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2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 212, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) has been detected in respiratory samples from patients. However, no previous reports have been published about these P. fluorescens cultures from lung tissues. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of pneumonia caused by P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens was identified from lung biopsy specimens for the first time in this case. According to the antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) of P. fluorescens, the patient was given ciprofloxacin treatment. The temperature of the patient then returned to normal. Chest CT examination revealed improvements in pulmonary inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the patients with pneumonia caused by P. fluorescens should be treated in a timely manner according to the AST results.

3.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 150, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our recent studies have identified that the red nucleus (RN) dual-directionally modulates the development and maintenance of mononeuropathic pain through secreting proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we further explored the action of red nucleus IL-33 in the early development of mononeuropathic pain. METHODS: In this study, male rats with spared nerve injury (SNI) were used as mononeuropathic pain model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and behavioral testing were used to assess the expressions, cellular distributions, and actions of red nucleus IL-33 and its related downstream signaling molecules. RESULTS: IL-33 and its receptor ST2 were constitutively expressed in the RN in naive rats. After SNI, both IL-33 and ST2 were upregulated significantly at 3 days and peaked at 1 week post-injury, especially in RN neurons, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Blockade of red nucleus IL-33 with anti-IL-33 neutralizing antibody attenuated SNI-induced mononeuropathic pain, while intrarubral administration of exogenous IL-33 evoked mechanical hypersensitivity in naive rats. Red nucleus IL-33 generated an algesic effect in the early development of SNI-induced mononeuropathic pain through activating NF-κB, ERK, p38 MAPK, and JAK2/STAT3, suppression of NF-κB, ERK, p38 MAPK, and JAK2/STAT3 with corresponding inhibitors markedly attenuated SNI-induced mononeuropathic pain or IL-33-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity in naive rats. Red nucleus IL-33 contributed to SNI-induced mononeuropathic pain by stimulating TNF-α expression, which could be abolished by administration of inhibitors against ERK, p38 MAPK, and JAK2/STAT3, but not NF-κB. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that red nucleus IL-33 facilitates the early development of mononeuropathic pain through activating NF-κB, ERK, p38 MAPK, and JAK2/STAT3. IL-33 mediates algesic effect partly by inducing TNF-α through activating ERK, p38 MAPK and JAK2/STAT3.

4.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 2698811211030181, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is considered as one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Prescription of antidepressants is a current clinical practice well-established as the first-line treatment for such patients. Our study was aimed at systematically examining the evidence on the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of depression in AD patients. METHODS: We conducted a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials retrieved by systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, and CNKI databases. Primary outcomes included mean depression score and safety. Secondary outcomes were cognition. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve was performed to estimate a ranking probability for different treatments. RESULTS: A total of 25 studies including 14 medications met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, only mirtazapine (standard mean deviation [SMD], -1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.53 to -0.36; p < 0.05) and sertraline (SMD, -1.16; 95% CI, -2.17 to -0.15; p < 0.05) showed a slightly better effect in treating symptoms of depression. Clomipramine increased risk of adverse events than placebo (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.45 to 4.57; p < 0.05). In terms of cognitive function, there was no statistically significant difference between antidepressants and placebo. CONCLUSION: Overall, in the short-term treatment, these data suggest that commonly used antidepressants sertraline and mirtazapine should be considered as an alternative treatment for depression in AD patients. However, more high-quality trials with large samples and longer following-up are proposed.

5.
Cereb Cortex ; 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34240115

RESUMO

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have showed obesity (OB)-related alterations in intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) within and between different resting-state networks (RSNs). However, few studies have examined dynamic functional connectivity (DFC). Thus, we employed resting-state fMRI with independent component analysis (ICA) and DFC analysis to investigate the alterations in FC within and between RSNs in 56 individuals with OB and 46 normal-weight (NW) controls. ICA identified six RSNs, including basal ganglia (BG), salience network (SN), right executive control network/left executive control network, and anterior default-mode network (aDMN)/posterior default-mode network. The DFC analysis identified four FC states. OB compared with NW had more occurrences and a longer mean dwell time (MDT) in state 2 (positive connectivity of BG with other RSN) and also had higher FC of BG-SN in other states. Body mass index was positively correlated with MDT and FCs of BG-aDMN (state 2) and BG-SN (state 4). DFC analysis within more refined nodes of RSNs showed that OB had more occurrences and a longer MDT in state 1 in which caudate had positive connections with the other network nodes. The findings suggest an association between caudate-related and BG-related positive FC in OB, which was not revealed by traditional FC analysis, highlighting the utility of adding DFC to the more conventional methods.

6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2648065, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195260

RESUMO

The incidence of stomach diseases is very high, which has a significant impact on human health. Damaged gastric mucosa is more vulnerable to injury, leading to bleeding and perforation, which eventually aggravates the primary disease. Therefore, the protection of gastric mucosa is crucial. However, existing drugs that protect gastric mucosa can cause nonnegligible side effects, such as hepatic inflammation, nephritis, hypoacidity, impotence, osteoporotic bone fracture, and hypergastrinemia. Autophagy, as a major intracellular lysosome-dependent degradation process, plays a key role in maintaining intracellular homeostasis and resisting environmental pressure, which may be a potential therapeutic target for protecting gastric mucosa. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy played a dual role when gastric mucosa exposed to biological and chemical factors. More indepth studies are needed on the protective effect of autophagy in gastric mucosa. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms and the dual role of various biological and chemical factors regulating autophagy, such as Helicobacter pylori, virus, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. And we summarize the pathophysiological properties and pharmacological strategies for the protection of gastric mucosa through autophagy.

7.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17316-17327, 2021 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238763

RESUMO

Anoctamin 5 (ANO5) is a member of the Anoctamin (ANO) family of calcium-activated chloride channels. Although ANO5 expression is upregulated in various cancers, its role in osteosarcoma remains largely unknown. In this study, bioinformatics analysis, western blot, and immunohistochemical staining revealed that ANO5 was upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines and osteosarcoma tissues, and ANO5 expression was positively associated with tumor size, tumor grade, and metastasis. Functional experiments demonstrated that inhibition of ANO5 decreased, while ANO5 overexpression increased, osteosarcoma cell proliferation and mobility in vitro. Immunoprecipitation, western blot, and confocal microscopy experiments showed that ANO5 bound to and promoted the degradation of Nel-like proteins 1 (NELL1) and 2 (NELL2). Moreover, a subcutaneous tumor transplantation model revealed that ANO5 knockdown reduced osteosarcoma cell proliferation and increased NELL1 and NELL2 expression in vivo. Finally, rescue experiments showed that knockdown of NELL1 or NELL2 reversed the inhibitory effects of ANO5 knockdown on osteosarcoma cell proliferation and migration. These results demonstrated that upregulation of ANO5 promoted osteosarcoma development by decreasing the stability of the NELL1 and NELL2 proteins and that ANO5 may be an effective target for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105950, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Redefined hematoma expansion (rHE) including intraventricular hematoma expansion (IVHE) is a new concept in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), with better prognostic ability compared to the conventional hematoma expansion. Ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign are both useful indictors to predict HE and poor clinical outcome. This study aims to explore the clinical characteristics of rHE in retrospective cohort and evaluate the predictive ability of uHG and spot sign in rHE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included nontraumatic spontaneous ICH patients from June 1st 2013 and January 1st 2018 in West China Hospital. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk factors for HE/IVHE/rHE and primary outcomes of ICH patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to assess the accuracy of uHG and spot sign for predicting HE/IVHE/rHE. RESULTS: This retrospective cohort included 469 consecutive patients with ICH. rHE was significantly associated with clinical variables including Glasgow coma scale (GCS), time to initial CT, presence of IVH, hematoma volume, presence of spot sign, and uHG. uHG and spot sign were independent risk factors for rHE. ROC analysis indicated that both uHG (AUC 0.726, 95%CI 0.680-0.773) and spot sign (AUC 0.735, 95%CI 0.686-0.785) possessed high predictive accuracy for rHE. HE and rHE were independent risk factors for 1-month mortality and 3-month functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Both uHG and the spot sign were considered to be good predictors for rHE, and the spot sign appeared to have a better predictive accuracy.

9.
J Neuroimmunol ; 358: 577652, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34217885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent data reveal that interleukin-34 (IL-34) can drive inflammatory response, thereby participating in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. However, the potential effect of IL-34 in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore whether the levels of serum IL-34 were correlated with clinical severity or prognosis in AIS patients. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, serum IL-34 levels were detected in 150 healthy controls and 155 AIS patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted to investigate the effect of IL-34 on the diagnosis and prognosis of AIS. ROC curve was utilized to evaluate predictive values for IL-34. RESULTS: Serum IL-34 levels at admission were significantly higher in AIS patients than those in the healthy controls. Univariate and multivariate logistics regression analysis showed that IL-34 was an independent predictor of occurrence and functional outcome of AIS. The ROC curve demonstrated that IL-34 had a good predictive effect on the diagnosis and prognosis of AIS. CONCLUSIONS: IL-34 can be used as a novel and independent diagnostic and predicting prognostic biomarker in AIS.

10.
J Econ Entomol ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278434

RESUMO

Habrobracon hebetor (Say) is an important biological control agent for lepidopteran pests of stored products. In this study, the age-specific functional response, paralysis rate, and parasitism rate of H. hebetor under different host deprivation treatments (PC: without host deprivation, used as the control, P1d: host deprivation, but the host was removed after 1 d contact, and PW: host deprivation from beginning) were evaluated at different larval densities (5, 10, 20, 40, and 80) of the Ephestia elutella (Hübner) at 28 ± 1°C, 75 ± 5% RH and 16:8 h L:D. Ages of parasitoid females used were 2, 5, 10, and 20 d old. The logistic regression results indicated that the functional response of H. hebetor females under different host deprivation treatments was type II. The longest handling time was observed in 20-d old females, while the shortest handling time and highest maximum attack rate (T/Th) were estimated at the age of 2 d in all treatments. The paralysis and parasitism rates of H. hebetor were the highest at 2, 5, and 10-d old in all treatments. The results of this study suggest that H. hebetor females up to 10-d old can be used as an efficient biological control agent against E. elutella. The data of this study can also be used to predict the efficacy of different aged H. hebetor females in controlling E. elutella populations.

11.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Orthotopic liver transplant remains technically challenging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed whole graft orthotopic liver transplants with different anhepatic times (≤20 min, n = 19; vs 30 min, n = 9) and partial orthotopic liver transplants in rats including a male-to-male Sprague-Dawley group (n = 15), a male-to-male Lewis-to-Brown Norway group (n = 20), and a male-to-male Sprague-Dawley-to-Lewis group (n = 20); there was also a female-to-male SpragueDawley group (n = 19). RESULTS: For the groups with ≤20-minute or 30-minute anhepatic time, 14-day and 30-day survival rates were 94.7%, 89.5%, 88.9%, and 88.9%, respectively, and there was no difference in survival (P = .716). For 50% orthotopic liver transplants from the male-tomale Sprague-Dawley group, 14-day and 30-day survival rates were 93.3% and 86.7%, respectively, with no difference between whole and 50% graft orthotopic liver transplant. The 14-day and 30-day survival rates were, respectively, 30% and 10% for the Lewis-to-Brown Norway group and 30% and 6.6% for the Sprague-Dawley-to-Lewis group, with no differences between the 2 groups (P = .564). Most of the recipient rats died within 72 hours. Acute rejections and wound dehiscence were the causes of death. Recipients from the female-to-male SpragueDawley orthotopic liver transplant group died shortly after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Orthotopic liver transplants can be performed to achieve high success rates in the extended anhepatic time; however, orthotopic liver transplants from female Sprague-Dawley donor rats have a high risk of failure.

12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203289

RESUMO

In the construction process of smart cities, more and more video surveillance systems have been deployed for traffic, office buildings, shopping malls, and families. Thus, the security of video surveillance systems has attracted more attention. At present, many researchers focus on how to select the region of interest (RoI) accurately and then realize privacy protection in videos by selective encryption. However, relatively few researchers focus on building a security framework by analyzing the security of a video surveillance system from the system and data life cycle. By analyzing the surveillance video protection and the attack surface of a video surveillance system in a smart city, we constructed a secure surveillance framework in this manuscript. In the secure framework, a secure video surveillance model is proposed, and a secure authentication protocol that can resist man-in-the-middle attacks (MITM) and replay attacks is implemented. For the management of the video encryption key, we introduced the Chinese remainder theorem (CRT) on the basis of group key management to provide an efficient and secure key update. In addition, we built a decryption suite based on transparent encryption to ensure the security of the decryption environment. The security analysis proved that our system can guarantee the forward and backward security of the key update. In the experiment environment, the average decryption speed of our system can reach 91.47 Mb/s, which can meet the real-time requirement of practical applications.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional , Telemedicina , Cidades , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Privacidade
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206783

RESUMO

Hyperspectral technology is used to obtain spectral and spatial information of samples simultaneously and demonstrates significant potential for use in seed purity identification. However, it has certain limitations, such as high acquisition cost and massive redundant information. This study integrates the advantages of the sparse feature of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) algorithm and the classification feature of the logistic regression model (LRM). We propose a hyperspectral rice seed purity identification method based on the LASSO logistic regression model (LLRM). The feasibility of using LLRM for the selection of feature wavelength bands and seed purity identification are discussed using four types of rice seeds as research objects. The results of 13 different adulteration cases revealed that the value of the regularisation parameter was different in each case. The recognition accuracy of LLRM and average recognition accuracy were 91.67-100% and 98.47%, respectively. Furthermore, the recognition accuracy of full-band LRM was 71.60-100%. However, the average recognition accuracy was merely 89.63%. These results indicate that LLRM can select the feature wavelength bands stably and improve the recognition accuracy of rice seeds, demonstrating the feasibility of developing a hyperspectral technology with LLRM for seed purity identification.


Assuntos
Oryza , Algoritmos , Modelos Logísticos , Sementes , Tecnologia
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209176

RESUMO

In this work, we aim to achieve low-cost real-time tracking for nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion by using a tracking method based on two magnetic sensors. Currently, some electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems used to detect the misinsertion of the NGT are commercially available. While the EM tracking systems can be advantageous over the other conventional methods to confirm the NGT position, their high costs are a factor hindering such systems from wider acceptance in the clinical community. In our approach, a pair of magnetic sensors are used to estimate the location of a permanent magnet embedded at the tip of the NGT. As the cost of the magnet and magnetic sensors is low, the total cost of the system can be less than one-tenth of that of the EM tracking systems. The experimental results exhibited that tracking can be achieved with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2-5 mm and indicated a great potential for use as a point-of-care test for NGT insertion, to avoid misplacement into the lung and ensure correct placement in the stomach.


Assuntos
Intubação Gastrointestinal , Testes Imediatos , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Campos Magnéticos , Estômago
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227191

RESUMO

Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy in combination with innovative tagging strategies offers great potential as a universal high-throughput biomedical imaging tool. Here, we report on rationally tailored small molecular monomers containing triple-bond units with large Raman scattering cross-sections, which can be polymerized at the nanoscale for enhancement of SRS contrast with smaller but brighter optical nanotags with artificial 'fingerprint' output. From this, a class of triple-bond rich polymer nanoparticles (NPs) was engineered by regulating the relative dosages of three chemically different triple-bond monomers in co-polymerization. The suggested bonding strategy allowed for 15 spectrally distinguishable triple-bond combinations. These accurately structured nano molecular aggregates, rather than long-chain macromolecules, could establish a universal method for generating small-sized biological SRS imaging tags with high-sensitivity for high-throughput multi-color biomedical imaging.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309159

RESUMO

Aqueous reactions between organic peroxides and SO2 are of intense interest in atmospheric science because of their ubiquitous implications for sulfate formation in secondary aerosols. However, the relative yields of the reaction products (inorganic vs organic sulfates) remain controversial (i.e., 90% vs 40-70% for inorganic sulfate) due in part to the lack of understanding of the underlying reaction mechanisms. Here, our computational results suggest that the reactions of HSO3- (dissolved SO2) with organic peroxides are initiated on the surface of water nanodroplets and then proceed under two reaction pathways, in which the S atom of HSO3- attacks either the O1 or O2 atom of the peroxide group -O(O2)O(O1)H, leading to the formation of inorganic and organic sulfates, respectively. Notably, we find that the reaction initiated by O1 atom exhibits a relatively low energy barrier and high reaction rate, which favours the formation of inorganic sulfate.

17.
Microb Biotechnol ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309194

RESUMO

Fusobacterium nucleatum, which has four subspecies (nucleatum, animalis, vincentii and polymorphum), plays an important role in promoting colorectal cancer (CRC). However, as there is no efficient method of differentiating these subspecies in the context of a rich gut microbiota, the compositions in CRC remain largely unknown. In this study, a PCR-based differentiation method enabling profiling of F. nucleatum infection in CRC at the subspecies level was developed. Based on the analysis of 53 F. nucleatum genomes, we identified genetic markers specific to each subspecies and designed primers for the conserved sequences of those markers. The PCR performance of the primers was tested with F. nucleatum and non-nucleatum Fusobacterium strains, and complete consistence with taxonomy was achieved. Additionally, no non-specific amplification occurred when using human DNA. The method was then applied to faecal (n = 58) and fresh-frozen tumour tissue (n = 100) samples from CRC patients, and wide heterogeneity in F. nucleatum subspecies compositions in the gut microbiota among CRC patients was observed. Single-subspecies colonization was common, whereas coexistence of four subspecies was rare. Subspecies animalis was most prevalent, while nucleatum was not frequently detected. The results of this study contribute to our understanding of the pathogenicity of F. nucleatum at the subspecies level and the method developed has potential for clinical and epidemiological use.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4278, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257307

RESUMO

Geminiviruses are plant viruses with limited coding capacity. Geminivirus-encoded proteins are traditionally identified by applying a 10-kDa arbitrary threshold; however, it is increasingly clear that small proteins play relevant roles in biological systems, which calls for the reconsideration of this criterion. Here, we show that geminiviral genomes contain additional ORFs. Using tomato yellow leaf curl virus, we demonstrate that some of these small ORFs are expressed during the infection, and that the encoded proteins display specific subcellular localizations. We prove that the largest of these additional ORFs, which we name V3, is required for full viral infection, and that the V3 protein localizes in the Golgi apparatus and functions as an RNA silencing suppressor. These results imply that the repertoire of geminiviral proteins can be expanded, and that getting a comprehensive overview of the molecular plant-geminivirus interactions will require the detailed study of small ORFs so far neglected.


Assuntos
Begomovirus/patogenicidade , Geminiviridae/genética , Geminiviridae/patogenicidade , Genoma Viral/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Interferência de RNA/fisiologia , Tabaco/ultraestrutura , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Virulência
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 797: 148840, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many studies have reported the interactive effects between relative humidity and temperature on infectious diseases. However, evidence regarding the combined effects of relative humidity and temperature on bacillary dysentery (BD) is limited, especially for large-scale studies. To address this research need, humidex was utilized as a comprehensive index of relative humidity and temperature. We aimed to estimate the effect of humidex on BD across mainland China, evaluate its heterogeneity, and identify potential effect modifiers. METHODS: Daily meteorological and BD surveillance data from 2014 to 2016 were obtained for 316 prefecture-level cities in mainland China. Humidex was calculated on the basis of relative humidity and temperature. A multicity, two-stage time series analysis was then performed. In the first stage, a common distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was established to obtain city-specific estimates. In the second stage, a multivariate meta-analysis was conducted to pool these estimates, assess the significance of heterogeneity, and explore potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: The pooled cumulative estimates showed that humidex could promote the transmission of BD. The exposure-response relationship was nearly linear, with a maximum cumulative relative risk (RR) of 1.45 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.29-1.63] at a humidex value of 40.94. High humidex had an acute adverse effect on BD. The humidex-BD relationship could be modified by latitude, urbanization rate, the natural growth rate of population, and the number of primary school students per thousand persons. CONCLUSIONS: High humidex could increase the risk of BD incidence. Thus, it is suitable to incorporate humidex as a predictor into the early warning system of BD and to inform the general public in advance to be cautious when humidex is high. This is especially true for regions with higher latitude, higher urbanization rates, lower natural growth rates of population, and lower numbers of primary school students per thousand persons.

20.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 657867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307189

RESUMO

Gut microbiome alteration was closely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Previous studies had demonstrated the bacteria composition changes but lacked virome profiles, trans-kindom interactions, and reliable diagnostic model explorations in CRC. Hence, we performed metagenomic sequencing to investigate the gut microbiome and microbial interactions in adenoma and CRC patients. We found the decreased microbial diversity in CRC and revealed the taxonomic alterations of bacteria and viruses were highly associated with CRC at the species level. The relative abundance of oral-derived species, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Fusobacterium hwasookii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Bacteroides fragilis, increased. At the same time, butyrate-producing and anti-inflammatory microbes decreased in adenoma and CRC by non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Despite that, the relative abundance of Escherichia viruses and Salmonella viruses increased, whereas some phages, including Enterobacteria phages and Uncultured crAssphage, decreased along with CRC development. Gut bacteria was negatively associated with viruses in CRC and healthy control by correlation analysis (P=0.017 and 0.002, respectively). Viruses were much more dynamic than the bacteria as the disease progressed, and the altered microbial interactions were distinctively stage-dependent. The degree centrality of microbial interactions decreased while closeness centrality increased along with the adenoma to cancer development. Uncultured crAssphage was the key bacteriophage that enriched in healthy controls and positively associated with butyrate-producing bacteria. Diagnostic tests based on bacteria by random forest confirmed in independent cohorts showed better performance than viruses for CRC. In conclusion, our study revealed the novel CRC-associated bacteria and viruses that exhibited specific differences and intensive microbial correlations, which provided a reliable diagnostic panel for CRC.

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