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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510055

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the collision relationship and the cause of the fracture caused by traffic accidents in which the front of a small car collides with the side of a pedestrian while braking. METHODS: The surveillance videos of 42 traffic accidents involving the front of a small car colliding with the side of a pedestrian while braking were collected. By analyzing the surveillance videos and the paths, the speed of the collision, the relationship between the vehicle and the pedestrian upon collision, and the movement trajectory of the human body were clearly identified. The type and severity of the injuries were also determined through autopsy. The characteristics of the human injuries and vehicle paths were analyzed according to the collision speed (<40 km/h, 40-60 km/h, 60-90 km/h), and the correlations between the fracture and the height of the pedestrian, the height of the hood and the length of the hood were discussed. RESULTS: When a small car hits the side of a pedestrian, the front bumper first hits the lower limbs of the pedestrian, and then, the human body falls to the side of the vehicle, causing a secondary collision with the hood and front windshield; thus, the pedestrian is thrown at a speed similar to the speed of the vehicle, finally falling to the ground and sliding forward a certain distance. (1) When V is less than 40 km/h (n = 10), the pedestrian's head did not collide with the windshield, and the fatal injuries were caused by the individual striking the ground. (2) When V is greater than 40 km/h (n = 32), the majority (97%) of cases showed collision with the windshield. (3) When 40 to 60 km/h (n = 16), the pedestrian's head collided with the windshield, which can cause fatal injuries, and pelvic fractures and rib fractures occurred in 56.25% of patients. (4) When V is less than 60 km/h (n = 26), the ratio of the height of the pedestrian to the height of the hood was significantly smaller in the pelvic fracture group than in the nonpelvic fracture group (P < 0.01). (5) When 60 to 90 km/h (n = 16), there were holes in the windshield, and the pedestrians experienced severe head injuries, with cervical spine fracture occurring in 37.5% of patients, pelvic fractures occurring in 43.75% of patients, and rib fractures occurring in 31.25% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: When V is less than 40 km/h, the vehicle does not cause severe injuries in pedestrians; when V is greater than 40 km/h, the collisions of the pedestrian's head with the windshield lead to severe head injuries and the accident can cause severe pelvic and rib fractures; when V is greater than 60 km/h, the collisions of the pedestrian's head with the windshield can cause cervical spine fracture in addition to head injuries. The occurrence of human injuries is related to not only the vehicle speed but also factors such as the height of the pedestrian, the height of the hood and the length of the hood.

2.
Atherosclerosis ; 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bone and mineral metabolism has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiac valve calcification. Whether bone demineralization, a common aging-related disorder, promotes calcific valve disease remains uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that low bone mineral density (BMD) is associated with greater incidence/progression of cardiac valve calcification in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. METHODS: Using linear mixed-effects models, we related baseline measurement of BMD of the thoracic vertebrae by computed tomography (CT) in 6768 participants to serial CT assessments of aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral annular calcification (MAC) obtained over a >10-year period. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment, lower BMD (per SD decrement) was associated with accelerated increase in AVC over time in women (0.76 [95% CI 0.42,1.09] Agatston -units [AU]/year) and men (1.41 [95% CI 0.48,2.33] AU/year), as well as for MAC in women (3.22 [95% CI 1.16,5.28] AU/year) and men (3.59 [95% CI 2.09,5.09] AU/year). Significant effect modification was observed, with more pronounced BMD-related acceleration of AVC and MAC progression in older or white participants of one or both sexes, as well as by estimated glomerular filtration rate, though the latter differed by sex for AVC and MAC. CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-ethnic cohort, low thoracic BMD was significantly, but modestly, associated with increased AVC and MAC progression. This suggests that altered bone mineral metabolism does not have a major impact on calcific valve disease in the general population, but the possibility of a more meaningful influence in higher-risk individuals with osteoporosis will require further investigation.

3.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 23(8): 841-847, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the distribution of genotypes of thalassemia in children in Guangxi, China. METHODS: A total of 30 417 children with positive results of thalassemia screening in the Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region from January 2011 to December 2019 were enrolled. Single-tube multiplex PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis, and reverse dot blot hybridization technique were used for the detection of common α- and ß-thalassemia genes. Gap-PCR or gene sequence analysis was performed for 2 703 children suspected of rare thalassemia. RESULTS: Among the 30 417 children with positive results of thalassemia screening, 23 214 (76.32%) were diagnosed with thalassemia, and the detection rates of α-thalassemia, ß-thalassemia, and α-thalassemia with ß-thalassemia were 47.77%, 23.75%, and 4.80% respectively. A total of 13 types of α-thalassemia alleles (18 480 alleles in total) were detected, mainly --SEA (54.98%), including seven rare alleles, i.e., --THAI (0.43%), HKαα (0.02%), -α30 (0.01%), -α1.0 (0.01%), -α2.4 (0.01%), -α21.9 (0.01%), and HBA2:C272-279 del (0.01%). A total of 17 types of ß-thalassemia alleles (9 168 alleles in total) were detected, mainly CD41-42 (47.79%), followed by CD17 (25.53%), including three rare alleles, i.e., IVS-II-5 (0.02%), IVS-I-2 (0.01%), and Gγ(Aγδß)0 (0.01%). A total of 37 genotypes were detected in 14 531 children with α-thalassemia, among which the most common 6 genotypes were --SEA/αα (52.20%), -α3.7/αα (13.24%), αCSα/αα (7.52%), -α4.2 (6.06%), --SEA/-α3.7 (5.91%), and αWSα/αα (3.41%), accounting for 88.34%. A total of 49 genotypes were detected in 7 223 children with ß-thalassemia, among which the most common 6 genotypes were CD41-42/ßN (45.81%), CD17/ßN (24.30%), IVS-II-654/ßN (7.49%), -28/ßN (5.62%), CD71-72/ßN (4.42%), and CD26/ßN (3.94%), accounting for 91.13%. A total of 137 genotypes were detected in 1 460 children with both α- and ß-thalassemia, mainly --SEA/αα combined with CD41-42/ßN (14.17%) and CD17/ßN (8.35%). A total of 2 050 children were diagnosed with hemoglobin H disease (α0/α+), among whom 134 had ß-thalassemia heterozygote and 12 had Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome (--SEA/--SEA); 355 children were diagnosed with ß-thalassemia double heterozygote, and 128 were diagnosed with ß-thalassemia homozygote, including 93 children with α-thalassemia. CONCLUSIONS: There are diverse gene mutations and rich genotypes of thalassemia among children in Guangxi, and α-thalassemia is more common, with --SEA/αα as the major genotype. There is a high proportion of children with both α- and ß-thalassemia, and there are relatively high incidence rates of ß-thalassemia double heterozygote and homozygote (intermedia and major).


Assuntos
Talassemia alfa , Talassemia beta , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Talassemia alfa/epidemiologia , Talassemia alfa/genética , Talassemia beta/diagnóstico , Talassemia beta/epidemiologia , Talassemia beta/genética
4.
Math Biosci Eng ; 18(5): 6527-6551, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies revealed that the epithelial component is associated with the modulation of the ovarian tumor microenvironment (TME). However, the identification of key transcriptional signatures of laser capture microdissected human ovarian cancer epithelia remains lacking. METHODS: We identified the differentially expressed transcriptional signatures of human ovarian cancer epithelia by meta-analysis of GSE14407, GSE2765, GSE38666, GSE40595, and GSE54388. Then we investigated the enrichment of KEGG pathways that are associated with epithelia-derived transcriptomes. Finally, we investigated the correlation of key epithelia-hub genes with the survival prognosis and immune infiltrations. Finally, we investigated the genetic alterations of key prognostic hub genes and their diagnostic efficacy in ovarian cancer epithelia. RESULTS: We identified 1339 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in ovarian cancer epithelia including 541upregulated and 798 downregulated genes. We identified 21 (such as E2F4, FOXM1, TFDP1, E2F1, and SIN3A) and 11 (such as JUN, DDX4, FOSL1, NOC2L, and HMGA1) master transcriptional regulators (MTRs) that are interacted with upregulated and the downregulated genes in ovarian tumor epithelium, respectively. The STRING-based analysis identified hub genes (such as CDK1, CCNB1, AURKA, CDC20, and CCNA2) in ovarian cancer epithelia. The significant clusters of identified hub genes are associated with the enrichment of KEGG pathways including cell cycle, DNA replication, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, pathways in cancer, and focal adhesion. The upregulation of SCNN1A and CDCA3 and the downregulation of SOX6 are correlated with a shorter survival prognosis in ovarian cancer (OV). The expression level of SOX6 is negatively correlated with immune score and positively correlated with tumor purity in OV. Moreover, SOX6 is negatively correlated with the infiltration of TILs, CD8+ T cells, CD4+ Regulatory T cells, cytolytic activity, T cell activation, pDC, neutrophils, and macrophages in OV. Also, SOX6 is negatively correlated with various immune markers including CD8A, PRF1, GZMA, GZMB, NKG7, CCL3, and CCL4, indicating the immune regulatory efficiency of SOX6 in the TME of OV. Furthermore, SCNN1A, CDCA3, and SOX6 genes are genetically altered in OV and the expression levels of SCNN1A and SOX6 genes showed diagnostic efficacy in ovarian cancer epithelia. CONCLUSIONS: The identified ovarian cancer epithelial-derived key transcriptional signatures are significantly correlated with survival prognosis and immune infiltrations, and may provide new insight into the diagnosis and treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer.

5.
Eur J Pediatr ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494160

RESUMO

We aimed to identify novel risk factors for the early prediction of coronary artery lesion (CAL) in children with Kawasaki disease (KD). We retrospectively analyzed data from hospitalized children newly diagnosed with KD between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020, with the following inclusion criteria: (1) diagnosis of KD, (2) first onset of CAL after admission, (3) with complete clinical records. Demographic and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. The independent risk factors of KD combined with CAL were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis, followed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to calculate the efficacy of identified risk factors in predicting KD combined with CAL. Among 241 initially recruited patients, 226 were eligible to be included in the study. Based on echocardiographic indications of CAL, 104 patients (46%) were assigned to the CAL (KD-CAL) group and 122 (54%) patients were assigned to the non-CAL (KD-nCAL) group. The levels of red blood cell count, red blood cell distribution width (RDW), C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 were significantly higher in the KD-CAL group than those in the KD-nCAL group (all p < 0.05). RDW and TNF-α were found as independent risk factors of CAL occurrence. The sensitivity and specificity of RDW, TNF-α, and RDW + TNF-α in predicting KD with CAL were 67.31% and 79.51%, 74.04% and 73.77%, and 79.81% and 80.33%, respectively.Conclusion: In conclusion, alterations in RDW and TNF-α levels can be used as novel biomarkers for early prediction of CAL in KD patients, although the differences in their absolute values were small and might not give any added value to echocardiography. What is Known: •Known risk factors of CAL in children with KD include male gender and delayed use of intravenous immune globulin. What is New: •Our current study identified that red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are novel independent risk factors for predicting CAL combined with KD among patients. •The combination of these RDW and TNF-α together shows higher sensitivity and specificity than either one used alone.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149785, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467934

RESUMO

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) catalyzed by Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera (M. oxyfera)-like bacteria is a new pathway for the regulation of methane emissions from paddy fields. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (e[CO2]) can indirectly affect the structure and function of microbial communities. However, the response of M. oxyfera-like bacteria to e[CO2] is currently unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of e[CO2] (ambient CO2 + 200 ppm) on community composition, abundance, and activity of M. oxyfera-like bacteria at different depths (0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm) in paddy fields across multiple rice growth stages (tillering, jointing, and flowering). High-throughput sequencing showed that e[CO2] had no significant effect on the community composition of M. oxyfera-like bacteria. However, quantitative PCR suggested that the 16S rRNA gene abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria increased significantly in soil under e[CO2], particularly at the tillering stage. Furthermore, 13CH4 tracer experiments showed potential n-damo activity of 0.31-8.91 nmol CO2 g-1 (dry soil) d-1. E[CO2] significantly stimulated n-damo activity, especially at the jointing and flowering stages. The n-damo activity and abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria increased by an average of 90.9% and 50.0%, respectively, under e[CO2]. Correlation analysis showed that the increase in soil dissolved organic carbon content caused by e[CO2] had significant effects on the activity and abundance of M. oxyfera-like bacteria. Overall, this study provides the first evidence for a positive response of M. oxyfera-like bacteria to e[CO2], which may help reduce methane emissions from paddy fields under future climate change conditions.

7.
Prenat Diagn ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of clinical exome sequencing (ES)-based carrier screening in Chinese consanguineous couples. METHODS: Consanguineous couples were screened for autosomal recessive (AR) disorders using the clinical ES of 5000 genes associated with human diseases. RESULTS: We recruited 14 couples who elected to have sequencing. One couple was related as first cousins and 13 as second cousins. Both partners carrying the same pathogenic variant were detected in four couples. One couple was found in which one partner carried a splice variant, and the other had a missence variant of the same gene. These five couples were identified as being at risk of having a child affected by an AR disorder. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that ES-based preconception screening yields a clinical value for Chinese consanguineous couples. It enables to detect at-risk couples for rare AR diseases.

8.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-3, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of positive feedback closed-loop management system (PFCMS) protocol in influencing parents' decision about pregnancy continuation in pregnancies diagnosed with omphalocele. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients who were diagnosed with fetal omphalocele prior to 20 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and were referred to Fetal Care Center at a mainland Chinese medical center during an 11-year period. Two management strategies were offered during the two stages of the study period: a single consultant with a routine protocol and a multidisciplinary support team with PFCMS, respectively. We analyzed the two protocols influencing parents' decision about pregnancy continuation. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients diagnosed with fetal omphalocele were included in this study. In Group A including 16 patients with routine protocol during the first stage of the study period, the majority opted for termination, and only five continued the pregnancy. In Group B including 33 patients with PFCMS during the second stage of the study period, less than one third chose TOP, and 23 ended in live births. There was a significantly lower TOP rate in patients treated with the PFCMS protocol. CONCLUSION: The PFCMS protocol may be an efficient approach in managing pregnancies complicated by omphalocele, which may help in preventing unnecessary pregnancy terminations.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257445, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534244

RESUMO

TRIM59 is a protein that is highly expressed in a variety of tumors and promotes tumor development. However, the use of TRIM59 as tumor diagnosis and prognosis biomarker has not been fully explored. We collected datasets from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and gene expression omnibus (GEO) to investigate its potential as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. A total of 46 studies, including 11,558 patients were included in this study. Here, we showed that TRIM59 was significantly upregulated in 15 type of human solid tumors in comparison to their adjacent tissues. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) results provided further evidence for the use of TRIM59 as a potential tumor diagnosis biomarker. Overall survival (OS) was compared between TRIM59 high expression and low expression groups. High expression of TRIM59 indicated a poor prognosis in multiple solid tumors. Taken together, these analyses showed that TRIM59 was upregulated in various types of tumors and had the potential to be used as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in human solid tumors.

10.
Biomacromolecules ; 22(9): 3992-4003, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464095

RESUMO

Thermosensitive polypeptide hydrogels have gained considerable attention in potential biomedical applications, of which the polymer structure may be tuned by residue chirality. In this study, polypeptide-based block copolymers with different chiralities were synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of γ-ethyl-l-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride and/or γ-ethyl-d-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride using amino-terminated monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) as a macroinitiator. All mPEG-polypeptide copolymers underwent sol-gel transition with an increase in temperature. The block copolymers with mixed enantiomeric residues of γ-ethyl-l-glutamate (ELG) and γ-ethyl-d-glutamate (EDG) in the polypeptide blocks exhibited lower critical gelation concentrations and lower critical gelation temperatures compared with those composed of pure ELG or EDG residues. We established that the difference in gelation properties between the copolymers was derived from the distinction of the secondary structures. We further demonstrated the influence of polypeptide chirality on the degradability and biocompatibility of hydrogels in vivo. Our findings provide insights into the design of hydrogels having tailored secondary conformation, gelation property, and biodegradability.

11.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 575: 14-19, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454175

RESUMO

Brown and beige adipocytes burn energy to produce heat and could serve as a therapeutic target to counteract metabolic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Aging is associated with reduced brown fat mass and thermogenic capacity and a risk factor for metabolic diseases. Our previous studies implicated a role for CD47 in regulating brown fat function and energy balance in young adult animals. In this study, we further determined its role in natural aging related metabolic disorders. The results demonstrated that aged CD47 deficient mice (under normal chow diet) had reduced body weight and fat mass, and improved glucose tolerance as compared to aged wild type (WT) mice. Indirect calorimetry result showed that food intake and total activity were comparable between two genotypes. However, CD47 deficient mice had increased energy expenditure and better cold tolerance, accompanied by increased white adipose tissue browning and well-maintained juvenile morphology of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Moreover, transcriptome (RNA-seq) and pathway enrichment analysis revealed that BAT from aged CD47 deficient mice had upregulated genes involving in mitochondria oxidative phosphorylation, thermogenesis, fatty acid metabolism, and valine, leucine and isoleucine (BCAA) degradation, indicating the activated BAT status in aged CD47 deficient mice. Collectively, these data suggest that blocking CD47 signaling protects mice from natural aging-associated obesity and glucose intolerance, partially though activation and expansion of the thermogenic machinery, further supporting that CD47 maybe a potential target for aging related metabolic disorder.

12.
Bioorg Chem ; 116: 105291, 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438122

RESUMO

In this study, twenty novel cinnamic acid magnolol derivatives were synthesized, and screened for their anti-hyperglycemic potential. All synthesized compounds exhibited good to moderate α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities with IC50 values: 5.11 ± 1.46-90.26 ± 1.85 µM and 4.27 ± 1.51-49.28 ± 2.54 µM as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50: 255.44 ± 1.89 µM and 80.33 ± 2.95 µM, respectively). Compound 6j showed the strongest inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 = 5.11 ± 1.46 µM) and α-amylase (IC50 = 4.27 ± 1.51 µM). Kinetic study indicated that compound 6j was reversible and a mixed type inhibitor against α-glucosidase and α-amylase. In silico studies revealed the binding interaction between 6j and two enzymes, respectively. Finally, cells cytotoxicity assay revealed that compound 6j showed low toxicity against 3 T3-L1 cells and HepG2 cells.

13.
Clin Chim Acta ; 523: 6-9, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453918

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an infrequent autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculo-cutaneous telangiectasia, a tendency to malignancies and variable immunodeficiency. Here we described a 5-year-old girl with atypical A-T symptoms. And 2 different ATM variants c.5939_5948del in exon 40 and c.2639-384A > G in intron 17 were detected by whole exome sequencing (WES) combined with RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). The variant spectrum of ATM was expanded. RNA-seq makes up for deficiencies of WES. We proposed a new approach, a dual-omics that combines RNA-seq with WES, for the diagnosis of genetic diseases. Moreover, our study discussed the phenotypic heterogeneity of A-T among family members as well as individuals. For children with recurrent infections and immunodeficiency, we suggested focusing on A-T after the exclusion of other potential diseases.

14.
Clin Chim Acta ; 522: 14-22, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is a rare inherited metabolic disease caused by methylmalonyl-CoA deficiency or cobalamin metabolism disorder. It is mainly inherited in autosomal recessive mode. According to whether combined with homocysteinemia and the causative genes, it can be divided into many different subtypes. Early diagnosis and early treatment can significantly improve the prognosis. METHODS: The children with MMA diagnosed in Tianjin Children's Hospital from 2012 to 2020 were collected. All the children underwent comprehensive physical and laboratory examinations. The metabolites in blood and urine were screened by mass spectrometry. Sanger sequencing, Next-generation sequencing and methylation detection were used for gene detection. RESULTS: The detection rate of MMA was 0.20% in children with high-risk of inherited metabolic diseases. The three most common clinical phenotypes of children with MMA were respiratory / metabolic acidosis, global developmental delay and anemia, which were found in 36.00%, 33.33% and 30.67% of children respectively. The most common mutations of MMACHC gene in children with cblC were c.609G > A, c.658_660delAAG and c.80A > G, with frequencies of 34.09%, 13.64% and 13.64%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This research expands the study of phenotype and genotype of MMA in Chinese population, and can provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of MMA.

16.
J Virol ; : JVI0088121, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406868

RESUMO

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious virus that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Neutralizing antibodies play critical roles in antiviral infection. Although five known antigen sites that induce neutralizing antibodies have been defined, studies on cross-protective antigen sites are still scarce. We mapped two cross-protective antigen sites using 13 bovine-derived broadly neutralizing mAbs (bnAbs) capable of neutralizing 4 lineages within 3 topotypes of FMDV serotype O. One antigen site was formed by a novel cluster of VP3-focused epitopes recognized by bnAbs C4 and C4-like antibodies. The cryo-EM structure of the FMDV-OTi-C4 complex showed close contact with VP3 and a novel interprotomer antigen epitope around the icosahedral threefold axis of the FMDV particle, which is far beyond the known antigen site 4. The key determinants of the neutralizing function of C4 and C4-like antibodies on the capsid were ßB (T65), the B-C loop (T68), the E-F loop (E131 and K134) and the H-I loop (G196), revealing a novel antigen site on VP3. The other antigen site comprised two group epitopes on VP2 recognized by 9 bnAbs (B57, B73, B77, B82, F28, F145, F150, E46 and E54), which belong to the known antigen site 2 of FMDV serotype O. Notably, bnAb C4 potently promoted FMDV RNA release in response to damage to viral particles, suggesting that the targeted epitope contains a trigger mechanism for particle disassembly. This study revealed two cross-protective antigen sites that can elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in cattle and provided new structural information for the design of a broad-spectrum molecular vaccine against FMDV serotype O. Importance: FMDV is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is one of the most contagious and economically devastating diseases of domestic animals. The antigenic structure of FMDV serotype O is rather complicated, especially for those sites that can elicit a cross-protective neutralizing antibody response. Monoclonal neutralization antibodies provide both crucial defense components against FMDV infection and valuable tools for fine analysis of the antigenic structure. In this study, we found a cluster of novel VP3-focused epitopes using 13 bnAbs against FMDV serotype O from natural host cattle, which revealed two cross-protective antigen sites on VP2 and VP3. Antibody C4 targeting this novel epitope potently promoted viral particle disassembly and RNA release before infection, which may indicate a vulnerable region of FMDV. This study reveals new structural information about cross-protective antigen sites of FMDV serotype O, providing valuable and strong support for future research on broad-spectrum vaccines against FMD.

17.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4383-4389, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414737

RESUMO

This study explored the effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) under intermittent gradient aeration, as well as the effect of the short-range nitrification endogenous denitrification phosphorus removal system on the treatment of low C/N ratio domestic sewage. In this study, an SBR reactor was used to cultivate aerobic granular sludge, using actual domestic sewage as the influent substrate. As the SRT decreased from 50 d to 30 d, the specific ammonia oxidation rate increased from 3.16 mg·(g·h)-1to 4.38 mg·(g·h)-1, and the specific nitrite oxidation rate decreased from 3.4 mg·(g·h)-1to 1.8 mg·(g·h)-1. The activity of NOB decreased by about 44%, resulting in short-range nitrification within the system. With an SRT of 30 d, the maximum nitrite accumulation was 6.93 mg·L-1. Because the reduced SRT led to a slight decrease in sludge concentration within the system, an aeration reduction strategy was adopted after 40 d, according to the DO curve. When the final SRT was 30 d, the effluent COD concentration was 40.76 mg·L-1, the TN concentration was 12.4 mg·L-1, the TP concentration was 0.31 mg·L-1, and the simultaneous removal of C, N and P was realized. Thus, a stable short-range nitrification endogenous denitrification phosphorus removal system was finally obtained. At the same time, the EPS content of aerobic granular sludge was negatively correlated with SRT, the protein content increased from 66.7 mg·g-1 to 95.1 mg·g-1, and the polysaccharide content remained in the range of 12.1-17.2 mg·g-1, indicating that the decreased SRT had a great effect on the protein content. With an SRT of 30 d, the PN/PS value was maintained at approximately 6.2, and the structural stability of aerobic granular sludge can be maintained under such conditions.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Fósforo
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4399-4405, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414739

RESUMO

Actual domestic sewage has a complex composition and relatively low carbon and nitrogen content. Anaerobic plug-flow influent can enhance the utilization of COD by aerobic granular sludge by providing a locally high concentration of substrate. In this study, intermittent aeration was used to cultivate aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and actual domestic sewage was used as the feed water to inoculate the sewage plant sludge. In the R1 experiment, rapid anaerobic feeding was adopted, while in R2, anaerobic plug-flow feeding was adopted, to explore the impact of different feeding modes on the aerobic granular sludge system of domestic sewage. Under rapid anaerobic feeding in R1, the particle structure appeared earlier, but particle breakage occurred after 71 days of operation; the particle structure generated in R2 was denser than that of R1, the particle surfaces were smoother, and the denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms (DPAO) had a more enriching effect. In the final R1 and R2 reactors, the proportion of DPAO to phosphorous accumulating organisms (PAO) was 14.17% and 22.07%, respectively. The results show that the anaerobic plug-flow feeding mode can enhance the use of influent COD by granular sludge, which is conducive to enriching DPAO, generating denser and more stable particles, realizing "one carbon dual purpose" operation, and removing more nitrogen and phosphorus.


Assuntos
Nitrificação , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Fósforo
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(9): 4406-4413, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414740

RESUMO

In this study, domestic sewage was used to inoculate mature short-cut nitrification denitrifying phosphorus removal particles, which were cultivated and matured under artificial water. The operation of the short-cut nitrification denitrifying phosphorus removal system was optimized using different aerobic/anoxic durations combined with zoned sludge discharge. The results showed that regulating the aerobic/anoxic duration, in combination with zoned sludge discharge, can realize the stable operation of the system. In the later stable period, the effluent COD concentration was below 50 mg·L-1, the effluent TN concentration was below 15 mg·L-1, the TN removal rate reached about 83% and remained stable, the effluent P concentration was below 0.5 mg·L-1, and the average P removal rate was 93.72%. At the same time, zoned sludge discharge (70% top sludge and 30% bottom sludge) can be used to screen out microorganisms, maintain good nitrosation and phosphorus removal performance, limit the particle size distribution, and ensure the growth advantages of AOB and DPAOs. Increases in the anoxic duration improved the growth rate of anoxic heterotrophic bacteria, causing them to secrete more EPS and ensuring granular sludge improvements and continued stability.


Assuntos
Fósforo , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
20.
Parasite ; 28: 61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34374643

RESUMO

Eimeria spp. cause the disease coccidiosis, which results in chronic wasting of livestock and can lead to the death of the animal. The disease, common worldwide, has caused huge economic losses to the cattle industry in particular. This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of bovine Eimeria in China. Our search of five databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP, and Wan Fang for articles published up to February 29, 2020 on the prevalence of Eimeria in cattle in mainland China yielded 46 articles, in which the prevalence of cattle ranged from 4.6% to 87.5%. The rate of bovine Eimeria infection has been decreasing year by year, from 57.9% before 2000 to 25.0% after 2015, but it is still high. We also analyzed the region, sampling years, detection methods, feeding model, seasons, and species of bovine Eimeria. We recommend that prevention strategies should focus on strengthening detection of Eimeria in calves in the intensive farming model.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Eimeria , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Fezes , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco
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