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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18570, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535721

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias have become the fifth leading cause of death worldwide. Accurate early detection of the disease and its precursor, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), is crucial to alleviate the burden on the healthcare system. While most of the existing work in the literature applied neural networks directly together with several data pre-processing techniques, we proposed in this paper a screening system that is to perform classification based on automatic processing of the transcripts of speeches from the subjects undertaking a neuropsychological test. Our system is also shown applicable to different datasets and languages, suggesting that our system holds a high potential to be deployed widely in hospitals across regions. We conducted comprehensive experiments on two different languages datasets, the Pitt dataset and the NTUHV dataset, to validate our study. The results showed that our proposed system significantly outperformed the previous works on both datasets, with the score of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of classifying AD and healthy control (HC) being as high as 0.92 on the Pitt dataset and 0.97 on the NTUHV dataset. The performance on classifying MCI and HC remained promising, with the AUROC being 0.83 on the Pitt dataset and 0.88 on the NTUHV dataset.

2.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 211: 106406, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Given that the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, a method to accurately distinguish COVID-19 from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is urgently needed. However, the spatial uncertainty and morphological diversity of COVID-19 lesions in the lungs, and subtle differences with respect to CAP, make differential diagnosis non-trivial. METHODS: We propose a deep represented multiple instance learning (DR-MIL) method to fulfill this task. A 3D volumetric CT scan of one patient is treated as one bag and ten CT slices are selected as the initial instances. For each instance, deep features are extracted from the pre-trained ResNet-50 with fine-tuning and represented as one deep represented instance score (DRIS). Each bag with a DRIS for each initial instance is then input into a citation k-nearest neighbor search to generate the final prediction. A total of 141 COVID-19 and 100 CAP CT scans were used. The performance of DR-MIL is compared with other potential strategies and state-of-the-art models. RESULTS: DR-MIL displayed an accuracy of 95% and an area under curve of 0.943, which were superior to those observed for comparable methods. COVID-19 and CAP exhibited significant differences in both the DRIS and the spatial pattern of lesions (p<0.001). As a means of content-based image retrieval, DR-MIL can identify images used as key instances, references, and citers for visual interpretation. CONCLUSIONS: DR-MIL can effectively represent the deep characteristics of COVID-19 lesions in CT images and accurately distinguish COVID-19 from CAP in a weakly supervised manner. The resulting DRIS is a useful supplement to visual interpretation of the spatial pattern of lesions when screening for COVID-19.

3.
Hypertension ; : HYPERTENSIONAHA12117300, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34538102

RESUMO

Hypertension in adolescents has attracted increasing attention. However, large, well-designed studies accurately demonstrating epidemiological characteristics of adolescent hypertension remain insufficient. We, therefore, conducted a population-based multicenter study with repeated blood pressure visits to offer precise prevalence of it. We randomly recruited 42 025 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in 6 centers throughout China from 2018 to 2019. The initial hypertension was estimated in all centers through one blood pressure measurement visit. Confirmed hypertension was evaluated in 3 blood pressure visits in 2 of 6 centers including 16 220 subjects. Hypertension was defined using American and Chinese guidelines and standardized by sex and age using 2010 China population census data. Standardized prevalence of initial and confirmed hypertension were 18.6% (95% CI, 17.3%-20.0%) and 5.9% (95% CI, 4.7%-7.2%) using 2017 American Association Pediatrics hypertension guidelines, respectively and which were 24.5% (95% CI, 23.0%-25.9%) and 8.8% (95% CI, 7.3%-10.3%) using 2018 Chinese hypertension guidelines. Male (odds ratio [OR], 1.275 [95% CI, 1.070-1.520]), parental hypertension history (OR, 1.387 [95% CI, 1.159-1.660]), higher heart rate (OR, 1.043 [95% CI, 1.037-1.049]), higher waist circumference (OR, 1.036 [95% CI, 1.027-1.046]), and adiposity indexes including overweight (OR, 2.211 [95% CI, 1.781-2.745]), and obesity (OR, 3.085 [95% CI, 2.330-4.084]) were identified as risk factors. In conclusion, the prevalence of hypertension was quite high evaluated by both guidelines with several risk factors, and a single blood pressure measurement visit leads to an overestimation of hypertension prevalence among adolescents.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3165-3170, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467709

RESUMO

Nucleic acid aptamers, broad-spectrum target-specific single-stranded oligonucleotides, serve as molecules in targeted therapy, targeted delivery and disease diagnosis for the treatment of tumor or microbial infection and clinical detection. Due to the existence of components in the use of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the target is difficult to concentrate and the specificity of treatment is poor. The effective components of TCM are toxic components, so a highly sensitive detection method is urgently needed to reduce the toxicity problem at the same time. The combined application of TCM and modern medical treatment strategy are difficult and cannot improve the therapeutic effect. Aptamers, advantageous in biosensors, aptamer-nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, and aptamer-siRNA chimeras, are expected to connect Chinese medicinals with nanotechnology, diagnostic technology and combined therapies. We summarized the preparation, screening, and modification techniques of nucleic acid aptamers and the biomedical applications and advantages in therapy, targeting, and diagnosis, aiming at providing a reference for the in-depth research and development in TCM.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Ácidos Nucleicos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , RNA Interferente Pequeno
5.
J Periodontal Res ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of diverse anti-rheumatic agents on the periodontal condition and to provide clinical medication guidance for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis. BACKGROUND: In recent years, the correlation between RA and periodontitis has become a hot research topic, but no medication recommendations for patients with RA and periodontitis are available at present. METHODS: The protocol of this review was registered in advance with PROSPERO (CRD42021248827). Electronic search and manual searches up to March 20, 2021 were conducted. The inclusion criteria for the studies were as follows: included patients diagnosed with periodontitis and RA submitted to anti-rheumatic agent therapy; with a control group receiving no anti-rheumatic agent therapy; with outcomes including at least one periodontal parameter. Probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were pooled using weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while gingival index (GI)/modified gingival index (MGI) was analyzed by standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred and seventy-eight studies potentially related to the aim of this review were screened, but only 463 patients from 14 studies were included in the qualitative analysis, and 146 patients from 4 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Statistically significant reductions were observed among the subjects who received anti-rheumatic agents for PD [WMD = -0.20; 95% CI (-0.33, -0.07); effect p = .003; I2  = 50%; p = .11], CAL [WMD = -0.4; 95% CI (-0.66, -0.15); effect p = .002; I2  = 57%; p = .07] and GI/MGI [SMD = -0.61;95% CI (-0.94, -0.27; effect p = .0004; I2  = 26%; p = .25]. Consistent with the above results, this systematic review produced promising results that PD, CAL, GI/MGI, and bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased when patients with RA and periodontitis were treated with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (csDMARDs), anti-B lymphocyte agents, anti-IL-6R agents, or JAK inhibitors. PD and CAL declined after the administration of anti-TNF-α agents; most studies reported decreased GI/MGI and BOP, while 2 studies reported increased GI/MGI and BOP. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that csDMARDs, anti-B lymphocyte agents, anti-IL-6R agents, anti-TNF-α agents, and JAK inhibitors had potential positive effects in improving the periodontal condition of patients with RA and periodontitis. However, future research is needed to elucidate whether anti-TNF-α agents have a side effect of increased gingival inflammation.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523667

RESUMO

Previous studies reported that Agrimonia pilosa (AP) Ledeb possessed diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumor activities. However, the effect of AP on ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effect and mechanisms of AP on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The potential constituents of AP were investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS). A total of 13 compounds were recognized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS chromatogram. Furthermore, a network pharmacology approach revealed that there are 297 candidate targets of UC and 549 common targets for the 13 active ingredients of AP. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that AP might have a protective effect on UC through the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling pathways. Subsequent experimental validation in a DSS-induced colitis model revealed that AP alleviated the severity of DSS-induced colitis, reduced the production of proinflammatory factors, and protected against the loss of intestinal integrity. Moreover, AP inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In conclusion, AP ameliorated DSS-induced colitis through suppressing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB signaling pathways.

7.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523794

RESUMO

Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone, which is closely associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has potential preventive and therapeutic significance. In the present study, we explored the relationship between adiponectin and circadian rhythm disorder in AD, the effect of adiponectin on the abnormal expression of Bmal1 mRNA/protein induced by amyloid-ß protein 31-35 (Aß31-35), and the underlying mechanism of action. We found that adiponectin-knockout mice exhibited amyloid-ß deposition, circadian rhythm disorders and abnormal expression of Bmal1. Adiponectin ameliorated the abnormal expression of the Bmal1 mRNA/protein caused by Aß31-35 by inhibiting the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß). These results suggest that adiponectin deficiency could induce circadian rhythm disorders and abnormal expression of the Bmal1 mRNA/protein, whilst exogenous administration of adiponectin may improve Aß31-35-induced abnormal expression of Bmal1 by inhibiting the activity of GSK3ß, thus providing a novel idea for the treatment of AD.

8.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491258

RESUMO

We report herein the first example of the N3 radical-mediated azidosulfonylation of alkynes, affording the ß-azidovinyl sulfone products with a broad substrate scope, excellent functional group compatibility, and high yield. DFT calculations suggest that the mechanism of the reaction proceeds through an unprecedented sequential N3 radical addition and sulfonyl radical coupling pathway.

9.
J Org Chem ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478300

RESUMO

Copper-catalyzed conjugate addition is a classic method for forming new carbon-carbon bonds. However, copper has never showed catalytic activity for umpolung carbanions in hydrazone chemistry. Herein, we report a facile conjugate addition of hydrazone catalyzed by readily available copper complexes at room temperature. The employment of mesitylcopper(I) and electron-rich phosphine bidentate ligand is a key factor affecting reactivity. The reaction allows various aromatic hydrazones to react with diverse conjugated compounds to produce 1,4-adducts in yields of about 20 to 99%.

10.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 606(Pt 2): 1128-1139, 2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487933

RESUMO

Morphology optimization is an effective strategy to take full advantage of interface polarization for the improvement of electromagnetic wave attenuation capability. Herein, a general route was proposed to produce the flower-like core@shell structured MoS2-based nanocomposites through a simple hydrothermal process. Through the in-situ hydrothermal reaction between the Mo and S sources on the surface of CoNi nanoparticles, flower-like core@shell structured CoNi2S4/Co9S8@MoS2 nanocomposites could be successfully synthesized. By regulating the hydrothermal temperature, the flower-like geometrical morphology of samples could be effectively optimized, and the as-prepared sample (S2) synthesized at 200 °C displayed very excellent flower-like morphology compared to the samples (S1 and S3) obtained at 180 and 220 °C. Owing to the excellent interface polarization effect, the as-prepared S2 presented the evidently superior comprehensive microwave absorption properties in terms of strong aborption capability, wide absorption bandwidth and thin matching thicknesses compared to those of S1 and S3. The as-prepared core@shell structured CoNi2S4/Co9S8@MoS2 sample with very excellent flower-like morphology simultaneously displayed the minimal reflection loss of -50.61 dB with the matching thickness of 2.98 mm, and the effective absorption bandwidth of 8.40 GHz with the matching thickness of 2.36 mm. Therefore, we provided a general route for the production of flower-like core@shell structured MoS2-based nanocomposites, which could make the best of interface polarization to develop high-efficiency microwave absorbers.

11.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(35): 7690-7694, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524340

RESUMO

A bifunctional cinchona squaramide catalyzed enantioselective aza-Friedel-Crafts reaction between 2-naphthols and benzothiazolimines has been developed, and a series of chiral 2'-aminobenzothiazolomethyl naphthols with potential antiproliferative and anthelmintic activities have been successfully and effectively prepared in good to excellent yields (up to 98%) with excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) even in a scale-up preparation under mild conditions.

12.
Autoimmunity ; : 1-11, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533429

RESUMO

Exosomes isolated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) had shown beneficial effect on acute lung injury (ALI). However, the effective components in MSC-derived exosomes need further investigation. ALI mice model was established by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. In vitro inflammatory model was established by LPS stimulation of MLE-12 cells. The cell proliferation was evaluated by EdU assay. TUNEL and Annexin V/PI were applied to evaluate the apoptosis of tissue and cell respectively. HE staining was performed to evaluate the lung injury. Transmission electronic microscope was used to observe isolated exosomes. Level of cytokines, MDA, KGF were determined by ELISA kit. Direct interaction of miR-132-3p and TRAF6 were verified by dual luciferase assay. The level of mRNA or proteins were determined by qRT-PCR or western blots respectively. TRAF6 was upregulated while miR-132-3p was downregulated in LPS-stimulated ALI model. MiR-132-3p negatively regulated TRAF6 by direct binding. MiR-132-3p potentiated proliferation and suppressed apoptosis of LPS-induced MLE-12 cells at least partly dependent on targeting TRAF6. Treatment of exosome alleviated the LPS-induced ALI in mice and LPS-induced inflammatory response in MLE-12 cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-132-3p promoted the protective effect of exosomes in LPS-induced MLE-12 cells injury and LPS-induced ALI. Mechanically, it was suggested that miR-132-3p inactivated PI3K/Akt signalling via targeting TRAF6. In the present study, our results indicated that miR-132-3p mediated protective effect of MSC-derived exosomes on LPS-induced ALI. Exosomal miR-132-3p ameliorated LPS-induced ALI via targeting TRAF6 and inactivating PI3K/Akt signalling.

13.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 710240, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489866

RESUMO

Background: The triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index) is a valuable marker for predicting adverse cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, for nondiabetic patients, whether the TyG index is independently related to poor prognosis remains unclear. This cohort study assessed the association of the TyG index with future cardiovascular risk in nondiabetic subjects who received percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: We consecutively enrolled 5,489 nondiabetic patients who underwent PCI. All experimental subjects were divided into three groups based on their TyG index, which was determined by the equation ln (fasting triglyceride (mg/dl) × fasting blood glucose (mg/dl)/2). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, and target vessel revascularization (TVR). Results: A total of 386 MACCE were documented during a median 29-month follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier survival results indicated that among the three groups, there was no obvious difference in any endpoints. Further Cox regression analyses suggested that the TyG index was not independently related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes for nondiabetic patients who underwent PCI (HR: 0.77, 95% CI 0.56-1.16, P = 0.210 for MACCE). Subgroup analysis suggested that the TyG index was independently relevant to MACCE for patients with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lower than 1.8 mmol/L. Conclusion: The TyG index is not an effective predictive factor for adverse cardiovascular prognosis in nondiabetic patients who underwent PCI. However, in subjects with LDL-C lower than 1.8mmol/L, it may predict future cardiovascular risk.

14.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility of automatic machine learning (autoML) based on native T1 mapping to predict late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) status in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: Ninety-one HCM patients and 44 healthy controls who underwent cardiovascular MRI were enrolled. The native T1 maps of HCM patients were classified as LGE ( +) or LGE (-) based on location-matched LGE images. An autoML pipeline was implemented using the tree-based pipeline optimization tool (TPOT) for 3 binary classifications: LGE ( +) and LGE (-), LGE (-) and control, and HCM and control. TPOT modeling was repeated 10 times to obtain the optimal model for each classification. The diagnostic performance of the best models by slice and by case was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and microaveraged area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS: Ten prediction models were generated by TPOT for each of the 3 binary classifications. The diagnostic accuracy obtained with the best pipeline in detecting LGE status in the testing cohort of HCM patients was 0.80 by slice and 0.79 by case. In addition, the TPOT model also showed discriminability between LGE (-) patients and control (accuracy: 0.77 by slice; 0.78 by case) and for all HCM patients and controls (accuracy: 0.88 for both). CONCLUSIONS: Native T1 map analysis based on autoML correlates with LGE ( +) or (-) status. The TPOT machine learning algorithm could be a promising method for predicting myocardial fibrosis, as reflected by the presence of LGE in HCM patients without the need for late contrast-enhanced MRI sequences. KEY POINTS: • The tree-based pipeline optimization tool (TPOT) is a machine learning algorithm that could help predict late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) status in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. • The TPOT could serve as an adjuvant method to detect LGE by using information from native T1 maps, thus avoiding the need for contrast agent. • The TPOT also detects native T1 map alterations in LGE-negative patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507312

RESUMO

Time resolved pump and probe acoustics and first-principles calculations were employed to assess elastic properties of the TbMnO3perovskite manganite having orthorhombic symmetry. Measuring sound velocities of bulk longitudinal and shear acoustic waves propagating along at least two different directions in the high symmetry planes (100), (010) and (001), provided a powerful mean to selectively determine the six diagonal elastic constants C11= 227 GPa, C22= 349 GPa, C33= 274 GPa, C44= 71 GPa, C55= 57 GPa, C66= 62 GPa. Among the three remaining off-diagonal ones, C23= 103 GPa was determined with a bissectrice direction. Density functional theory calculations with colinear spin-polarized provided complementary insights on their optical, elastic and magnetoelastic properties.

16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1626, 2021 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repeat abortion is a significant public health problem in China. International knowledge about repeat abortion and its associated factors in Chinese women is scarce. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of repeat abortion among women seeking abortion services with unintended pregnancies in northwestern China and to identify factors associated with the repeat abortion from both two perspectives of abortion seekers themselves and their sexual partners. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 1st to May 31st, 2020, in 90 medical institutions in Xi'an, the largest city in northwestern China. All women seeking abortions within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy were invited to participate in this survey; however, only those abortion seekers with unintended pregnancies were extracted and included in this study. Pearson's chi-squared tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and binary logistic regression analysis were performed. RESULTS: Of 3397 abortion seekers, 56.6% (1924) were undergoing repeat abortions. Participants who were older than 30 years (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.08-1.73 for 31-35 years; 1.82, 1.29-2.57 for ≥36 years), received a low-level education (1.86, 1.42-2.43 for ≤senior high school; 1.46, 1.17-1.83 for junior college), were jobless (2.46, 1.18-5.13), had one child (1.54, 1.10-2.17), had a general (1.60, 1.28-1.98) or no (2.51, 2.02-3.11) cognition of possible adverse health effects of having abortions, and had used contraception at the time of conception, i.e., condoms (1.33, 1.09-1.61), withdrawal (1.43, 1.12-1.84), and emergency measures (1.48, 1.09-1.99) were more likely to undergo a repeat abortion. Besides, participants whose sexual partners were older than 30 years (1.33, 1.06-1.68 for 31-35 years; 2.13, 1.56-2.91 for ≥36 years), attained a low-level education (1.66, 1.28-2.15 for ≤senior high school; 1.38, 1.10-1.74 for junior college), received a high-level monthly income (1.34, 1.08-1.65 for ≥6001 Yuan), and had a weak or very weak willingness to use contraception (6.84, 2.42-19.33) were more likely to have a repeat abortion. CONCLUSIONS: The study findings highlight the problem of repeat abortion in China and suggest the need for government and civil society to increase efforts to reduce the risks of unintended pregnancy and repeat abortion in China. One approach may be to offer better access to reproductive health and contraception knowledge to women and their sexual partners and to promote their correct, consistent, and effective contraception practice.


Assuntos
Aspirantes a Aborto , Aborto Induzido , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Anticoncepção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
17.
Arch Virol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524537

RESUMO

Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the etiological agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The original prevalent genotype, PCV2a, has been replaced by genotypes 2b and 2d in the swine population worldwide. The Rep protein is critical for viral replication. Comparison of a large number of Rep protein amino acid (aa) sequences showed that three sites distinguish genotype 2b from genotype 2d. In order to analyze the effect of exchanging the amino acids (asparagine and serine) at position 6 in the Rep proteins of PCV2b and PCV2d, two wild-type and two mutant viruses were rescued. Real-time quantitative PCR and a one-step growth curve were used to determine the viral load to assess the replication ability of the rescued viruses. The results showed that there was no significant difference in in vitro performance between the wild-type PCV2b and the mutated virus, while the mutation of PCV2d enhanced viral replication.

18.
IEEE Trans Image Process ; 30: 7856-7866, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524959

RESUMO

Human pose transfer has been becoming one of the emerging research topics in recent years. However, state-of-the-art results are still far from satisfactory. One main reason is that these end-to-end methods are often blindly trained without the semantic understanding of its content. In this paper, we propose a novel method for human pose transfer with consideration of the semantic part-based representation of a human. In particular, we propose to segment the human body into multiple parts, and each of them represents a semantic region of a human. With the proposed part-based layer generators, a high-quality result is guaranteed for each local semantic region. We design a three-stage hierarchical framework to fuse local representations into the final result in a coarse-to-fine manner, which provides adaptive attention for global consistency and local details, respectively. Via exploiting spatial guidance from 3D human model through the framework, our method can naturally handle the ambiguity of self-occlusions which always causes artifacts in previous methods. With semantic-aware and spatial-aware representations, our method outperforms previous approaches quantitatively and qualitatively in better handling self-occlusions, fine detail preservation/synthesis and a higher resolution result.

19.
Neural Netw ; 144: 90-100, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478941

RESUMO

Transforming neural activities into language is revolutionary for human-computer interaction as well as functional restoration of aphasia. Present rapid development of artificial intelligence makes it feasible to decode the neural signals of human visual activities. In this paper, a novel Progressive Transfer Language Decoding Model (PT-LDM) is proposed to decode visual fMRI signals into phrases or sentences when natural images are being watched. The PT-LDM consists of an image-encoder, a fMRI encoder and a language-decoder. The results showed that phrases and sentences were successfully generated from visual activities. Similarity analysis showed that three often-used evaluation indexes BLEU, ROUGE and CIDEr reached 0.182, 0.197 and 0.680 averagely between the generated texts and the corresponding annotated texts in the testing set respectively, significantly higher than the baseline. Moreover, we found that higher visual areas usually had better performance than lower visual areas and the contribution curve of visual response patterns in language decoding varied at successively different time points. Our findings demonstrate that the neural representations elicited in visual cortices when scenes are being viewed have already contained semantic information that can be utilized to generate human language. Our study shows potential application of language-based brain-machine interfaces in the future, especially for assisting aphasics in communicating more efficiently with fMRI signals.

20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166266, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481869

RESUMO

Sexual dimorphism exists in the onset and development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), but its potential pathological mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined sex-specific changes in the gut microbiome and host metabolome of T1D mice via 16S rRNA gene sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach, and aimed to investigate potential mechanism of the gut microbiota-host metabolic interaction in the sexual dimorphism of T1D. Our results demonstrate that female mice had a greater shift in the gut microbiota than male mice during the development of T1D; however, host metabolome was more susceptible to T1D in male mice. The correlation network analysis indicates that T1D-induced host metabolic changes may be regulated by the gut microbiota in a sex-specific manner, mainly involving short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) metabolism, energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and choline metabolism. Therefore, our study suggests that sex-dependent "gut microbiota-host metabolism axis" may be implicated in the sexual dimorphism of T1D, and the link between microbes and metabolites might contribute to the prevention and treatment of T1D.

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