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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12738, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484998

RESUMO

Previous evaluation of brain function in schizophrenia has focused on standard experimental tasks, with cerebral response to natural stimuli less clear. This study employed inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis to investigate the neural basis of humor processing during free viewing of comedy movies in patients with schizophrenia. We recruited 29 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 29 healthy, age- and sex-matched controls. Each participant underwent fMRI scanning during two viewings of three comedy movie clips. The ISC map from each participant pair within each population group and each movie viewing was separately derived. The significance of ISC within a group and between two groups were assessed by bootstrapping. The ISC map from each patient pair were also correlated with the product of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) rating between the same participant pair in schizophrenia patients. Schizophrenia patients showed significant ISC in bilateral lateraloccipital, bilateral superior frontal, left supramarginal, and right lateralorbiofrontal cortices. Compared with the controls, the schizophrenia group exhibited significantly lower ISC in the left superior temporal sulcus, bilateral supramarginal, and bilateral inferiorparietal cortices. Higher clinical severity (higher total PANSS rating) was associated with lower ISC in the middle frontal and middle temporal regions, and also higher ISC in the visual cortex, inferior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate. The findings indicated that patients with schizophrenia are characterized by lower ISC in a frontal parietal network while viewing comedy film clips, which implicated a deficit in the cognitive component of humor processing. The lower synchronization in parts of the frontal parietal network also correlated with symptom severity.

2.
Nat Cell Biol ; 21(9): 1164-1172, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481796

RESUMO

Single-cell measurement of chromatin states, including histone modifications and non-histone protein binding, remains challenging. Here, we present a low-cost, efficient, simultaneous indexing and tagmentation-based ChIP-seq (itChIP-seq) method, compatible with both low cellular input and single cells for profiling chromatin states. itChIP combines chromatin opening, simultaneous cellular indexing and chromatin tagmentation within a single tube, enabling the processing of samples from tens of single cells to, more commonly, thousands of single cells per assay. We demonstrate that single-cell itChIP-seq (sc-itChIP-seq) yields ~9,000 unique reads per cell. Using sc-itChIP-seq to profile H3K27ac, we sufficiently capture the earliest epigenetic priming event during the cell fate transition from naive to primed pluripotency, and reveal the basis for cell-type specific enhancer usage during the differentiation of bipotent cardiac progenitor cells into endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Our results demonstrate that itChIP is a widely applicable technology for single-cell chromatin profiling of epigenetically heterogeneous cell populations in many biological processes.

3.
BMJ Open ; 9(8): e025656, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473610

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of vWF to detect clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH) and severe portal hypertension (SPH). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were screened up to 5 April 2018. Studies related to the diagnostic performance of vWF to detect CSPH and/or SPH with HVPG as the reference standard were included. Study quality was assessed by using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies scale. Two authors independently used a standardised form to extract data. OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was the correlation coefficient between vWF and HVPG. The secondary outcome was the diagnostic performance of vWF to detect CSPH or SPH. RESULTS: A total of six articles involving 994 patients were included in this study. Five of the included articles were used to stratify the results for the correlation coefficient, three for the diagnostic performance of CSPH and two for SPH. The pooled correlation coefficient based on the random effects model was 0.54 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.69), thus suggesting a moderate correlation between vWF and HVPG. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve of vWF for CSPH detection were 82% (95% CI 78 to 86), 76% (95% CI 68 to 83) and 0.87 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.94), respectively. Regarding the ability of vWF to detect SPH, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 86% (95% CI 80 to 90) and 75% (95% CI 66 to 83), respectively. These results supported the satisfactory diagnostic performance of vWF for CSPH and SPH detection. CONCLUSIONS: vWF, as a novel biomarker, has a moderate correlation with HVPG and shows a satisfactory performance for the diagnosis of CSPH and SPH in patients with cirrhosis.

4.
Chemistry ; 2019 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495994

RESUMO

Sodium-ion batteries have attracted more interest as an alternative to Lithium-ion batteries because of the abundance and cost effectiveness. However, searching for suitable anode materials with high-rate and stable cycling performance is still needed to promote their practical application. Herein, three-dimensional Na2Ti3O7 nanowire arrays with enriched surface vacancies endowed by phosphorus doping are reported. When evaluated as anodes for sodium-ion batteries, the electrode delivers a high specific capacity of 290 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability (50 mAh g-1 at 20 C), and stable cycling capability (98% capacity retention over 3100 cycles at 20 C). The superior electrochemical performance is attributed to the synergistic effects of the unique nanowire arrays and phosphorus doping. The rational structures can provide convenient channels to facilitate ions/electrons transport and improve the capacitive contributions. Moreover, the phosphorus-doping-induced surface vacancies not only provide more active sites but also improve the intrinsic electrical conductivity of Na2Ti3O7, which will enable the electrode materials with excellent sodium storage performance. This work may provide an effective strategy for the synthesis of other anode materials with fast electrochemical reaction kinetics and good sodium storage performance.

5.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487954

RESUMO

Dual-functional polymeric system combining shape memory with self-healing properties has attracted increasingly interests of researchers, as both of these properties are intelligent and promising characteristics. Moreover, shape memory polymer that functions at human body temperature (37 °C) are desirable because of their potential applications in biomedical field. Herein, we designed a polymer network with a permanent covalent crosslinking and abundant weak hydrogen bonds. The former introduces elasticity responsible and maintain the permanent shape, and the latter contributes to the temporary shape via network rearrangement. The obtained PDMS-COO-E polymer films exhibit excellent mechanical properties and the capability to efficiently self-heal for 6 h at room temperature. Furthermore, the samples turn from a viscous state into an elastic state at 37 °C. Therefore, this polymer has shape memory effects triggered by body temperature. This unique material will have a wide range of applications in many fields, containing wearable electronics, biomedical devices, and 4D printing.

6.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have played important roles in the regulation of gene expression in many cancers, but their roles in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the potential ESCC-specific key miRNAs from a large sample dataset in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). METHODS: Integrative bioinformatics analysis was used to identify key ESCC-specific miRNAs related to the ESCC patients' tumor histological grade and lymphatic metastasis from TCGA. Next, these key miRNA potential gene regulatory functions and relationships with ESCC patients' clinical characteristics and overall survival were analyzed. Finally, three key miRNAs were selected randomly and quantificational real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate in 51 newly diagnosed ESCC patients' tissues samples (collected from Nov. 2017 to Feb. 2019, in Wuwei, China) whether the bioinformatics analyses results were reliable and valid. Two-tailed Student's t test, Pearson chi-squared test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used in this study. RESULTS: Thirty-five ESCC-specific miRNAs from TCGA database were investigated (fold-change > 2.0, P < 0.05), and 28 participated in the miRNAs-mRNAs co-expression network construction, while 17 were related with ESCC patients' tumor histological grade, TNM stage, and lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there were six miRNAs (including miR-200b-3p, miR-31-5p, miR-15b-5p, miR-141-3p, miR-135b-5p, and miR-195-5p) those were correlated with overall survival of ESCC patient (log-rank, P < 0.05). MiR-135b-5p, miR-15b-5p, and miR-195-5p were selected for verification of the expression levels in 51 ESCC patients' tissue samples by using qRT-PCR. We found that the fold-changes between qRT-PCR and TCGA were completely consistent. The results also suggested that miR-135b-5p, miR-15b-5p, and miR-195-5p were significantly correlated with tumor differentiation degrees (P < 0.05), miR-195-5p was significantly correlated with tumor TNM stage (P < 0.05), and miR-135b-5p was significantly correlated with lymph-node metastasis (P < 0.05). MiR-135b-5p, miR-15b-5p, and miR-195-5p expression levels, ESCC patient clinical features association analysis results and the aforementioned TCGA bioinformatics analyses were similar. CONCLUSION: This study identified key ESCC-related miRNAs. The key miRNAs are worthy of further investigation as potential novel biomarkers for diagnosis, classification, and prognosis of ESCC.

7.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(5)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that a significant association exists between prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and the offspring's attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) risk. However, this association has largely been unexplored among the Asian population, generally, and the Taiwanese population, specifically. METHODS: In our study, 950 study pairs (children with ADHD [ICD-9-CM code: 314] and their mothers) and 3,800 control pairs (children without ADHD and their mothers) matched by demographic characteristics were identified between 1998 and 2008 from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database. Maternal use of acetaminophen was assessed in the first trimester, second trimester, and third trimester of pregnancy and over the period from 3 months before pregnancy to the date of last menstrual cycle. RESULTS: Logistic regression analysis with adjustments for demographic data, gestational infections, comorbid perinatal conditions, and maternal mental health disorders indicated that exposure to acetaminophen in the second trimester (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19; 95% CI, 1.00-1.40), both the first and second trimesters (OR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.00-1.64), or in any trimester (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.42) was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in offspring. Sensitivity analysis excluding gestational infections and maternal mental health disorders confirmed this association (OR = 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04-1.69). CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in offspring, regardless of gestational infections and maternal mental health disorders. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanisms by which prenatal exposure to acetaminophen leads to neurodevelopmental risks.

8.
Neuroscience ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487541

RESUMO

JLX001, a novel compound with similar structure with cyclovirobuxine D (CVB-D), has been proved to exert therapeutical effects on permanent focal cerebral ischemia. However, the protective effects of JLX001 on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and its anti-apoptotic effects have not been reported. We investigated the efficacy of JLX001 in two pharmacodynamic tests (pre-treatment test and post-treatment) with rats subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R). The pharmacodynamic tests demonstrated that JLX001 ameliorated I/R injury by reducing infarct sizes and brain edema. The results of Morris water maze, neurological scores, cylinder test and posture reflex test implied that JLX001 improved the learning, memory and motor ability after MCAO/R in the long term. Anti-apoptotic effects of JLX001 and its regulation of cytosolic c-Jun N-terminal Kinases (JNKs) signal pathway were confirmed in vivo by co-immunofluorescence staining and western immunoblotting. Furthermore, primary cortical neuron cultures were prepared and exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) for in vitro studies. Cytotoxicity test and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) test showed that JLX001 enhanced cell survival rate and maintained MMP. Flow cytometry and TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining demonstrated the anti-apoptotic effects of JLX001 in vitro. Likewise, JLX001 regulated JNK signal pathway in vivo, which was also confirmed by western immunoblotting. Collectively, this study presents the first evidence that JLX001 exerted protective effects against I/R injury by reducing neuronal apoptosis via down-regulating JNK signaling pathway.

9.
Med Biol Eng Comput ; 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502181

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate the synergetic effect of the pelvic rotation and X-ray offset on the radiographic anteversion/inclination (RA/RI) angles of the acetabular cup using a mathematical model. A cone model for establishing the spatial relationship between a three-dimensional (3D) circle and its two-dimensional (2D) elliptical projection is utilized to quantify the relationship between the 3D RA/RI angles of the cup and their 2D counterparts with different types of pelvic rotations in pelvic/hip anteroposterior radiographs. The results reveal that the effect of inlet/outlet views on the 2D RA angle is similar to that of iliac/obturator views. The permissible ranges of pelvic rotation for the 2D RA angle with an acceptable bias are the 3D space formed by the limits of triple axial rotations. For a specified acceptable bias of the 2D RA angle, these ranges are almost equal between pelvic and hip radiographs. The combined inlet/obturator or outlet/iliac views can maintain the 2D RA angle of a pelvic radiograph within the same range of acceptable bias as that of a hip radiograph. For a 2D RA angle with an acceptable bias, the permissible range of pelvic rotation needs to be evaluated with equal attention in both radiographs. Graphical abstract The traditional methods for calculating the radiographic angles of the acetabular cup are based on the ellipse projection of the opening circle of the cup on radiographs. However, with varying locations of the X-ray source and pelvis rotations about different axes, the outline of this ellipse projection will change, and accordingly, the traditional method and calculating results will be inaccurate. In this study, a cone model for three-dimensional circle-to-two-dimensional ellipse projection is utilized to incorporate the effect of X-ray offset and quantify the relationships of the radiographic angles of the cup with the true orientation of the cup and pelvic rotations in either pelvic or hip anteroposterior radiographic situation.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509667

RESUMO

The safety of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based genome editing in the context of human gene therapy is largely unknown. CCR5 is a reasonable but not absolutely protective target for a cure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, because CCR5-null blood cells are largely resistant to HIV-1 entry. We transplanted CRISPR-edited CCR5-ablated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) into a patient with HIV-1 infection and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The acute lymphoblastic leukemia was in complete remission with full donor chimerism, and donor cells carrying the ablated CCR5 persisted for more than 19 months without gene editing-related adverse events. The percentage of CD4+ cells with CCR5 ablation increased by a small degree during a period of antiretroviral-therapy interruption. Although we achieved successful transplantation and long-term engraftment of CRISPR-edited HSPCs, the percentage of CCR5 disruption in lymphocytes was only approximately 5%, which indicates the need for further research into this approach. (Funded by the Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03164135.).

11.
Elife ; 82019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513014

RESUMO

In many vertebrates, establishment of Left-Right (LR) asymmetry results from the activity of a ciliated organ functioning as the LR Organizer (LRO). While regulation of the formation of this structure by major signaling pathways has been described, the transcriptional control of LRO formation is poorly understood. Using the zebrafish model, we show that the transcription factors and cofactors mediating or regulating the transcriptional outcome of the Hippo signaling pathway play a pivotal role in controlling the expression of genes essential to the formation of the LRO including ligands and receptors of signaling pathways involved in this process and most genes required for motile ciliogenesis. Moreover, the transcription cofactor, Vgll4l regulates epigenetic programming in LRO progenitors by controlling the expression of writers and readers of DNA methylation marks. Altogether, our study uncovers a novel and essential role for the transcriptional effectors and regulators of the Hippo pathway in establishing LR asymmetry.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396490

RESUMO

Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart muscle, affects all demographics and is a major cause of sudden and unexpected death in young people. It is most commonly caused by viral infections of the heart, with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) being among the most prevalent pathogens. To understand the molecular pathogenesis of CVB3 infection and provide strategies for developing treatments, we examined the role of a key nuclear pore protein 98 (NUP98) in the setting of viral myocarditis. NUP98 was cleaved as early as 2 h post-CVB3 infection. This cleavage was further verified through both the ectopic expression of viral proteases and in vitro using purified recombinant CVB3 proteases (2A and 3C), which demonstrated that CVB3 2A but not 3C is responsible for this cleavage. By immunostaining and confocal imaging, we observed that cleavage resulted in the redistribution of NUP98 to punctate structures in the cytoplasm. Targeted siRNA knockdown of NUP98 during infection further increased viral protein expression and viral titer, and reduced cell viability, suggesting a potential antiviral role of NUP98. Moreover, we discovered that expression levels of neuregulin-1 (NRG1), a cardioprotective gene, and presenilin-1 (PSEN1), a cellular protease processing the tyrosine kinase receptor ERBB4 of NRG1, were reliant upon NUP98 and were downregulated during CVB3 infection. In addition, expression of these NUP98 target genes in myocardium tissue not only occurred at an earlier phase of infection, but also appeared in areas away from the initial inflammatory regions. Collectively, CVB3-induced cleavage of NUP98 and subsequent impairment of the cardioprotective NRG1-ERBB4/PSEN1 signaling cascade may contribute to increased myocardial damage in the context of CVB3-induced myocarditis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the link between NUP98 and the NRG1 signaling pathway in viral myocarditis.

13.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 849, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed the rapid evolution of therapies in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML). To assess the efficacy and tolerability of all reported front-line treatments for patients with newly diagnosed CML, a multiple-treatments meta-analysis was performed, which accounted for both direct and indirect comparisons among those treatments. METHODS: Primary outcomes were the percentage of patients achieving major molecular response (MMR) and complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) within 12 months. Secondary outcomes included the percentage of progression to accelerated phase (AP), serious adverse effects (AEs), overall discontinuation and discontinuation for drug-related AEs. Direct pairwise meta-analysis and indirect multi-comparison meta-analysis among those treatments in each outcome were both conducted. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was calculated for all treatments in each outcome. Cluster analysis demonstrated the division of treatments into distinct groupings according to efficacy and tolerability profiles. RESULTS: A total of 21 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, including 10,187 patients) comparing 15 different interventions for CP-CML patients were included in this study. SUCRA analysis suggested that all tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are highly effective in newly diagnosed CP-CML when compared to traditional drugs. Newer TKIs and higher-dose imatinib generally resulted in faster cytogenetic and molecular responses when compared with standard-dose imatinib and traditional drugs. Furthermore, traditional drugs, higher-dose imatinib and newer TKIs demonstrated lower acceptability than standard-dose imatinib. One cluster of interventions, which included nilotinib (300/400 mg BID), dasatinib (100 mg QD) and radotinib (300 mg BID), demonstrated higher efficacy and tolerability than other treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Nilotinib (300/400 mg BID), dasatinib (100 mg QD) and radotinib (300 mg BID) prove to be the most recommended front-line treatments of the greatest efficacy and tolerability for CP-CML patients. High-dose therapies are recommended only for patients in accelerated phase/blast phase or with suboptimal CML-CP response, and management of adverse events should be carried out to avoid compromising the clinical efficacy.

14.
Cancer Nurs ; 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) and implantable port catheters (IPCs) are 2 most common central venous access for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, no specific evidence exists to guide practitioners on safety and less cost. OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences of complications and costs of PICC and IPC in the treatment of cancer patients with chemotherapy and to provide a basis for better clinical decision making. METHODS: All the cohort studies were searched in the Cochrane Library, JBI, PubMed, Elsevier, Web of Science, CINAHL, CBM, and CNKI from inception to July 2018. Two reviewers screened and selected trials, evaluated quality, and extracted data. Meta-analysis and description of the outcomes were performed by using the RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 761 articles were retrieved, with 15 articles meeting eligibility criteria. Outcome analysis showed no difference in 1-puncture success rate. Peripherally inserted central catheter use was associated with higher complication rates than IPC, including occlusion, infection, malposition, catheter-related thrombosis, extravasation, phlebitis, and accidental removal rate. The life span of IPC was longer than that of PICC, and the costs of IPC were lower. CONCLUSIONS: Implantable port catheter has advantages over PICC in reducing cancer patients' complications and less cost in terms of long-term cancer chemotherapy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: In terms of safety, the results provide evidence for practitioners to choose which type of central venous catheters is better for cancer chemotherapy patients. In terms of costs, practitioners need to make decisions about which type of central venous catheters has less cost.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 1235-1243, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466162

RESUMO

Airborne particulate matter (APM) was collected in four seasons at five different areas of the city of Chengdu, China to study the spatial and seasonal contamination pattern of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). The results showed that ∑PFAA concentrations in Downtown Chengdu (mean value: 297 ±â€¯238 pg/m3) were higher than concentrations in suburban areas. The highest concentrations of PFAAs occurred during spring (97.5-709 pg/L; arithmetic mean concentration: 297 ±â€¯191 pg/L) while the lowest concentration occurred during autumn (9.27-105 pg/L; arithmetic mean concentration 41.1 ±â€¯24.8 pg/L). Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was the main PFAA quantified during winter, summer and autumn, and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) was the predominant PFAA in spring. Relative humidity (RH) and average daily precipitation (PRE) showed significant negative correlations with PFAA concentrations in winter and summer, suggesting that they played an important role in controlling PFAA concentrations in APM. The linear structural isomer of PFOA (n-PFOA) was the most abundant isomer in APM in Chengdu, with the average proportion of 85.6% ±â€¯6.13%, higher than the proportion in ECF PFOA commercial products (74.3-77.6%). However, the consistent fingerprint of branched PFOA in the APM implies that ECF PFOA makes a significant contribution to the PFOA in APM. PFOS in the APM collected throughout the year had a mean proportion of 54.0 ±â€¯8.81% of n-PFOS. This proportion of n-PFOS is lower than commercial ECF products (62.9-78.2%), suggesting an additional proportion of branched PFOS isomers in APM in Chengdu.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469224

RESUMO

This work highlights that the crystalline cooperativity of donor and acceptor segment in double-cable conjugated polymers plays an important role in the nanophase separation and photovoltaic performance in single-component organic solar cells (SCOSCs). The work started from designing two double-cable conjugated polymers with the same conjugated backbone and perylene bisimide (PBI) side units, in which PBIs were positioned symmetrically and perpendicularly (P1) and asymmetrically and slantingly (P2) along the conjugated backbones. After thermal annealing, both conjugated backbones and PBI side units in P1 tend to form ordered nanostructures, while PBI side units in P2 dominated the crystallization and hamper the crystallization of conjugated backbones. These observations were confirmed by two-dimensional wide-angle grazing-incidence X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, organic field-effect transistors and space charge limited current measurement. Therefore, P1 performed good crystalline cooperativity between conjugated backbones and PBI side units, resulting in improved power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) up to 3.43% in SCOSCs, while P2 with poor crystalline cooperativity exhibited PCEs below 2.42%. These results demonstrate that, crystalline cooperativity is an important factor for the nanophase separation of double-cable polymers toward efficient SCOSCs.

17.
J Affect Disord ; 259: 15-20, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437695

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that infusion of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine exerts antidepressant and antisuicidal effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). AIMS: In this investigation, we used the resting functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to determine the effects of ketamine on the functional connectivity (FC) of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-related circuits in patients with TRD. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with TRD were recruited and randomly divided into three groups on the basis of ketamine infusion dose: 0.5 mg/kg (standard dose), 0.2 mg/kg (low dose), or normal saline (a placebo infusion). Resting functional MRI data and clinical data were recorded at the baseline and on the third day after ketamine infusion treatment. RESULTS: The standard-dose group showed a reduction in the FC of the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and right dorsolateral (dl)PFC with the other frontal regions. The low-dose group demonstrated a more pervasive reduction of FC in the bilateral dACC with other frontal and parietal regions. A negative correlation was observed between the reduction in suicidal ideation and the reduction in the FC between the left dACC and right ACC regions in the standard-dose group, whereas a positive correlation was observed between the reduction in suicidal ideation and the increase in the FC between the right dlPFC and left superior parietal region in the low-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that PFC-related circuit modulation is crucial to the antidepressant and antisuicidal effects of the ketamine infusion treatment.

18.
Nurse Educ Today ; 82: 51-57, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis is to investigate the effects of blended learning on nursing students' knowledge, skills and satisfaction. METHODS: We searched EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library for publications in English up to December 2018. Two researchers independently screened the literature and extracted the data. Meta-analysis was performed with Revman5.0 for the eligible studies. RESULTS: A total of 8 studies met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis, including 574 nursing students. Compared with traditional teaching, blended learning could effectively improve nursing students' knowledge (SMD = 0.70, 95% CI [0.52, 0.87], P < 0.00001) and satisfaction (SMD = 0.72, 95% CI [0.08, 0.59], P = 0.01), and tended to improve the skills although without significant difference (SMD = 0.58, 95% CI [-0.17, 1.32], P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Blended learning can effectively improve the knowledge and satisfaction of nursing students. Therefore, blended learning can be used as a teaching method in nursing education.

19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(36): 32697-32705, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411033

RESUMO

Bioorthogonal chemistry together with biomarker-installing techniques is very promising in the amplification of the tumor targeting efficiency of nanomedicine. In this work, we newly synthesized an amphiphilic block copolymer polyoxazoline-block-polycaprolactone (POX-PCL) in which a certain number of amino groups were dangled in the side chain of the POX block and then functionalized into triarylphosphine groups for active tumor targeting via Staudinger ligation. By using the block copolymer self-assembly, the Staudinger ligation reagent-containing and drug-loaded reactive micelles were prepared with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼74 nm. Such drug-loaded reactive POX-PCL micelles exhibited significant tumor target ability through the Staudinger ligation between the micelles and the tumors metabolically labeled with azide group, as demonstrated by a series of in vitro and in vivo evaluations. In this work, a novel method was proposed for the application of Staudinger ligation in the nanomedicine for amplifying the tumor targeting ability and antitumor activity of nanodrugs.

20.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 132(17): 2096-2104, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dermoscopy is a useful technique for improving the diagnostic accuracy of various types of skin disorders. In China, dermoscopy has been widely accepted, and domestic researchers have made tremendous progress in the field of dermoscopy. The main purpose of this review is to summarize the current status of dermoscopy in China and identify its future directions. DATA SOURCES: Articles included in this review were obtained by searching the following databases: Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and the Web of Science. We focused on research published before 2019 with keywords including dermoscopy, dermoscopic, dermoscope and trichoscopy. STUDY SELECTION: A total of 50 studies were selected. Of these studies, 20 studies were in Chinese and 30 in English, research samples of all the studies were collected from Chinese populations. RESULTS: Since 2000, more than 380 articles about dermoscopy have been published in domestic or foreign journals. Dermoscopy can improve the diagnostic accuracy of neoplastic diseases, evaluating the therapeutic effect of treatment, and determining the treatment endpoint, and it can also assist in the differential diagnosis of inflammatory diseases and in the assessment of the severity of the disease. In addition, researches about the applications of dermoscopy during surgical treatment have been published. Training courses aiming to improve the diagnostic ability of dermatologists, either face-to-face or online, have been offered. The Chinese Skin Image Database, launched in 2017 as a work platform for dermatologists, has promoted the development of dermoscopy in China. Computer-aided diagnostic systems based on the Chinese population are ready for use. In the future, cooperation, resource sharing, talent development, image management, and computer-aided diagnosis will be important directions for the development of dermoscopy in China. CONCLUSION: Dermoscopy has been widely used and developed in China, however, it still needs to address more challenges in the future.

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