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1.
J Neurosci Methods ; 329: 108466, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke is the third most common cause of disability and the second most common cause of death worldwide. Ischemia, one of the two broad categories of stroke, is characterized by a lack of sufficient amounts of blood in order to supply an adequate amount of oxygen and nutrients. It is important to assess the part of the brain that becomes ischemic and necrotic during neurosurgery or experiments in real time. However, there is currently no effective means to achieve this goal. NEW METHOD: We proposed a method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for the real-time detection of a varied range of ischemic brain tissues in vivo or ex vivo and assessed the practical utility of a model of ischemic stroke in rats. RESULTS: The results showed that hyperspectral images processed with a ratio of spectral reflectance at 545 and 560 nm (R545/R560) could identify early brain ischemia and accurately show regions of ischemia. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: We verified the area imaged by HSI using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining methods. This technique could precisely image the ischemic part of the brain in vivo and ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the practical utility of HSI for the real-time detection of cerebral ischemia in rats. By providing rapid assessment of brain tissue perfusion, HSI may help doctors recognize ischemic regions quickly and precisely during surgery as well as have great utility in the experimental process.

2.
Med Image Anal ; 59: 101570, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630011

RESUMO

Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible but preventable blindness in working age populations. Color fundus photography (CFP) is the most cost-effective imaging modality to screen for retinal disorders. However, its application to glaucoma has been limited to the computation of a few related biomarkers such as the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. Deep learning approaches, although widely applied for medical image analysis, have not been extensively used for glaucoma assessment due to the limited size of the available data sets. Furthermore, the lack of a standardize benchmark strategy makes difficult to compare existing methods in a uniform way. In order to overcome these issues we set up the Retinal Fundus Glaucoma Challenge, REFUGE (https://refuge.grand-challenge.org), held in conjunction with MICCAI 2018. The challenge consisted of two primary tasks, namely optic disc/cup segmentation and glaucoma classification. As part of REFUGE, we have publicly released a data set of 1200 fundus images with ground truth segmentations and clinical glaucoma labels, currently the largest existing one. We have also built an evaluation framework to ease and ensure fairness in the comparison of different models, encouraging the development of novel techniques in the field. 12 teams qualified and participated in the online challenge. This paper summarizes their methods and analyzes their corresponding results. In particular, we observed that two of the top-ranked teams outperformed two human experts in the glaucoma classification task. Furthermore, the segmentation results were in general consistent with the ground truth annotations, with complementary outcomes that can be further exploited by ensembling the results.

3.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(3): 1697-1703, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492332

RESUMO

TiO2 doped layered zirconium phosphates were prepared by the hydrofluoric acid (HF) method and its photocatalytic performance was investigated in this study. Through the introduction of octylamine which acts as the intercalation and exfoliation reagent in the process, TiO2 could be uniformly generated and dispersed on the zirconium phosphate matrix through tetrabutyl titanate hydrolysis and calcination. The nano-scale TiO2 was obtained by applying the appropriate ratio of tetrabutyl titanate and layered zirconium phosphate in reaction. XRD, N2-sorption, FT-IR, UV-vis, SEM and TEM were used to characterize the structure and phtocatalytic properties of the samples. The photocatalytic performance of synthesized nano-scale TiO2 doped zirconium phosphates was studied by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). It is found that the scavenging rate of RhB could be up to 65% within 90 min under the visible light irradiation due to the relatively large active surface area and compact size of TiO2. This study highlights the potential application of TiO2 doped layered zirconium phosphate as a novel photocatalyst in photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants.

4.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 30(1): 1-13, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759566

RESUMO

Psychoradiology is an emerging discipline at the intersection between radiology and psychiatry. It holds promise for playing a role in clinical diagnosis, evaluation of treatment response and prognosis, and illness risk prediction for patients with psychiatric disorders. Addressing complex issues, such as the biological heterogeneity of psychiatric syndromes and unclear neurobiological mechanisms underpinning radiological abnormalities, is a challenge that needs to be resolved. With the advance of multimodal imaging and more efforts in standardization of image acquisition and analysis, psychoradiology is becoming a promising tool for the future of clinical care for patients with psychiatric disorders.

5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; : 183108, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672548

RESUMO

Increasing lines of evidence show that the oligomeric intermediates of amyloid peptides/proteins are toxic to biological membranes. However, the structural features of the oligomers that are closely associated with the ability to damage biological membranes are far from understanding. In this study, we constructed two species of oligomers using hIAPP18-27 peptide and its d,l-alternating isomer, examined the disruptive ability of the oligomers to POPC/POPG 4:1 vesicles by leakage assay and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and characterized the structural features of the oligomers by CD, TEM, 1H NMR and fluorescence quenching experiments. We found that the d,l-alternating peptide oligomers are more disruptive than the all-L peptide oligomers to the lipid membrane. The characterization of the secondary structure revealed that the d,l-alternating peptide adopts an extended polyproline type-II (PPII) conformation, while the all-L peptide adopts a random coil conformation in oligomers. Compared with the all-L peptide oligomers, the d,l-alternating peptide oligomers are less compact and keep more hydrophobic groups water exposed. Both the changes from PPII to α-sheet in the structure of d,l-alternating peptide and from random coil to ß-sheet in the structure of all-L peptide reduce the ability of the peptide oligomers to disrupt the lipid membrane. Our results suggest that an oligomer with extended peptide chains could be more potent in membrane disruption than an oligomer with folded peptide chains and an increase in peptide-peptide interaction could decrease the disruptive ability of oligomer.

6.
Clin Lab ; 65(11)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A noninvasive, fast, highly sensitive and simple test is needed for cancer screening in addition to the detection of biomarkers in blood. Recently, the patent (CN102565055A) for the Urinary Monohydroxyphenyl Metabolites Assay (UMM-A) was authorized, and the effectiveness of clinical application has yet to be studied further. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted consisting of 432 cancer patients, 28 benign tumor patients, 117 non-cancerous diseases patients, and 120 healthy donors to analyze the levels of monohydroxyphenyl metabolites in the urine sample. A logistic regression model was used to study the possible confounding factors affecting the diagnostic performance and to test the probability of a case to be positive for UMM-A. RESULTS: Compared with healthy donors, non-cancerous disease, and benign tumor subjects, the positive rate and MM level of UMM-A in cancer patients have significantly increased. After the 246 retreated cancer patients were excluded, and 186 untreated cancer patients were included, with the same specificity to 77.0%, the sensitivity improved from 66.7 to 89.8%, the negative predictive value improved from 58.6 to 91.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has provided important information on the diagnostic characteristics of UMM-A for untreated cancer and its potential application in cancer screening.

7.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692050

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Endometrial carcinoma (EC), a common gynecological malignancy with high incidence, affects the mental and physical health of women. Mounting evidence shows that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs) have instrumental roles in various biological processes associated with the pathogenesis of EC. In this research, we intend to further study the mechanism of EC and the potential predictive markers of EC. METHODS: First, we obtained original data of EC RNA transcripts from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and performed differential analysis. Subsequently, according to the miRcode online software, relationship pairs of lncRNA-miRNA were constructed, and miRNA-mRNA pairs were established based on miRDB, TargetScan, and miRTarBase. Then, we constructed the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network based on lncRNA-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA pairs. To further explain the function of the ceRNA network and explore the potential prognostic markers, functional enrichment analysis, and survival analysis were carried out. RESULTS: The research showed that there were 744 differential expression lncRNAs (DElncRNAs), 164 differential expression miRNAs (DEmiRNAs), and 2447 differential expression mRNAs (DEmRNAs) between EC tissues and normal tissues. Subsequently, we built 103 DEmiRNA-DEmRNA interaction pairs and 369 DElncRNA-DEmiRNA pairs. Then, we established the ceRNA network of EC, including 62 DElncRNAs, 26 DEmiRNAs, and 70 DEmRNAs. Moreover, 10 of 62 lncRNAs, 19 of 70 mRNAs, and 4 of 26 miRNAs that closely related to the survival of EC with P < .05 were obtained. Notably, based on this network, it was found that LINC00261-hsa-mir-31 pair and LINC00261-hsa-mir-211 target pairs could be used as the potential prognostic markers of EC. CONCLUSION: This research recommended an available basis for the molecular mechanism of EC and prognosis prediction, which could help guide the subsequent treatments and predict the prognosis for patients with EC.

8.
Theranostics ; 9(24): 7325-7344, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695771

RESUMO

Metastasis is one of the most threatening aspects of cervical cancer. We developed a method to intraoperatively map the primary tumor, metastasis and metastatic sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), providing real-time intraoperative guidance in cervical cancer. Methods: TMTP1, a tumor metastasis targeting peptide, was employed to modify the indocyanine green (ICG)-loaded poly (ethylene glycol)- poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) micelles. The cervical cancer subcutaneous tumor model and lung metastasis model were established to determine the active targeting of ICG-loaded TMTP1-PEG-PLGA micelles (ITM) for the primary tumor and occult metastasis of cervical cancer. Human cervical cancer HeLa cells engineered by firefly luciferase were injected into the right hocks of BALB/c nude mice to develop the SLN metastasis model. The ITM and control ICG-loaded PEG-PLGA micelles (IM) were injected into the right hind footpads in the SLN metastasis model, and the migration and retention of micelles were recorded under near-infrared fluorescence. K14-HPV16 transgenic mice were also used to detect the image capability of ITM to target cancerous lesions. Results: ITM could actively target imaging of the primary tumor and cervical cancer metastasis. ITM quickly diffused from the injection site to SLNs along lymphatic capillaries and remained in the SLNs for 12 h. Moreover, ITM specifically accumulated in the tumor metastatic SLNs (T-SLNs), which could be successfully distinguished from normal SLNs (N-SLNs). Conclusion: ITM could achieve active targeting of the primary tumor, metastasis and T-SLNs, providing precise and real-time intraoperative guidance for cervical cancer.

9.
Math Biosci Eng ; 16(6): 6892-6906, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698594

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurological degenerative disease, which is mainly char-acterized by the memory loss. As electroencephalogram (EEG) device is relatively cheap, portable and non-invasive, it has been widely used in AD-related studies. We proposed a method to detect the differences between healthy subjects and AD patients, which combines classical sample entropy (Sam-pEn) and surrogate data method. EEGs from 14 AD patients and 20 healthy subjects were analyzed. The results based on the original data showed that the SampEn of AD patients was significantly de-creased (p < 0.01) at electrodes c3, f3, o2 and p4, which confirmed that AD could cause complexity loss. However, using original data could be subject to human judgement, so we generated a series of surrogate data. We found that, there were significant difference of SampEn between the original time series and their surrogate data at c3 and o2 electrodes and the differences between healthy subjects and AD patients can be verified. Our method is capable of distinguishing AD patients from healthy subjects, which is consistent with the concept of physiologic complexity, and providing insights for understanding of AD.

10.
Inorg Chem ; 58(22): 15013-15016, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693352

RESUMO

Highly dense packing of chromophoric linkers is achieved in a novel pyrene-based metal-organic framework (MOF), [Zn(TBAPy)1/2(H2O)2], induced by an ionic liquid. This MOF displays a quick response to visible-light irradiation (photocurrent density of up to 4.492 µA cm-2) and is capable of repetitive on-off photocurrent switching with a large on-off ratio (37.55).

11.
Pharmacol Res ; : 104488, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734344

RESUMO

The incidence of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) is increasing yearly, which seriously endangers human health. There is rarely any remarkable progress in the treatment of ICM from the available drugs. Recent research shows that natural herbal medicine may have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The effective extracts of the herbs may improve myocardial ischemia through various actions, such as hemodynamic, hemorheological, and vascular actions, and on various cell biology aspects, such as intracellular calcium balance, mitochondria function, cell apoptosis, and scavenging free radicals. Here, we review the animal research progress and potential mechanisms in the treatment of ICM using extracts of well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicines.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735412

RESUMO

DNA formylation (5-formylcytosine, 5fC) is a major epigenetic modification involved in alterations in the DNA double helix structure and protein identification. Due to the low amount in all mammalian tissues and cells, it is necessary to develop a rapid, sensitive and efficient method for detecting 5fC for further understanding the biological functions of 5fC. Thus, a novel PEC biosensor was constructed using P-g-C3N4-WS2 nanocomposite as photoactive material. Firstly, AuNPs/P-g-C3N4-WS2/ITO electrode was prepared as substrate electrode. Secondly, the probe DNA and complementary DNA (containing 5fC base) was modified to the electrode surface based on the formation of Au-S bonds between AuNPs and thiol group on the probe DNA and hybridization, respectively. Finally, the amino functionalized MnO2 nanoflowers were further modified to the electrode surface by covalent interaction between the aldehyde group on the 5fC and the amino group on MnO2 nanoflowers. The sensitive and specific detection of 5fC can be achieved by oxidizing ascorbic acid with MnO2 nanoflowers and quenching the photoactivity of P-g-C3N4-WS2 nanocomposite. The sensor has a detection range of 0.01-200 nM and a detection limit of 3.8 pM. Moreover, this sensor has excellent detection specificity, stability and reproducibility.

13.
J Pediatr ; 215: 24-31.e8, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate neurodevelopment, growth, and health outcomes in infants receiving bovine milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin in infant formula. STUDY DESIGN: Healthy term infants were randomized to a cow's milk-based infant formula or MFGM + LF (a similar infant formula, with an added source of bovine milk fat globule membrane [bMFGM; whey protein-lipid concentrate, 5 g/L] and bovine lactoferrin [0.6 g/L]) through 365 days of age. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 3rd edition cognitive composite score at day 365 was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included tolerance measures through day 365, additional neurodevelopmental and language outcomes, growth, and medically confirmed adverse events through day 545. RESULTS: Of 451 infants enrolled (control, 228; MFGM + LF, 223), 291 completed study feeding and Bayley-III testing at day 365 (control, 148; MFGM + LF, 143). The mean cognitive (+8.7), language (+12.3), and motor (+12.6) scores were higher (P < .001) for the MFGM + LF group; no differences were observed at day 545. Global development scores from day 120 to day 275 and attention at day 365 were significantly improved. Few group differences in day 545 neurodevelopmental outcomes were detected, however scores of some subcategories of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories were higher (P < .05) in the MFGM + LF group. The overall incidence of respiratory-associated adverse events and diarrhea were significantly lower for the MFGM + LF group through day 545. CONCLUSIONS: Infants receiving formula with added bovine MFGM and bovine lactoferrin had an accelerated neurodevelopmental profile at day 365 and improved language subcategories at day 545. Formulas were associated with age-appropriate growth and significantly fewer diarrhea and respiratory-associated adverse events through 545 days of age. TRIAL REGISTRATION CLINICALTRIALS.GOV:: NCT02274883.

14.
J Med Entomol ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751462

RESUMO

Theileria spp. are tick-transmitted, intracellular apicomplexan protozoan parasites that infect a wide range of animals and, as such, can cause significant economic losses. The aim of the present study was to detect and analyze apicomplexan parasites from two different ectoparasites that were collected from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The PCR-based detection of 18S rRNA indicated that Ornithodoros lahorensis specimens from Kashgar, Xinjiang, and Aksu were positive for Theileria spp., as were Melophagus ovinus specimens from Aksu. Meanwhile, phylogenetic analysis, based on the 18S rRNA gene sequences, revealed that the four amplified Theileria sequences could be attributed to T. ovis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the detection of T. ovis DNA in M. ovinus and the first molecular identification study to confirm the detection of T. ovis in O. lahorensis in China. Accordingly, the present study extends the known distribution of T. ovis.

15.
Biochem Pharmacol ; : 113720, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751533

RESUMO

Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Spontaneous functional recovery occurs after ischemic stroke, but it is very limited. Therefore, it is urgent to find a strategy to promote functional recovery after stroke in clinical setting. Gray matter damage has received extensive attention owing to the important roles of the gray matter in synaptic plasticity, cognitive, and motor function. However, stroke also causes white matter damage, which accounts for half of the infarct volume and can be aggravated by blood brain barrier damage. Disruption of white matter integrity, which is characterized by death of oligodendrocytes (OLs), loss of myelin, and axonal injury, greatly contributes to impaired neurological function. Impaired proliferation and differentiation of OL precursor cell (OPC, NG2-glia cells) play an important role in limited functional recovery after ischemic stroke and inhibitor of differentiation 2 (ID2) is a key factor controlling NG2-glia cells differentiation. It has been reported that the number of NG2-glia cells in the peri-infarction area significantly increases after ischemic stroke and glial growth factor (GGF2) administration promotes the proliferation and differentiation of NG2-glia cells as well as functional recovery after spinal cord injury. On the basis of the important roles of GGF2 in functional recovery and those of ID2 in NG2-glia cell proliferation and differentiation , we propose that after binding with the ErBb receptor on the surface of NG2-glia cells, GGF2 promotes NG2-glia cell proliferation and differentiation, thereby repairing BBB and white matter integrity and promoting neural functional recovery after ischemic stroke.

16.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 893, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic insects are well-known biological control agents for arthropod pests worldwide. They are capable of regulating their host's physiology, development and behaviour. However, many of the molecular mechanisms involved in host-parasitoid interaction remain unknown. RESULTS: We sequenced the genomes of two parasitic wasps (Cotesia vestalis, and Diadromus collaris) that parasitize the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella using Illumina and Pacbio sequencing platforms. Genome assembly using SOAPdenovo produced a 178 Mb draft genome for C. vestalis and a 399 Mb draft genome for D. collaris. A total set that contained 11,278 and 15,328 protein-coding genes for C. vestalis and D. collaris, respectively, were predicted using evidence (homology-based and transcriptome-based) and de novo prediction methodology. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the braconid C. vestalis and the ichneumonid D. collaris diverged approximately 124 million years ago. These two wasps exhibit gene gains and losses that in some cases reflect their shared life history as parasitic wasps and in other cases are unique to particular species. Gene families with functions in development, nutrient acquisition from hosts, and metabolism have expanded in each wasp species, while genes required for biosynthesis of some amino acids and steroids have been lost, since these nutrients can be directly obtained from the host. Both wasp species encode a relative higher number of neprilysins (NEPs) thus far reported in arthropod genomes while several genes encoding immune-related proteins and detoxification enzymes were lost in both wasp genomes. CONCLUSIONS: We present the annotated genome sequence of two parasitic wasps C. vestalis and D. collaris, which parasitize a common host, the diamondback moth, P. xylostella. These data will provide a fundamental source for studying the mechanism of host control and will be used in parasitoid comparative genomics to study the origin and diversification of the parasitic lifestyle.

17.
Int J Dev Neurosci ; 79: 45-48, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669195

RESUMO

Defects of WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) has been associated with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia type 12 (SCAR12) and severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. The mutations in this gene can lead to global developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, and epilepsy. We report an infant with an autosomal recessive severe early-onset epileptic encephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing analysis was applied to the patient. Novel compound heterozygous mutations in the WWOX gene, c.173-2A > G and c.775 T > C (p.Ser259Pro), were identified. The present study expands our knowledge of WWOX mutations and related phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e030293, 2019 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767583

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The best approach for choledocholithiasis remains a matter of debate. Choledocholithiasis is usually treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST), laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) or laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (LTCBDE). Data pertaining to the clinical outcomes of these approaches in the management of patients with cholecysto-choledocholithiasis in China are limited. An analysis of the economic burden associated with these treatments is lacking. The Chinese REgistry Study on the Treatment of Cholecysto-Choledocholithiasis (CREST Choles) was designed to address these issues in a real-world setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: CREST Choles was an ambispective, multicenter, observational, open-cohort study. A total of 2700 patients undergoing one of the three treatments (EST+laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), LCBDE+LC and LTCBDE+LC) during the period from 1 January 2013 to 1 December 2018 at participating centres were enrolled in the study. Patients with gallstones and confirmed common bile duct stones were included. Data pertaining to demographics, disease history, procedural details, imaging features and follow-up were collected. Follow-up was conducted at least 6 months after enrolment in the study and annual follow-up will be conducted until December 2020. The primary outcome is the rate of adverse outcomes within 3 years postoperatively. Economic analysis (eg, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio) would be performed to compare expense across treatments. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained at all participating centres. The registry presented is the first attempt to comprehensively evaluate the cost of treatment for cholecysto-choledocholithiasis in China. Findings are expected to be available in 2020 and will facilitate clinical decision making in such cases. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02554097.

19.
Environ Pollut ; : 113591, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31744679

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is an important heavy metal pollutant in the Bohai Sea. Mitochondria are recognized as the key target for Cd toxicity. However, mitochondrial responses to Cd have not been fully investigated in marine fishes. In this study, the mitochondrial responses were characterized in gills of juvenile flounder Paralichthys olivaceus treated with two environmentally relevant concentrations (5 and 50 µg/L) of Cd for 14 days by determination of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), observation of mitochondrial morphology and quantitative proteomic analysis. Both Cd treatments significantly decreased MMPs of mitochondria from flounder gills. Mitochondrial morphologies were altered in Cd-treated flounder samples, indicated by more and smaller mitochondria. iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis indicated that a total of 128 proteins were differentially expressed in both Cd treatments. These proteins were basically involved in various biological processes in gill mitochondria, including mitochondrial morphology and import, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), primary bile acid biosynthesis, stress resistance and apoptosis. These results indicated that dynamic regulations of energy homeostasis, cholesterol metabolism, stress resistance, apoptosis, and mitochondrial morphology in gill mitochondria might play significant roles in response to Cd toxicity. Overall, this study provided a global view on mitochondrial toxicity of Cd in flounder gills using iTRAQ-based proteomics.

20.
Environ Pollut ; : 113342, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31676093

RESUMO

PM2.5 exposure aggravates type 2 diabetes, in which inflammatory factors play an important role. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanisms responsible for aggravating diabetes after PM2.5 exposure, and study the roles of inflammatory factors in insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Our study indicated that short-time PM2.5 exposure enhances insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic rats and significantly raises inflammatory factors, including IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1, in lungs. However, we found that of these inflammatory factors only IL-6 levels are elevated in blood, liver, adipose tissue, and macrophages, but not in skeletal muscle. IL-6 induced activation of the STAT3/SOCS3 pathway in liver, but not other downstream pathways including STAT1, ERK1/2, and PI3K. Both STAT3 inhibition and IL-6 neutralization effectively alleviated the disorders of glucose metabolism after PM2.5 exposure. Taken together, this suggests that the systemic increase in IL-6 may play an important role in the deterioration of the type 2 diabetes via IL-6/STAT3/SOCS3 pathway in liver after short-time exposure to PM2.5. Besides, we unexpectedly found a stronger resistance to the PM2.5 exposure-induced increase in IL-6 in skeleton muscle than those of many other tissues.

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