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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634258

RESUMO

Oromaxillofacial hydatid cysts are rare, even in countries where echinococcosis is endemic. This study aimed to describe an isolated oromaxillofacial hydatid cyst and to discuss the epidemiology, clinical features, and treatment thereof. The authors report the case of a 12 year-old boy who presented with a 2 week history of an enlarging hydatid cyst in the parapharyngeal space extending to the neck, with no pulmonary or hepatic involvement. We present our clinical findings, diagnostic techniques, and treatment and review the relevant literature. Forty-one cases, with a male:female ratio of 1.21:1, have been reported, mostly in patients aged 20 to 40 years (both sexes). Oromaxillofacial hydatid cysts are most commonly located in the parotid gland (19.51%, n = 8), submandibular region including the submandibular gland (17.07%, n = 7), and infratemporal fossa (14.63%, n = 6). Only 2 (4.88%) cases of hydatid cysts in the parapharyngeal space have been reported before. Although isolated parapharyngeal space hydatid cysts are rare, oromaxillofacial surgeons should consider relevant diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to ensure complete resection.

2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 127: 104290, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626690

RESUMO

Tripartite motif 35 (TRIM35) protein is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that mediates interferon-beta (IFN-ß) production via regulating ubiquitination of multiple adaptor proteins in innate immune signaling pathways. Here, we cloned the porcine TRIM35 (porTRIM35) gene and analyzed its involvement in IFN-ß expression as well as the antiviral response against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The full-length porTRIM35 gene encoded a 493-amino acid protein and exhibited 79.6%-89.5% sequence similarity with its orthologues in humans, mice, monkeys and rabbits. porTRIM35 possessed typical structural features of TRIMs, including a RING domain, a B-box domain, a coiled-coil domain and a PRY/SPYR domain. Exogenous overexpression of porTRIM35 significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression level of IFN-ß in swine testicular (ST) cell in response to poly(I:C) stimulation, whereas knockdown endogenous expression of porTRIM35 lead to a decrease in the expression level of IFN-ß. Mechanically, porTRIM35 directly interacted with porcine TNF-receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and catalyzed its Lys63-linked polyubiquitination, thereby leading to the up-regulation of IFN-ß production. Meanwhile, we demonstrated that the RING and PRY/SPRY domains were essential for the E3 ligase activity of porTRIM35. In response to JEV infection, the endogenous expression of porTRIM35 was markedly inhibited at the mRNA level, while exogenous expression of porTRIM35 significantly elevated the expression of IFN-ß induced by JEV infection and reduced viral titers in ST cells, suggesting that porTRIM35 is a negative regulator for JEV replication. These data demonstrate the importance of porTRIM35 in IFN-ß expression as well as the antiviral response against JEV replication.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is the transitional stage between normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some aMCI patients will progress into AD eventually, whereas others will not. If the trajectory of aMCI can be predicted, it would enable early diagnosis and early therapy of AD. OBJECTIVE: To explore the development trajectory of aMCI patients, we used diffusion tensor imaging to analyze the white matter microstructure changes of patients with different trajectories of aMCI. METHODS: We included three groups of subjects:1) aMCI patients who convert to AD (MCI-P); 2) aMCI patients who remain in MCI status (MCI-S); 3) normal controls (NC). We analyzed the fractional anisotropy and mean diffusion rate of brain regions, and we adopted logistic binomial regression model to predicate the development trajectory of aMCI. RESULTS: The fraction anisotropy value is significantly reduced, the mean diffusivity value is significantly increased in the two aMCI patient groups, and the MCI-P patients presented greater changes. Significant changes are mainly located in the cingulum, fornix, hippocampus, and uncinate fasciculus. These changed brain regions significantly correlated with the patient's Mini-Mental State Examination scores. CONCLUSION: The study predicted the disease trajectory of different types of aMCI patients based on the characteristic values of the above-mentioned brain regions. The prediction accuracy rate can reach 90.2%, and the microstructure characteristics of the right cingulate band and the right hippocampus may have potential clinical application value to predict the disease trajectory.

4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(12): 3165-3170, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467709

RESUMO

Nucleic acid aptamers, broad-spectrum target-specific single-stranded oligonucleotides, serve as molecules in targeted therapy, targeted delivery and disease diagnosis for the treatment of tumor or microbial infection and clinical detection. Due to the existence of components in the use of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM), the target is difficult to concentrate and the specificity of treatment is poor. The effective components of TCM are toxic components, so a highly sensitive detection method is urgently needed to reduce the toxicity problem at the same time. The combined application of TCM and modern medical treatment strategy are difficult and cannot improve the therapeutic effect. Aptamers, advantageous in biosensors, aptamer-nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, and aptamer-siRNA chimeras, are expected to connect Chinese medicinals with nanotechnology, diagnostic technology and combined therapies. We summarized the preparation, screening, and modification techniques of nucleic acid aptamers and the biomedical applications and advantages in therapy, targeting, and diagnosis, aiming at providing a reference for the in-depth research and development in TCM.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Ácidos Nucleicos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , RNA Interferente Pequeno
5.
Clin Interv Aging ; 16: 1581-1589, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471348

RESUMO

Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of post-operative delirium (POD) in patients with complicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD) undergoing TEVAR with/without concomitant procedures and to assess the association of POD with early and follow-up outcomes. Methods: A retrospective single-center cross-sectional analysis was conducted using a prospectively maintained database from 2010 to 2017. Outcomes were postoperative clinical outcomes, early and follow-up survival. Results: A total of 517 complicated TBAD patients were enrolled. POD was observed in 13.3% (69/517) patients and was associated with increased hospital length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs (P< 0.001 for both). Besides, POD was found to be an independent risk factor for prolonged ICU stay (odds ratio [OR] 4.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.40-8.01, P< 0.001) and early death (OR 4.42, 95% CI 1.26-15.54, P= 0.020). Predictors of POD were hybrid procedure (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.20-3.92, P= 0.010), the use of benzodiazepine (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.07-3.23, P= 0.027) or quinolone (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.26-4.38, P= 0.007), creatinine >2 mg/dL (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.57-6.72, P= 0.001) and preoperative blood transfusion (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.76-6.21, P< 0.001). After a median follow-up of 73.6 months, POD remained as an independent indicator for follow-up mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 2.40, 95% CI 1.31-4.38, P= 0.005) after adjusting potential confounders. Conclusion: POD after TEVAR has an incidence of around 13% and could profoundly increase the in-hospital LOS, hospital costs, as well as the early and follow-up mortality. A series of risk factors, including hybrid procedure, the use of benzodiazepine or quinolone, creatinine >2 mg/dL and preoperative blood transfusion, were identified as independent risk factors for POD. Effective risk-stratification and patient-tailored management strategy should be developed to reduce the incidence of POD.

6.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 40(1): 42, 2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is recommended for long-term enteral nutrition. However, long-term nasogastric (NGT) feeding is still commonplace in China. We surveyed Chinese clinicians' opinions toward PEG feeding in order to identify the potential barriers to acceptancy of PEG feeding. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire was developed and distributed to 600 doctors. Five-point Likert scales were used for most responses. RESULTS: Of 525 respondents, the mainly nutritional support method was NGT while PEG was less used. Doctors working in the tertiary class A hospitals and radiotherapy department were more likely to choose PEG feeding (p = 0.000). Overall, 241 (46%) participants did not know PEG and 284 (54%) have different understanding degree of PEG. Age (p = 0.002), working life (p = 0.044) and professionalism (p = 0.005) were significantly related to the understanding of PEG. Levels of agreement was high (score of 3.47) for using PEG in patients with prolonged stroke-associated dysphagia. There was high agreement level in the statement that PEG was unnecessary when NGT could sustain the basic needs of patients, though better outcome can be predicted with PEG feeding. The highest scoring factor (score of 3.91) that influenced clinicians' choice of PEG was resistance from patients and families and the second one was the poor cooperation among departments (score of 3.80). CONCLUSIONS: Doctors' insufficient knowledge of PEG feeding, resistance from patients and families, poor cooperation among departments, all these factors leading physicians to prefer more conservative treatment to avoid disputes rather than better ones.

7.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544199

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: As an oral hypoglycaemic drug that significantly reduces cardiovascular risk, empagliflozin is often used in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the dosage and administration of empagliflozin are still controversial clinically. To determine the most appropriate dose, we performed this network meta-analysis. METHODS: We identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about empagliflozin from eight databases. We analysed the pharmacodynamics, adverse effects (AEs), and pharmacokinetics of empagliflozin at different doses. RESULTS: We identified 8264 articles, of which 23 RCTs with 10518 patients were included. Regarding haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), high-daily doses (10, 25, 50 mg) were significantly better than low doses (1, 2.5, 5 mg). For total AEs, there was a dose-response trend in which safety decreased with increasing doses. According to SUCRA sequencing, the order for lowering HbA1c was 25 > 50 > 10 > 5 > 1 mg, for lowering FPG was 50 > 25 > 10 > 5 > 2.5 > 1 mg and for safety was 1> 5 > 10 > 25> 2.5 > 50 mg. When considering HbA1c, FPG and total AEs, we performed a hierarchical cluster analysis and network meta-analysis to find that 25 mg performed best among different doses, which was more significant after long-term use (≥ 12 weeks). Pharmacokinetic parameters exhibited significant dose-response relationships. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: High-daily doses (10, 25, 50 mg) had better efficacy than low doses (1, 2.5, 5 mg). When considering HbA1c, FPG and total AEs, 25 mg performed best among the different doses in patients with T2DM.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27130, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477158

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Bevacizumab (BV) plus chemotherapy is broadly used in advanced ovarian cancer (OC). However, the efficacy of BV-based regimens for advanced OC patients is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to explore the predictive genetic biomarkers for BV.Tumor tissues from advanced OC patients receiving BV-based regimens were analyzed with a 150-gene targeted panel for next generation sequencing. The associations between gene alterations or clinicopathology features and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves or Cox regression. The association of the genetic alteration in potential predictive genes and expressions of 11 vascular endothelial growth factor-related genes were analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort using 292 OC cases.Sixty two Chinese advanced OC patients treated with BV-based therapy were included. The median PFS of was 6.9 months, and objective response rate was 14.5%. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, the status of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) (hazard ratio = 6.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-18.13, P < .001) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) (hazard ratio = 3.58, 95% CI 1.27-10.08, P = .016) were significantly correlated with PFS. MYC Proto-Oncogene amplification seemed to have a positive trend (hazard ratio = 0.21, 95% CI 0.05-1.02, P = .052). Moreover, EGFR and HER2 alterations were not prognostic factors of overall survival for OC in The Cancer Genome Atlas OC cohort. The vascular endothelial growth factor-related signature analysis indicated vascular endothelial factor A expression was upregulated with EGFR alterations (P = .034) which may be involved in BV resistance, and HER2 alterations were associated with hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha overexpression significantly (P = .029).EGFR or HER2 alterations are negative predictors of PFS for OC patient treated with BV plus chemotherapy. Therefore, the clinicians may consider to use alternative regimens such as anti-EGFR or anti-HER2 targeted therapy instead of BV-based regimens on these patients when standard care fail.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Genes erbB-1 , Genes erbB-2 , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
9.
Genet Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472134

RESUMO

The development of set-based genetic-survival association tests has been focusing on right-censored survival outcomes. However, interval-censored failure time data arise widely from health science studies, especially those on the development of chronic diseases. In this paper, we proposed a suite of set-based genetic association and interaction tests for interval-censored survival outcomes under a unified weighted-V-statistic framework. Besides dealing with interval censoring, the new tests can account for genetic effect heterogeneity and accommodate left truncation of survival outcomes. Simulation studies showed that the new tests perform well in terms of size and power under various scenarios and that the new interaction test is more powerful than the standard likelihood ratio test for testing gene-gene/gene-environment interactions. The practical utility of the developed tests was illustrated by a genome-wide association study of age to early childhood caries.

10.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256100, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388179

RESUMO

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can improve cognitive function. However, it is not clear how high-definition tDCS (HD-tDCS) regulates the cognitive function and its neural mechanism, especially in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study aimed to examine whether HD-tDCS can modulate cognitive function in individuals with MCI and to determine whether the potential variety is related to spontaneous brain activity changes recorded by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Forty-three individuals with MCI were randomly assigned to receive either 10 HD-tDCS sessions or 10 sham sessions to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC). The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) and the regional homogeneity (ReHo) was computed using rs-fMRI data from all participants. The results showed that the fALFF and ReHo values changed in multiple areas following HD-tDCS. Brain regions with significant decreases in fALFF values include the Insula R, Precuneus R, Thalamus L, and Parietal Sup R, while the Temporal Inf R, Fusiform L, Occipital Sup L, Calcarine R, and Angular R showed significantly increased in their fALFF values. The brain regions with significant increases in ReHo values include the Temporal Inf R, Putamen L, Frontal Mid L, Precentral R, Frontal Sup Medial L, Frontal Sup R, and Precentral L. We found that HD-tDCS can alter the intensity and synchrony of brain activity, and our results indicate that fALFF and ReHo analysis are sensitive indicators for the detection of HD-tDCS during spontaneous brain activity. Interestingly, HD-tDCS increases the ReHo values of multiple brain regions, which may be related to the underlying mechanism of its clinical effects, these may also be related to a potential compensation mechanism involving the mobilization of more regions to complete a function following a functional decline.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392275

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected registry data using multivariable analyses of imputed data. OBJECTIVE: We sought to demonstrate that age would not be associated with complications in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Elderly patients (≥70 yrs) undergoing ACDF are considered a higher risk for complications. However, conclusive evidence is lacking. The Michigan Spine Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MSSIC) is a quality improvement collaborative with 30 hospitals across Michigan. METHODS: The study included all patients who had 1 to 4 level ACDF (September 2015-August 2019) for 90-day complications. Major and minor complications were defined using a validated classification. Multiple imputations were used to generate complete covariate datasets. Generalized estimating equation model was used to identify associations with complications using the whole cohort and elderly subgroup analyses. Bonferroni correction was used. RESULTS: Nine thousand one hundred thirty five patients (11.1% ≥ 70 yrs and 88.9% <70 yrs) with 2266 complications were analyzed. Comparing elderly versus non-elderly, the elderly had a significantly higher rate of any complications (31.5% vs. 24.0%, P < 0.001) and major complications (14.1% vs. 7.0%, P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, age was not independently associated with any complication. POD#0 ambulation and preop independent ambulation were independently associated with significantly decreased odds of any complication. In the elderly, independent preoperative ambulation was protective for any complication (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, 0.39-0.73 95% confidence interval [CI]), especially major complications (OR 0.41, 0.27-0.61 95% CI). CONCLUSION: Age was not an independent risk factor for complications in patients that underwent ACDF. In the elderly, independent preoperative ambulation was especially protective for major complications.Level of Evidence: 3.

12.
Anal Methods ; 13(34): 3792-3798, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355707

RESUMO

A new polythiophene-based optical probe, namely PTS, was designed and prepared for detection and quantification of the water present in organic solvents. PTS exhibited sensitive and fast absorption and fluorescence signaling response to the changes of water content in tetrahydrofuran (THF), N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) due to the water-induced interpolymer-stacking aggregation as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. The fluorescence intensity of PTS at 550 nm linearly reduced as a function of the water content in detection ranges of 0-30% (v/v) in THF, 0-10% in DMF and 0-10% in DMAc with the limit of detection (LOD) for water being 0.034% (v/v) in THF, 0.013% (v/v) in DMF, and 0.014% (v/v) in DMAc, respectively. Additionally, PTS-incorporated test paper was fabricated to successfully achieve naked-eye detection of water in DMF and DMAc. PTS was further applied to estimate the water content in real samples, convincingly demonstrating that our method was comparable with the standard Karl Fischer titration.


Assuntos
Dimetilformamida , Água , Polímeros , Solventes , Tiofenos
13.
Diabetes Ther ; 12(9): 2423-2436, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338993

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The clinical characteristics and outcomes of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have not been thoroughly described. In this study, we investigated the metabolic and neurological indexes and the prognosis of patients with T2DM based on skin biopsy. METHODS: A total of 34 healthy Chinese volunteers were recruited for skin biopsy to establish the reference range of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD), and 89 patients with T2DM attending the Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital were evaluated at baseline. Of these 89 patients, 17 with pure SFN and nine with mixed diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) were reassessed at the end of the follow-up. RESULTS: Glycated hemoglobin and postprandial blood glucose levels were lower (P = 0.005 and P = 0.041, respectively) and postprandial C-peptide and insulin levels were higher (P = 0.001 and P = 0.019, respectively) in the pure SFN group than in the mixed DPN group. A partial correlation study showed that there was a negative correlation between IENFD of the distal leg and cardiovascular autonomic reflex test (CART) scores (r = - 0.513, P = 0.001) after adjusting for age and duration of diabetes. Only vitamin B12 level (P = 0.028) and motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV) of the common peroneal nerve (P = 0.045) were increased in the patients with pure SFN at the final visit while MCVs of the common peroneal nerve (P = 0.025) and tibial nerve (P = 0.047) were decreased in the mixed DPN group at the final visit. CONCLUSION: Better islet function and cardiovascular autonomic function were observed in patients with pure SFN compared with mixed DPN. The metabolic and neurological indexes remained relatively stable in the patients with pure SFN during the follow-up.

14.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7406-7415, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition supports is essential to the prognosis of stroke patients with dysphagia. It's necessary to evaluate the effects and safety of intermittent tube feeding for stroke patients with dysphagia, to provide evidence for the management of dysphagia. METHODS: Cochrane Library et al. databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the intermittent tube feeding for stroke patients with dysphagia up to Feb 15, 2021. Bias risk assessment tool recommended by Cochrane was used for quality assessment, and Revman5.3 software was used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 11 RCTs involving 762 stroke patients with dysphagia were included. Meta-analysis indicated that intermittent tube feeding could significantly increase the rate of dysphagia function improvement [odd ratio (OR ) = 5.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.38-8.07], serum albumin level [mean difference (MD) = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.65-4.49], hemoglobin level (MD =1.55, 95% CI: 1.19-1.95), prealbumin level (MD =1.79, 95% CI: 1.46-2.12), and reduce the incidence of aspiration pneumonia (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.15-0.53), incidence of aspiration (OR =0.27, 95% CI: 0.08-0.93) for stroke patients with dysphagia (all P<0.05), o significant difference in the triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) (MD =0.46, 95% CI: -0.24 to 1.19) and arm muscle circumference (MD =0.04, 95% CI: -0.28 to 0.36) between two groups were found (all P>0.05). Egger regression tests indicated that there was no publication bias between included RCTs (all P>0.05). DISCUSSION: Intermittent tube feeding for stroke patients with dysphagia during the recovery period can not only ensure the nutritional supply, but also promote the recovery of swallowing function and reduce the occurrence of aspiration and aspiration associated pneumonia.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Nutrição Enteral , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor olfaction is associated with worse functional performance in older adults, but longitudinal evidence is lacking. We investigated poor olfaction in relation to longitudinal changes in physical functioning among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The analysis included 2,319 participants from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study (aged 71-82 years, 47·9% men, and 37·3% blacks) who completed the Brief Smell Identification Test in 1999-2000. Olfaction was defined as good (test score 11-12), moderate (9-10), or poor (0-8). Physical functioning was assessed up to four times over 8 years, using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and the Health ABC Physical Performance Battery (HABCPPB). We conducted joint model analyses and reported the differences in annual declines across olfaction groups. RESULTS: During the follow-up, compared to those with good olfaction, older adults with poor olfaction had greater annual declines in both the SPPB score (-0.137, 95%CI: -0.186, -0.088) and all its subscales: standing balance (-0.068, 95%CI:-0.091, -0.044), chair stand (-0.046, 95%CI: -0.070, -0.022), and gait speed (-0.022, 95%CI: -0.042, -0.001). A similar observation was made for the HABCPPB score (difference in annual decline: -0.032, 95%CI:-0.042, -0.021). These findings are robust and cannot be explained by measured confounding from demographics, lifestyle factors, chronic diseases, nor by potential biases due to death and loss of follow-up. Similar associations were observed across subgroups of sex, race, and self-reported general health status. CONCLUSION: This study provides the first epidemiological evidence that poor olfaction predicts a faster decline in physical functioning. Future studies should investigate potential mechanisms.

16.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 240: 110317, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461425

RESUMO

The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) mediates the bidirectional transport of immunoglobulin G (IgG) across hyperpolarized epithelial cells. Overexpression of FcRn increases serum IgG and humoral immune response. Probiotics can improve the host's serum and intestinal mucosal IgG. However, whether probiotics regulate FcRn and its specific mechanism are still unclear. Our research showed that heat inactivated Clostridium butyricum CB1 (heat-inactivated CB1) up-regulated FcRn expression in porcine small intestinal epithelial (IPI-2I) cells. Furthermore, heat-inactivated CB1 stimulation activated the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. Moreover, FcRn expression decreased after blocking the NF-κB signaling pathway by NF-κB inhibitor BAY11-7028, suggesting that heat-inactivated CB1 induced FcRn expression via the NF-κB signaling pathway. Using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), we found that knockdown of TLR2/4, MyD88 and TRIF reduced NF-κB activity induced by heat-inactivated CB1, as well as up-regulation of FcRn expression after heat-inactivated CB1 stimulation. Taken together, our data indicated that heat-inactivated CB1 up-regulated FcRn expression via TLR2/4-MyD88/TRIF-NF-κB signaling pathway. These results provided a new perspective for us to understand the enhancement of C. butyricum on intestinal mucosal immunity.

17.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(9): 3971-3979, 2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423981

RESUMO

Smart insulin delivery systems now play essential roles in diabetes treatment, whereas most existing systems suffer from insufficient regulation against blood glucose. Here, a glucose and pH dual-responsive insulin delivery system with multilevel self-regulation of blood glucose was constructed. Photocross-linked dual-responsive polymersomes were prepared by the self-assembly of the diblock copolymer methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly[3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid-co-2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate-co-2-hydroxy-4-(methacryloyloxy)benzophenone] (mPEG-b-P(AAPBA-co-DEAEMA-co-BMA)) synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT), where insulin and glucose oxidase (GOx) were co-encapsulated inside. It is worth noting that the polymersomes with tunable membrane permeability are the first glucose-responsive platform consisting of both PBA and GOx. According to the pH change produced by gluconic acid, the pH-sensitive monomer DEAEMA endowed the polymersome membrane with multilevelly tunable and self-regulative permeability, further controlling the release behavior of insulin. This multilevel tunability was reflected directly in in vitro insulin release tests and was proven by the self-regulation of blood glucose in vivo. Promisingly, the polymersomes have great potential to be applied for the self-regulation of blood glucose in the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Insulina , Autocontrole , Glicemia , Glucose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
18.
Neuroreport ; 32(14): 1175-1182, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334777

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to explore structural integrity and to describe white matter degeneration in Alzheimer's disease. Previous research has indicated that the change of connections between white matter fiber tracts is very important for investigating the brain function of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, whether white matter features can be used as potential biomarkers for predicting Alzheimer's disease tendency requires more in-depth research. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the damage in white matter tracts and the decline of cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease. DTI data were collected from 38 Alzheimer's disease patients and 30 normal controls. Fiber assignment by continuous tracking approach was used to establish connections between different brain regions of the whole brain, network-based statistical analysis and support vector machine classification analysis were used to explore the connection of whole-brain fiber bundles between the two groups. Most importantly, our results showed that the connections between brain regions of Alzheimer's disease patients were damaged, and the damage were mainly located in the right hemisphere, there was a certain degree of lateralization effect. Using whole-brain fiber bundle connection network as a feature for classification, we found it helped to improve the classification accuracy in Alzheimer's disease patients, which is useful for early clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. These findings further suggested that we can use the whole-brain fiber bundle connection network of Alzheimer's disease patients as a potential diagnostic indicator of Alzheimer's disease in the future.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical efficacy, recurrence rate and safety of 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) combined with microneedle or CO2 lattice laser (CO2FL), in comparison with intrascar betamethasone injection in the treatment of hypertrophic acne scar. METHODS: Fifty-two patients with hypertrophic acne scars at the mandibular angle were enrolled and assigned to different therapy groups. Sixteen patients were treated with microneedle-assisted incorporation of ALA. Twenty-eight patients underwent CO2FL-assisted incorporation of ALA. Eight patients received standard therapy with intrascar injection of glucocorticoid. Two dermatologists, blinded to the therapy groups, independently evaluated the scars in all patients using the average value of the Vancouver Scar Scale score, which was treated as an integer variable. RESULTS: After three rounds of treatment, there was no significant difference in therapeutic effective rate among the microneedle, laser and topical glucocorticoid groups (93.75% vs 100% vs 100%, P = .855). One out of 16 patients (6.25%) in the microneedle group, no patient (0%) in the laser group and two out of eight patients (25%) in the topical glucocorticoid group had recurrence. The laser group showed a higher rate of adverse effects, which were usually mild and reversible, except for pigmentation. Adverse reactions could be completely subsided within 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Either CO2FL or microneedle combined ALA-PDT for hypertrophic scar, as to topical glucocorticoid therapy, showed equivalent clinical effects but lower recurrence rate within 6 months of follow-up period.

20.
Hum Reprod ; 36(9): 2612-2621, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323971

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Should women with X chromosome abnormalities (XCAs) be recommended to have embryos selected by both morphological and cytogenetic assessment through preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) rather than morphological assessment only in conventional IVF/ICSI treatment? SUMMARY ANSWER: PGT is not a preferred recommendation for women with XCAs in the absence of other PGT indications. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: XCAs are the most frequent sort of chromosomal aberrations in infertile women. Patients with a complete or partial absence of one X chromosome, diagnosed as Turner Syndrome (TS), demonstrate low spontaneous pregnancy rates (5-7%) and high miscarriage rates (22.8-30.8%), as well as high chances of birth defects (20%). PGT is known to improve pregnancy rates and decrease the incidence of miscarriage in couples with chromosomal aberrations such as Robertsonian and reciprocal translocations and Klinefelter Syndrome. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 394 women with XCAs and undergoing their first oocyte retrieval and first embryo transfer cycle from June 2011 to August 2019 in the Reproductive Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Pregnancy outcomes were compared between the conventional IVF/ICSI group (n = 284) and the PGT group (n = 110) in the first fresh or frozen embryo transfer cycle for each woman with XCAs. Three platforms were applied in PGT: fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH, n = 34), array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH, n = 24) and next-generation sequencing (NGS, n = 51). The embryo aneuploidy rate and distribution of embryonic chromosomal aberrations revealed by aCGH or NGS were analysed and stratified by maternal age and type of XCAs to assess the effect of maternal XCAs on embryo karyotypes. MAIN RESULT AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The live birth rate (LBR) per embryo transfer was similar between the PGT group and IVF/ICSI group both in the first cycle of fresh or frozen embryo transfer respectively (39.13% in PGTFISH vs 42.58% in IVF/ICSI, Padj=0.558; 66.67% in PGTFISH vs 52.08% in PGTaCGH/NGS vs 53.06% in IVF/ICSI, Padj=0.756), as was the clinical pregnancy rate (60.87% in PGTFISH vs 50.97% in IVF/ICSI, Padj =0.672; 88.89% in PGTFISH vs 58.33% in PGTaCGH/NGS vs 69.39% in IVF/ICSI, Padj =0.480) and the pregnancy loss rate (35.71% in PGTFISH vs 16.46% in IVF/ICSI, Padj =0.136; 12.50% in PGTFISH vs 10.71% in PGTaCGH/NGS vs 23.53% in IVF/ICSI, Padj =0.352). The rates of maternal and neonatal complications were also comparable between the PGT and IVF/ICSI groups with fresh and frozen transfers respectively (10.00% vs 8.85%, P = 1.000; 21.74% vs 14.55%, P = 0.272). Intriguingly, the distribution of embryonic chromosome abnormalities was more frequent on autosomes 22 (20.39%), 21 (18.45%) and 16 (17.47%), compared with the X chromosome (8.73%). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Selection bias is an inherent drawback of a retrospective study. First, our participants hosted 4.84% X chromosome mosaicism with few typical somatic anomalies of TS. Second, the incidences of history of recurrent miscarriage and abnormal offspring in the PGT group were higher than in IVF/ICSI group although binary logistic regression analysis was performed to attenuate the modifying effect of confounding factors. Third, FISH performed in this study only used X/Y probes and lacked the reference of autosome, which might have resulted in misdiagnosis and bias. Finally, intrinsic disadvantages could not be totally avoided due to the retrospective nature of this study. WIDER IMPLICATION OF THE FINDINGS: In the current study, comparable pregnancy outcomes were revealed among a large cohort of women with XCAs undergoing their first cycles of PGT or conventional IVF/ICSI treatment. Moreover, the X chromosome abnormality was illustrated to cause no higher frequency of aberrations in embryos. Our data provided perspectives for genetic and reproductive counselling to XCAs individuals and their families. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was supported by National Research and Development Plan (2016YFC1000604 and 2017YFC1001100), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81701406), Shandong Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars (JQ201720), Taishan Scholars Program for Young Experts of Shandong Province (tsqn20161069) and Projects of Medical and Health Technology Development Program in Shandong Province (202005010520, 202005010523 and 2016WS0368). There is no conflict of interest to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Infertilidade Feminina , Aneuploidia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Nascido Vivo , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cromossomo X
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