), flow cytometry (FCM), quantitative PCR analysis, and high-throughput sequencing to measure microorganisms in the samples. Different trends were observed between HPC and total cell count (measured by FCM), indicating that a single indicator could not reflect the real degree of biological re-growth in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs). A significant increase in the 16S rRNA gene concentration was observed when the UV system was stopped. Besides, the bacterial community composition was similar at the phylum level but differed markedly at the genera level among the three DWDSs. Some chlorine-resistant bacteria, including potential pathogens (e.g., Acinetobacter) showed a high relative abundance when the UV system was turned off. It can be concluded that UV treatment can mitigate microbial re-growth to some extent. Finally, UV treatment had a limited influence on the formation of DBPs, including trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and nitrogenated DBPs. The findings of this study may help to understand the performance of UV treatment in real drinking water systems.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(2): 659-667, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383060

RESUMO

As a new kind of two-dimensional nanomaterial, black phosphorus (BP) nanosheets have attracted significant interests in diverse bioapplications due to their unique structure and physicochemical properties. Despite BP nanosheets' advantages in cancer diagnosis and therapy applications, their biosafety issues are still unclear. Herein, we report a systematic study on the In Vitro and In Vivo toxicity of BP nanosheets. In Vitro experiments showed that BP nanosheets decrease the viability of human bronchial epithelial cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The mechanism study showed that BP nanosheets interfere with mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to an increase in intracellular ROS. These responses further initiated the activation of the caspase-3 and ultimately dictated cells to undergo apoptosis. Then, the In Vivo experiments of BP nanosheets revealed that single injection of BP nanosheets does not cause toxicity to mice in a short period of time, whereas multiple injections of BP nanosheets exert adverse effects on liver and renal function of mice. Interestingly, the liver and renal function of the mice returned to normal after a recovery period. Our findings provide insights into the rational design of BP nanosheets and guide their applications in biomedical fields.

4.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2508-2513, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492269

RESUMO

Nanofluidics devices with two-dimensional nano-structures have attracted extensive interests for biological and chemical applications. The fabrication of nanoscale mask patterns with controllable line width is an indispensable process for manufacturing two-dimensional nano-structures. However, a simple and low-cost method for fabricating two-dimensional nano-patterns is still a challenge. In this work, a novel simple and low-cost method for fabricating nanoscale mask patterns with controllable line width, based on the ultraviolet exposure is presented. In the experiment, a layer of AZ5214 reversal photoresist was exposed to the ultraviolet light through the photomask with microscale patterns. After the lithography, nanoscale photoresist mesas patterns instead of microscale patterns were produced. The photoresist mesas with 400~800 nm width were fabricated. Meanwhile, by adjusting the parameters of exposure time, various nanoscale dimensions of photoresist mesas can be obtained. The proposed method overcomes limitations of the conventional ultraviolet lithography technology without the need to the expensive nanolithography equipment. Our novel fabrication method should be a useful tool for two-dimensional nano-structures fabrication due to its advantages of simple fabrication process, well controllability, and low-cost.

5.
Nanoscale ; 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31789328

RESUMO

Non-precious metal-based electrocatalysts with high activity and stability for efficient hydrogen evolution reactions are of critical importance for low-cost and large-scale water splitting. In this work, Mo2C-Mo3C2 heteronanowires with significantly enhanced catalytic performance are constructed from an MoAn precursor via an accurate phase transition process. The structure disordering and surface carbon shell of Mo2C-Mo3C2 heteronanowires can be precisely regulated, resulting in an enlarged surface area and a defect-rich catalytic surface. Density functional theory calculations are used to identify the effect of the defective sites and carbon shell on the free energy for hydrogen adsorption in hydrogen evolution. Meanwhile, the synergistic effect between different phases and the introduced lattice defects of Mo2C-Mo3C2 are considered to enhance the HER catalytic performance. The designed catalyst exhibits optimal electrocatalytic activity in both acidic and alkaline media: low overpotentials of 134 and 116 mV at 10 mA cm-2, a small Tafel slope of 64 mV dec-1, and a long-term stability for 5000 cycles. This work will provide new insights into the design of high-efficiency HER catalysts via interfacial engineering at the nanoscale for commercial water splitting.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783655

RESUMO

This paper aims to evaluate the knowledge landscape of the phytoremediation of heavy metals (HMs) by constructing a series of scientific maps and exploring the research hotspots and trends of this field. This study presents a review of 6873 documents published about phytoremediation of HMs in the international context from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) (1989-2018). Two different processing software applications were used, CiteSpace and Bibliometrix. This research field is characterized by high interdisciplinarity and a rapid increase in the subject categories of engineering applications. The basic supporting categories mainly included "Environmental Sciences & Ecology", "Plant Sciences", and "Agriculture". In addition, there has been a trend in recent years to focus on categories such as "Engineering, Multidisciplinary", "Engineering, Chemical", and "Green & Sustainable Science & Technology". "Soil", "hyperaccumulator", "enrichment mechanism/process", and "enhance technology" were found to be the main research hotspots. "Wastewater", "field crops", "genetically engineered microbes/plants", and "agromining" may be the main research trends. Bibliometric and scientometric analysis are useful methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure research hotspots and trends in phytoremediation of HM, and can be widely used to help new researchers to review the available research in a certain research field.

7.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 28(4): 337-342, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792470

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to generate periodic microstructures on pure titanium surface by femtosecond laser-etching after sandblasting, and to assess the physicochemical properties of its surface. METHODS: Twelve pure titanium discs with diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 4 mm were used and divided into 3 groups according to different surface treatment methods: group S (sandblasting surface), group SA (sandblasting surface with acid-etching), and group SL (sandblasting surface with femtosecond laser-etching). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology. X-ray energy spectrum(EDS) was used to observe the surface chemical compositions. Three dimensional surface topography and surface roughness were evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscope (CLSM). The static contact angle was detected by high temperature wetting angle measuring instrument. SPSS19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: SEM and CLSM showed well-distributed periodic and cyclic microstructure which formed second-order roughness composite structure in group SL. EDS analysis showed that the Al element on SL surface decreased (group SL 4.37%group SA 0.32>group S 0). Surface roughness analysis showed that surface roughness significantly increased in group SL [group SL (7.33±0.38)µm>group SA (1.08±0.12)µm>group S (1.05±0.14)µm](P<0.001). Static contact angle analysis showed that the static contact angle of surface was significantly reduced in group SL [group SL (34.4±2.5)°

8.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(5): 649-653, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the molecular mechanism of apoptosis of HL60 cells induced by oncolytic virus Reovirus type 3 (Reo3). METHODS: HL60 cells were infected with Reo3 at different multiplicity of infection (MOI) with the uninfected HL60 cells as control group. After 48 h of infection, the activity of HL60 cells infected with virus at different MOI was detected by CCK8 method to investigate the influence of MOI to cell activity. Simultaneously, the apoptotic rate of HL60 cells was detected by flow cytometry, and the activation level of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and the expression of apoptotic-related protein in HL60 cells were detected by Western blot. Before infection with Reo3 for 48 h, HL60 cells were treated with 2-aminopurine (2-AP), a specific inhibitor of PKR, for 24 h. Afterward, the apoptotic level and expression of apoptotic related proteins were detected. RESULTS: Activity of HL60 cells was obviously inhibited after infected with Reo3 with a MOI of 1 for 48 h. The cell survival rate was (24.333±3.396)% and the apoptotic rate was (29.96±2.06)%. Both rates were all higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Western blot results showed that the expression levels of PKR, p-PKR, Bax, Caspase3 and cleaved Caspase3 in HL60 cells infected with Reo3 were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05), while the expression level of Bcl-2 was lower (P < 0.05). Compared with the group without inhibitor, the apoptotic rate of HL60 cells pretreated with 2-AP decreased (P < 0.05), the phosphorylation level of PKR and the expression level of apoptotic-related protein also decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Oncolytic virus Reo3 could activate PKR in HL60 cells and thus induce apoptosis of HL60 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Orthoreovirus Mamífero 3/fisiologia , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , 2-Aminopurina/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Vírus Oncolíticos/fisiologia , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
9.
Opt Express ; 27(20): 28062-28074, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684565

RESUMO

We demonstrate dual-comb generation from an all-polarization-maintaining dual-color ytterbium (Yb) fiber laser. Two pulse trains with center wavelengths at 1030 nm and 1060 nm respectively are generated within the same laser cavity with a repetition rate around 77 MHz. Dual-color operation is induced using a tunable mechanical spectral filter, which cuts the gain spectrum into two spectral regions that can be independently mode-locked. Spectral overlap of the two pulse trains is achieved outside the laser cavity by amplifying the 1030-nm pulses and broadening them in a nonlinear fiber. Spatially overlapping the two arms on a simple photodiode then generates a down-converted radio frequency comb. The difference in repetition rates between the two pulse trains and hence the line spacing of the down-converted comb can easily be tuned in this setup. This feature allows for a flexible adjustment of the tradeoff between non-aliasing bandwidth vs. measurement time in spectroscopy applications. Furthermore, we show that by fine-tuning the center-wavelengths of the two pulse trains, we are able to shift the down-converted frequency comb along the radio-frequency axis. The usability of this dual-comb setup is demonstrated by measuring the transmission of two different etalons while the laser is completely free-running.

10.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711743

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Because of the increasing use of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) in bilateral Wilms tumor, we sought to review the early postoperative complications associated with NSS. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients who underwent NSS at our institution from 2000 to 2017 was performed. For comparison, a cohort of patients who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN) was also reviewed. Early (30-day) postoperative complications and oncologic outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Fifty-five patients underwent either bilateral (46) NSS or unilateral (9) NSS owing to prior resection or congenital solitary kidney. Fifty-four patients who underwent unilateral RN were also evaluated. Twenty NSS patients (36.4%) experienced 21 postoperative complications, including prolonged urine leak (9), infection (8), transient renal insufficiency (1), and intussusception (3). Seven RN patients (13.0%) experienced surgical complications, including infection (4) and intussusception (3). Average intraoperative blood loss was significantly greater in NSS as compared to RN (483.51 ± 337.92 mL and 278.15 mL ± 390.25, respectively, p < 0.001), as was the incidence of positive tumor resection margins (20 [36.4%] and 12 [22.2%], respectively, (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, prolonged urine leak, intraoperative blood loss, and positive margins were more frequent in patients undergoing NSS as compared to RN. However, the complications were successfully managed, suggesting that an aggressive approach to NSS in patients with bilateral Wilms tumor is safe and appropriate. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III TYPE OF STUDY: Treatment study.

11.
Plant J ; 2019 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736145

RESUMO

Heterosis is the phenomenon in which hybrid progeny exhibits superior traits in comparison with those of their parents. Genomic variations between the two parental genomes may generate epistasis interactions, which is one of the genetic hypotheses explaining heterosis. We postulate that protein-protein interactions specific to F1 hybrids (F1 -specific PPIs) may occur when two parental genomes combine, as the proteome of each parent may supply novel interacting partners. To test our assumption, an inter-subspecies hybrid interactome was simulated by in silico PPI prediction between rice japonica (cultivar Nipponbare) and indica (cultivar 9311). 4,612 F1 -specific PPIs accounting for 20.5% of total PPIs in the hybrid interactome were found. Genes participating in F1 -specific PPIs tend to encode metabolic enzymes and are generally localized in genomic regions harboring metabolic gene clusters. To test the genetic effect of F1 -specific PPIs in heterosis, genomic selection analysis was performed for trait prediction with additive, dominant and epistatic effects separately considered in the model. We found that the removal of SNPs associated with F1 -specific PPIs reduced prediction accuracy when epistatic effects were considered in the model, but no significant changes were observed when additive or dominant effects were considered. In summary, genomic divergence widely dispersed between japonica and indica rice may generate F1 -specific PPIs, part of which may accumulatively contribute to heterosis according to our computational analysis. These candidate F1 -specific PPIs, especially for those involved in metabolic biosynthesis pathways, are worthy of experimental validation when large-scale protein interactome datasets are generated in hybrid rice in the future.

12.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 22(12): 2178-2184, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SAPHO syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) is an autoimmune disease of unknown etiology that seriously affects patients' daily lives. Family-based investigations support genetic contributions toward disease susceptibility. The present study evaluated whether the previously reported autoimmune disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have any genetic overlap with SAPHO syndrome. METHOD: Genomic DNA was obtained from 71 SAPHO patients and 104 healthy controls. The SNP genotypes of each patient were determined with polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Genotype, allele, and haplotype frequencies were analyzed with SPSS software. RESULTS: Three SNP sites (rs10889677 and rs2201841 of interleukin [IL]-23R, and rs2243248 of IL-4) showed significant correlation with the occurrence of SAPHO syndrome in additive and dominant genetic models, while rs7517847 of IL-23R showed substantial correlation with SAPHO in the dominant genetic model. The G allele of rs2243248 (IL-4) was a high risk factor for SAPHO (P = 2.41e-5, odds ratio [OR] =7.79, 95% CI: 2.59-23.3). The haplotype (A-G-C-G-T), comprising 5 SNPs of the IL-23R gene, had a significantly higher frequency in the SAPHO cohort than in the controls (P = .011, OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.12-3.60). CONCLUSION: Variants rs10889677, rs2201841, and rs7517847 of IL-23R, and variant rs2243248 of IL-4, showed strong associations with SAPHO syndrome. Patients carrying the A-G-C-G-T haplotype of IL-23 are significantly more likely to develop SAPHO syndrome.

13.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 213-224, 2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783120

RESUMO

The upregulated α-synuclein (α-syn) and Tau co-occur in methamphetamine (METH) abusers' brains. Here, we designed experiments mainly to investigate whether α-syn and Tau interact in METH exposure. We detected the expression of α-syn, total Tau, and phosphorylation of Tau at Serine 396 (pSer396 Tau) under in vitro and in vivo conditions after METH exposure to determine the co-occurrence of α-syn and Tau. We also explored the effect of α-syn or Tau on one another by silencing and knocking-out one of them in METH treatment. We found that METH increased the α-syn, total Tau, and pSer396 Tau protein level in SH-SY5Y cells, primary cultured neurons, and in mice brains. In additional, reducing α-syn level can relieve and even normalize the pSer396 Tau and total Tau overexpression after treatment of METH. Furthermore, knocking out Tau can effectively inhibit METH induced overexpression of α-syn in mice brains. Finally, knocking out α-syn or Tau can effectively reduce METH-induced neurotoxicity in mice brains. This research could provide potential therapeutic approaches targeting the vicious circle between α-syn and Tau in METH abusers and patients with neurodegenerative disorders.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(23): 7421-7425, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735032

RESUMO

Dislocations are always observed during crystal growth, and it is usually desirable to reduce the dislocation density in high-quality crystals. Here, the annihilation process of the 30° Shockley partial dislocation pairs in CdTe is studied by first-principles calculations. We found that the dislocations can glide relatively easily due to the weak local bonding. Our systematic study of the slipping mechanism of the dislocations suggests that the energy barrier for the annihilation process is low. Band structure calculations reveal that the band bending caused by the charge transfer between the two dislocation cores depends on the core-core distance. A simple linear model is proposed to describe the mechanism of formation of the dislocation pair. More importantly, we demonstrate that hole injection can affect the core structure, increase the mobility, and eventually trigger a spontaneous mutual annihilation, which could be employed as a possible facile way to reduce the dislocation density.

15.
J Diabetes Investig ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758642

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A retrospective study was performed to investigate the clinical characteristics and associated factors for invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Demographic and clinical data were recorded. Associated factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: IFD was diagnosed in 120 patients with T2DM (prevalence, 0.4%). Yeast infection (56/120, 46.7%), including candidiasis (31/56, 55.4%) and cryptococcosis (25/56, 44.6%) was the most common. Urinary tract was mainly involved in candidiasis (12/31, 38.7%). More than half of the cryptococcosis (16/25, 64.0%) presented as pneumonia. Mold infection accounted for 40.8% of the cases, and predominantly involved lung (34/49, 69.4%). Fifteen (12.5%) patients had mixed fungal infection. Candida albicans (24/111, 21.6%), Cryptococcus neoformans (19/111, 17.1%), and Aspergillus fumigatus (14/111, 12.6%) were the leading agents. Co-infection occurred in 58 (48.3%) patients, mainly presenting as pneumonia caused by gram-negative bacteria. The inpatient mortality rate of IFD was 23.3% (28/120). HbA1c level was higher in non-survivors than survivors (8.8±2.5 vs 7.7±2.1 %, P=0.02). Anemia (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.95-6.27, P<0.001), hypoalbuminemia (adjusted OR 5.42, 95% CI 3.14-9.36, P<0.001), and elevated serum creatinine (adjusted OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.07-4.04, P=0.03) were associated with IFD in T2DM patients. CONCLUSIONS: IFD is a life-threatening complication in T2DM patients. Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus are the leading agents. Prolonged hyperglycemia results in unfavorable outcomes. Correction of anemia and hypoalbuminemia might improve prognosis.

16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; : 126784, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761656

RESUMO

A series of heterocyclic pyrimidinedione-based HIV-1 integrase inhibitors was prepared and screened for activity against purified integrase enzyme and/or viruses modified with the following mutations within integrase: Q148R, Q148H/G140S and N155H. These are mutations that result in resistance to the first generation integrase inhibitors raltegravir and elvitegravir. Based on consideration of drug-target interactions, an approach was undertaken to replace the amide moiety of the first generation pyrimidinedione inhibitor with azole heterocycles that could retain potency against these key resistance mutations. An imidazole moiety was found to be the optimal amide substitute and the observed activity was rationalized with the use of calculated properties and modeling. Rat pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of the lead imidazole compounds demonstrated moderate clearance and moderate exposure.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770643

RESUMO

Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation process that is essential for homeostasis. As a cell steward, autophagy is thought to be a process that may have evolved to combat intracellular pathogens. However, some virus can subvert or utilize autophagy-related membrane structures to increase viral replication. The red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is a fish pathogen which leads to disastrous viral nervous necrosis in larvae and juvenile groupers and other marine fishes. To better comprehend the pathogenesis and replication mechanism of RGNNV, we investigated the relationship between RGNNV and autophagy. Here, we demonstrated that RGNNV induced autophagy in grouper spleen (GS) cells, as the significant increase in ultrastructural autophagosome-like vesicles, fluorescent punctate pattern of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II. Additionally, ultraviolet-inactivated RGNNV and the capsid protein also triggered autophagy. Enhancement of autophagy contributed to RGNNV replication, whereas blocked autophagy decreased RGNNV replication. Moreover, impeded fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes also reduced RGNNV replication, indicating that RGNNV utilized the different steps of autophagy pathway to facilitate viral replication. The further study showed that RGNNV induced autophagy through activating the phosphorylation of eIF2α and inhibiting the phosphorylation of mTOR. These results will assist the search for novel drugs targets and vaccine design against RGNNV from the perspective of downregulating autophagy.

19.
Science ; 366(6469): 1095-1098, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780551

RESUMO

The creation of nanostructures with precise chemistries on material surfaces is of importance in a wide variety of areas such as lithography, superhydrophobicity, and cell adhesion. We describe a platform for surface functionalization that involves the fabrication of cylindrical micellar brushes on a silicon wafer through seeded growth of crystallizable block copolymers at the termini of immobilized, surface-confined crystallite seeds. The density, length, and coronal chemistry of the micellar brushes can be precisely tuned, and post-growth decoration with nanoparticles enables applications in catalysis and antibacterial surface modification. The micellar brushes can also be grown on ultrathin two-dimensional materials such as graphene oxide nanosheets and further assembled into a membrane for the separation of oil-in-water emulsions and gold nanoparticles.

20.
J Recept Signal Transduct Res ; : 1-9, 2019 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782334

RESUMO

Context: Cell death and inflammation response have been found to the primary features of acute kidney injury.Objective: The aim of our study is to figure out the molecular mechanism by which hypoxia-reoxygenation injury affects the viability of tubular cell death.Materials and methods: HK2 cells were treated with hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in vitro. Pathway agonist was added into the medium of HK2 cell to activate MAPK-EEK-CREB axis.Results: Hypoxia-reoxygenation injury reduced HK2 cell viability and increased cell apoptosis rate in vitro. Besides, inflammation response has been found to be induced by hypoxia-reoxygenation injury in HK2 cells in vitro. In addition, MAPK-ERK-CREB pathway was deactivated during hypoxia-reoxygenation injury. Interestingly, activation of MAPK-ERK-CREB pathway could attenuate hypoxia-reoxygenation injury-mediated HK2 cell apoptosis and inflammation. Mechanistically, MAPK-ERK-CREB pathway activation upregulated the transcription of anti-apoptotic genes and reduced the levels of pro-apoptotic factors under hypoxia-reoxygenation injury.Conclusions: Our results report a novel signaling pathway responsible for acute kidney injury-related tubular cell death. Activation of MAPK-ERK-CREB signaling could protect tubular cell against hypoxia-reoxygenation-related cell apoptosis and inflammation response.

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