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2.
Comput Biol Med ; 177: 108601, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776728

RESUMO

Automated karyotyping is of great importance for cytogenetic research, as it speeds up the process for cytogeneticists through incorporating AI-driven automated segmentation and classification techniques. Existing frameworks confront two primary issues: Firstly the necessity for instance-level data annotation with either detection bounding boxes or semantic masks for training, and secondly, its poor robustness particularly when confronted with domain shifts. In this work, we first propose an accurate segmentation framework, namely KaryoXpert. This framework leverages the strengths of both morphology algorithms and deep learning models, allowing for efficient training that breaks the limit for the acquirement of manually labeled ground-truth mask annotations. Additionally, we present an accurate classification model based on metric learning, designed to overcome the challenges posed by inter-class similarity and batch effects. Our framework exhibits state-of-the-art performance with exceptional robustness in both chromosome segmentation and classification. The proposed KaryoXpert framework showcases its capacity for instance-level chromosome segmentation even in the absence of annotated data, offering novel insights into the research for automated chromosome segmentation. The proposed method has been successfully deployed to support clinical karyotype diagnosis.


Assuntos
Cariotipagem , Humanos , Cariotipagem/métodos , Metáfase , Algoritmos , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo
3.
Nat Commun ; 15(1): 3799, 2024 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714769

RESUMO

Intriguing "slidetronics" has been reported in van der Waals (vdW) layered non-centrosymmetric materials and newly-emerging artificially-tuned twisted moiré superlattices, but correlative experiments that spatially track the interlayer sliding dynamics at atomic-level remain elusive. Here, we address the decisive challenge to in-situ trace the atomic-level interlayer sliding and the induced polarization reversal in vdW-layered yttrium-doped γ-InSe, step by step and atom by atom. We directly observe the real-time interlayer sliding by a 1/3-unit cell along the armchair direction, corresponding to vertical polarization reversal. The sliding driven only by low energetic electron-beam illumination suggests rather low switching barriers. Additionally, we propose a new sliding mechanism that supports the observed reversal pathway, i.e., two bilayer units slide towards each other simultaneously. Our insights into the polarization reversal via the atomic-scale interlayer sliding provide a momentous initial progress for the ongoing and future research on sliding ferroelectrics towards non-volatile storages or ferroelectric field-effect transistors.

4.
J Immunol ; 212(12): 1945-1957, 2024 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38700419

RESUMO

The cytosolic detection of pathogen-derived nucleic acids has evolved as an essential strategy for host innate immune defense in mammals. One crucial component in this process is the stimulator of IFN genes (STING), which acts as a vital signaling adaptor, connecting the cytosolic detection of DNA by cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) to the downstream type I IFN signaling pathway. However, this process remains elusive in invertebrates. In this study, we present evidence demonstrating that STING, an ortholog found in a marine invertebrate (shrimp) called Litopenaeus vannamei, can directly detect DNA and initiate an IFN-like antiviral response. Unlike its homologs in other eukaryotic organisms, which exclusively function as sensors for cyclic dinucleotides, shrimp STING has the ability to bind to both double-stranded DNA and cyclic dinucleotides, including 2'3'-cGAMP. In vivo, shrimp STING can directly sense DNA nucleic acids from an infected virus, accelerate IFN regulatory factor dimerization and nuclear translocation, induce the expression of an IFN functional analog protein (Vago4), and finally establish an antiviral state. Taken together, our findings unveil a novel double-stranded DNA-STING-IKKε-IRF-Vago antiviral axis in an arthropod, providing valuable insights into the functional origins of DNA-sensing pathways in evolution.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana , Animais , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Penaeidae/imunologia , Penaeidae/virologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Interferons/imunologia , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos Cíclicos/imunologia
5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 11: 1356286, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572308

RESUMO

Background: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is associated with aberrant gene expression that is a common peripheral vascular disease. Here, we aimed to elucidate that the epigenetic modification of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) at the post-transcriptional level, which might be the key trigger leading to the down-regulation of FOXP3 expression in DVT. Methods: In order to explore the relationship between microRNAs (miRNAs) and FOXP3, mRNA and microRNA microarray analysis were performed. Dual luciferase reporter assay was used to verify the upstream miRNAs of FOXP3. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry and Western blot were used to detect the relative expression of miR-6132 and FOXP3. Additionally, DVT models were established to investigate the role of miR-6132 by Murine Doppler Ultrasound and Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. Results: Microarray and flow cytometry results showed that the FOXP3 expression was decreased while miR-6132 level was increased substantially in DVT, and there was significant negative correlation between miR-6132 and FOXP3. Moreover, we discovered that overexpressed miR-6132 reduced FOXP3 expression and aggravated DVT formation, while miR-6132 knockdown increased FOXP3 expression and alleviated DVT formation. Dual luciferase reporter assay validated the direct binding of miR-6132 to FOXP3. Conclusion: Collectively, our data elucidate a new avenue through which up-regulated miR-6132 contributes to the formation and progression of DVT by inhibiting FOXP3 expression.

6.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 314: 124182, 2024 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38522376

RESUMO

Inflammation is a key factor leading to the occurrence and development of many diseases, both lipid droplets (LDs) and hypochlorous acid (HClO/ClO-) are regarded as the important biomarkers of inflammation. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop an efficient single chemical sensor that can simultaneously detect these two biomarkers. To achieve the goal, we developed a dual-locked fluorescence probe (TPA-DNP) by fusing two targets activated reporting system, its implementation was achieved by turning-on the fluorescence of TPA-DNP through LDs and HClO/ClO- simultaneously. In simulated LDs environment, TPA-DNP displayed excellent selectivity to HClO/ClO-, high sensitivity (LOD = 0.527 µM) and strong anti-interference ability. In addition, cell and zebrafish imaging experiments showed that TPA-DNP could be utilized to visualize exogenous/endogenous HClO/ClO- in LDs environment, and could also be used to observe the impact of LDs changes on the HClO/ClO- detection. On the basis, TPA-DNP served as a favorable tool to achieve visualization of inflammatory dynamic changes.


Assuntos
Ácido Hipocloroso , Gotículas Lipídicas , Animais , Peixe-Zebra , Inflamação , Corantes Fluorescentes , Biomarcadores
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 925: 171536, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461992

RESUMO

Environmental stress can disrupt the intricate interactions between the host and intestine microbiota, thereby impacting the host health. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the dynamic changes in the bacterial community within shrimp intestines under nitrite nitrogen (nitrite-N) stress and investigate potential host-related factors influencing these changes. Our results revealed a significant reduction in community diversity within the intestine exposed to nitrite-N compared to control conditions. Furthermore, distinct differences in community structures were observed between these two groups at 72 h and 120 h post-stress induction. Nitrite-N stress also altered the abundances of some bacterial species in the intestine dramatically. It is noteworthy that, in comparison to the 72 h, intestine bacterial community structure of stressed shrimp exhibited a significantly higher degree of dispersion after 120 h of nitrite-N stress when compared to control shrimp, and the relative abundance of numerous bacterial species experienced a substantial decrease or even reached 0 %. Moreover, it led to a reduction in bacterial community interactions and decreased competitiveness within the intestine microbiota. Notably, the influence of bacterial community assemblies in the shrimp intestine shifted from a stochastic process to a deterministic one after 24 h and 72 h of nitrite-N stress, returning to a stochastic process at 120 h. We further observed a close association between this phenomenon and host's response to nitrite-N stress. Expression levels of differentially expressed genes in the intestinal tissue significantly impact the intestine bacterial diversity and abundance of species. In particular, the significant decline in bacterial diversity and abundances of quite a few species in intestine was attributed to the up-regulation of peritrophin-48-like. Overall, nitrite-N stress indeed disrupted the intestine microbiota and changed the host-microbiota interactions of shrimp. This study offered novel insights into environment-host-microbiota interactions and also provided practical guidance for promoting healthy shrimp cultivation practices.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Penaeidae , Animais , Nitritos/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Bactérias/genética , Intestinos/microbiologia , Crustáceos , Penaeidae/microbiologia
8.
Anal Chem ; 96(14): 5615-5624, 2024 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38544396

RESUMO

Abnormal lipid droplets (LDs) are known to be intimately bound with the occurrence and development of cancer, allowing LDs to be critical biomarkers for cancers. Aggregation-induced emission luminogens (AIEgens), with efficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) production performance, are prime photosensitizers (PSs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) with imaging. Therefore, the development of dual-functional fluorescent probes with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics that enable both simultaneous LD monitoring and imaging-guided PDT is essential for concurrent cancer diagnosis and treatment. Herein, we reported the development of a novel LD-targeting fluorescent probe (TDTI) with AIE performance, which was expected to realize the integration of cancer diagnosis through LD visualization and cancer treatment via PDT. We demonstrated that TDTI, with typical AIE characteristics and excellent photostability, could target LDs with high specificity, which enables the dynamic tracking of LDs in living cells, specific imaging of LDs in zebrafish, and the differentiation of cancer cells from normal cells for cancer diagnosis. Meanwhile, TDTI exhibited fast ROS generation ability (achieving equilibrium within 60 s) under white light irradiation (10 mW/cm2). The cell apoptosis assay revealed that TDTI effectively induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of HeLa cells. Further, the results of PDT in vivo indicated that TDTI had a good antitumor effect on the tumor-bearing mice model. Collectively, these results highlight the potential utility of the dual-functional fluorescent probe TDTI in the integrated diagnosis and treatment of cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Fotoquimioterapia , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Células HeLa , Corantes Fluorescentes , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Front Immunol ; 15: 1297454, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38380324

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the bidirectional causal relationship between Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) and Osteoarthritis (OA) at the genetic level within the European ancestry. Methods: We implemented a series of quality control steps to select instrumental variables (IVs) related to the exposure. We conducted two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) using the inverse-variance weighted method as the primary approach. We adjusted significance levels using Bonferroni correction, assessed heterogeneity using Cochrane's Q test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted through leave-one-out method. Additionally, external datasets and relaxed IV selection criteria were employed, and multivariate MR analyses were performed for validation purposes. Finally, Bayesian colocalization (COLOC) analysis identified common genes, validating the MR results. Results: The investigation focused on the correlation between OA and AS in knee, hip, and hand joints. MR results revealed that individuals with AS exhibit a decreased risk of knee OA (OR = 0.9882, 95% CI: 0.9804-0.9962) but no significant increase in the risk of hip OA (OR = 0.9901, 95% CI: 0.9786-1.0018). Conversely, AS emerged as a risk factor for hand OA (OR = 1.0026, 95% CI: 1.0015-1.0036). In reverse-direction MR analysis, OA did not significantly influence the occurrence of AS. Importantly, minimal heterogeneity was observed in our MR analysis results (p > 0.05), and the robustness of these findings was confirmed through sensitivity analysis and multivariate MR analysis. COLOC analysis identified four colocalized variants for AS and hand OA (rs74707996, rs75240935, rs181468789, and rs748670681). Conclusion: In European population, individuals with AS have a relatively lower risk of knee OA, whereas AS serves as a risk factor for hand OA. However, no significant causal relationship was found between AS and hip OA. Additionally, it offers novel insights into genetic research on AS and OA.


Assuntos
Osteoartrite do Quadril , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Espondilite Anquilosante , Humanos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Causalidade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/genética
10.
Front Neurol ; 15: 1259973, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38313559

RESUMO

Background: The past decade has witnessed advancements in mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for acute large-vessel occlusions (LVOs). However, only approximately half of the patients with LVO undergoing MT show the best/independent 90-day favorable outcome. This study aimed to develop a nomogram for predicting 90-day poor outcomes in patients with LVO treated with MT. Methods: A total of 187 patients who received MT were retrospectively analyzed. Factors associated with 90-day poor outcomes (defined as mRS of 4-6) were determined by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyzes. One best-fit nomogram was established to predict the risk of a 90-day poor outcome, and a concordance index was utilized to evaluate the performance of the model. Additionally, 145 patients from a single stroke center were retrospectively recruited as the validation cohort to test the newly established nomogram. Results: The overall incidence of 90-day poor outcomes was 45.16%, affecting 84 of 186 patients in the training set. Moreover, five variables, namely, age (odds ratio [OR]: 1.049, 95% CI [1.016-1.083]; p = 0.003), glucose level (OR: 1.163, 95% CI [1.038-1.303]; p = 0.009), baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (OR: 1.066, 95% CI [0.995-1.142]; p = 0.069), unsuccessful recanalization (defined as a TICI grade of 0 to 2a) (OR: 3.730, 95% CI [1.688-8.245]; p = 0.001), and early neurological deterioration (END, defined as an increase of ≥4 points between the baseline NIHSS score and the NIHSS score at 24 h after MT) (OR: 3.383, 95% CI [1.411-8.106]; p = 0.006), were included in the nomogram to predict the potential risk of poor outcomes at 90 days following MT in LVO patients, with a C-index of 0.763 (0.693-0.832) in the training set and 0.804 (0.719-0.889) in the validation set. Conclusion: The proposed nomogram provided clinical evidence for the effective control of these risk factors before or during the process of MT surgery in LVO patients.

11.
Transl Cancer Res ; 13(1): 268-277, 2024 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38410205

RESUMO

Background: Invasive adenocarcinoma (IA) has a worse prognosis and different clinical management strategies compared to indolent lung adenocarcinoma including adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally IA (MIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of computed tomography (CT) value in differentiating invasive from indolent lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: The pathological diagnoses and imaging data of confirmed lung adenocarcinomas manifested as lung nodules with homogeneous internal density which were surgically resected between August 2021 and July 2022 were retrospectively analyzed. Differences in CT values between invasive and indolent lung adenocarcinomas were compared in the primary cohort (n=766), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off value. The predictive performance of the cut-off value was evaluated in the validation cohort (n=341). Results: A total of 1,107 lung nodules from 1,014 patients were included in the total cohort. The CT values had a significant difference between invasive and indolent lung adenocarcinomas (P<0.001). Using the primary cohort, we determined the optimal cut-off value of -415 Hounsfield units (HU) of the CT value based on ROC curve, which showed good discrimination between IA and AIS/MIA in both the primary and validation cohorts (sensitivity, 85.98% and 87.42%, specificity, 87.67% and 84.74%, respectively). Conclusions: The CT value of >-415 HU could be an effective predictor of invasive lung adenocarcinoma, thereby providing an appropriate clinical decision guide.

12.
Polymers (Basel) ; 16(4)2024 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38399835

RESUMO

There have been many studies on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for detecting sulfur-containing toxic or harmful gases. This paper aims to give an overview of the current state of polymer films used in SAW sensors for detecting deleterious gases. By covering most of the important polymer materials, the structures and types of polymers are summarized, and a variety of devices with different frequencies, such as delay lines and array sensors for detecting mustard gas, hydrogen sulfide, and sulfur dioxide, are introduced. The preparation method of polymer films, the sensitivity of the SAW gas sensor, the limit of detection, the influence of temperature and humidity, and the anti-interference ability are discussed in detail. The advantages and disadvantages of the films are analyzed, and the potential application of polymer films in the future is also forecasted.

13.
Neuroscience ; 543: 90-100, 2024 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38417540

RESUMO

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are serine/threonine-selective proteins and ERK1/2 can be phosphorylated in peripheral and central brain regions after cortical spreading depolarization (CSD) and calcitonin gene-related peptide; However, it remains unclear about whether and how ERK activity modulates CSD that correlates to migraine aura. Here, we determined the role of ERK in regulating CSD and explored the underlying mechanism involving transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), a stress-sensing cation channel. CSD was recorded using intrinsic optical imaging in mouse brain slices, and electrophysiology in rats. Phosphorylated ERK (pERK1/2) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) protein levels were detected using Western blot or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. IL-1ß mRNA level was detected using qPCR. The results showed that an ERK inhibitor, SCH77298, markedly prolonged CSD latency and reduced propagation rate in mouse brain slices. Corresponding to this, CSD induction increased levels of cytosolic pERK1/2 in ipsilateral cerebral cortices of rats, the elevation of which correlated to the level of IL-1ß mRNA. Mechanistic analysis showed that pre-treatment of an anti-TRPA1 antibody reduced the cytosolic pERK2 level but not pERK1 following CSD in cerebral cortices of rats and this level of pERK2 correlated with that of cerebral cortical IL-1ß protein. Furthermore, an ERK activator, AES16-2M, but not its scrambled control, reversed the prolonged CSD latency by a TRPA1 inhibitor, HC-030031, in mouse brain slices. These data revealed a crucial role of ERK activity in regulating CSD, and elevation of pERK and IL-1ß production induced by CSD is predominantly TRPA1 channel-dependent, thereby contributing to migraine pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Camundongos , Ratos , Animais , Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical/fisiologia , Anquirinas/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
14.
Sci Adv ; 10(5): eadh8601, 2024 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38295178

RESUMO

Modern machine learning models toward various tasks with omic data analysis give rise to threats of privacy leakage of patients involved in those datasets. Here, we proposed a secure and privacy-preserving machine learning method (PPML-Omics) by designing a decentralized differential private federated learning algorithm. We applied PPML-Omics to analyze data from three sequencing technologies and addressed the privacy concern in three major tasks of omic data under three representative deep learning models. We examined privacy breaches in depth through privacy attack experiments and demonstrated that PPML-Omics could protect patients' privacy. In each of these applications, PPML-Omics was able to outperform methods of comparison under the same level of privacy guarantee, demonstrating the versatility of the method in simultaneously balancing the privacy-preserving capability and utility in omic data analysis. Furthermore, we gave the theoretical proof of the privacy-preserving capability of PPML-Omics, suggesting the first mathematically guaranteed method with robust and generalizable empirical performance in protecting patients' privacy in omic data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Privacidade , Humanos , Análise de Dados , Aprendizado de Máquina , Tecnologia
15.
J Glob Health ; 14: 04014, 2024 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38271210

RESUMO

Background: We analysed the cancer burden among elderly Chinese people over the age of 55 years and compared them to USA and Western Europe to explore the cancer model in China. Methods: We retrieved data on 29 cancers with 34 risk factors from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease database to evaluate the cancer burden in Chinese elderly individuals aged 55 years and older. We then used the age-standardised incidence rate (ASIR), age-standardised death rate (ASDR), age-standardised disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rate, and average annual percentage change (AAPC) to compare the characteristics and change trend of cancers among China, USA, and Western Europe. Results: In 2019, the number of incident cases of 29 cancers among people aged 55 years and above in China increased more than 3-fold compared to 1990, while the number of deaths and DALYs approximately doubled. We also found that the cancer population in China was ageing; meanwhile, the cancer burden became significantly higher for men than for women, and the gap between men and women had widened. Cancers with the highest cancer DALYs were lung cancer (13 444 500; 95% uncertainty interval (UI) = 11 307 100, 15 853 700), stomach cancer (7 303 900; 95% UI = 6 094 600, 8 586 500), oesophageal cancer (4 633 500; 95% UI = 3 642 500, 5 601 200), colon and rectum cancer (4 386 500; 95% UI = 3 769 500, 5 067 200), liver cancer (2 915 100, 95% UI = 2 456 300, 3 463 900), and pancreatic cancer (2 028 400; 95% UI = 1 725 000, 2 354 900). Compared with 1990, the DALY rate and incidence rate of stomach cancer, oesophageal cancer, and liver cancer had markedly decreased. The DALY rate and incidence rate of lung, colon, rectum, and pancreatic cancer had increased significantly, as did the incidence rate of breast cancer in women. Smoking and diet were the top two cancer risk factors, and the impact of ambient particulate matter pollution on cancer increased each year. The overall 29 cancers age-standardised DALY rate and ASDR in China, USA, and Western Europe were similar, and all showed downward trend in the past 30 years. Compared with the USA and Western Europe, the age-standardised DALY rate of liver, nasopharyngeal, oesophageal, stomach, and cervical cancers in China was more prominent. The age-standardised DALY rate of lung cancer and colon and rectum cancer decreased annually in Western Europe and the USA, but increased in China. Conclusions: Over the past 30 years, China had made progress in controlling stomach, oesophageal, and liver cancer. However, lung, colon, rectum, pancreatic, and breast cancers had become more prevalent, having risen alongside economic development. The risks of smoking and dietary were major issues that need to be addressed urgently. The cancer situation in China remains serious; future cancer prevention efforts need to balance economic development with people's physical health, identify key groups, improve the health environment of residents and guide them to live a healthy life, and expand the scope of cancer screening.


Assuntos
População do Leste Asiático , Neoplasias , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Carga Global da Doença , Incidência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , China/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
16.
J Am Chem Soc ; 146(2): 1423-1434, 2024 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38171910

RESUMO

Cu-based catalysts hold promise for electrifying CO2 to produce methane, an extensively used fuel. However, the activity and selectivity remain insufficient due to the lack of catalyst design principles to steer complex CO2 reduction pathways. Herein, we develop a concept to design carbon-supported Cu catalysts by regulating Cu active sites' atomic-scale structures and engineering the carbon support's mesoscale architecture. This aims to provide a favorable local reaction microenvironment for a selective CO2 reduction pathway to methane. In situ X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy analyses reveal the dynamic reconstruction of nitrogen and hydroxyl-immobilized Cu3 (N,OH-Cu3) clusters derived from atomically dispersed Cu-N3 sites under realistic CO2 reduction conditions. The N,OH-Cu3 sites possess moderate *CO adsorption affinity and a low barrier for *CO hydrogenation, enabling intrinsically selective CO2-to-CH4 reduction compared to the C-C coupling with a high energy barrier. Importantly, a block copolymer-derived carbon fiber support with interconnected mesopores is constructed. The unique long-range mesochannels offer an H2O-deficient microenvironment and prolong the transport path for the CO intermediate, which could suppress the hydrogen evolution reaction and favor deep CO2 reduction toward methane formation. Thus, the newly developed catalyst consisting of in situ constructed N,OH-Cu3 active sites embedded into bicontinuous carbon mesochannels achieved an unprecedented Faradaic efficiency of 74.2% for the CO2 reduction to methane at an industry-level current density of 300 mA cm-2. This work explores effective concepts for steering desirable reaction pathways in complex interfacial catalytic systems via modulating active site structures at the atomic level and engineering pore architectures of supports on the mesoscale to create favorable microenvironments.

17.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 108(1): 59, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38180551

RESUMO

Increasing evidence suggests that intestine microorganisms are closely related to shrimp growth, but there is no existing experiment to prove this hypothesis. Here, we compared the intestine bacterial community of fast- and slow-growing shrimp at the same developmental stage with a marked difference in body size. Our results showed that the intestine bacterial communities of slow-growing shrimp exhibited less diversity but were more heterogeneous than those of fast-growing shrimp. Uncultured_bacterium_g_Candidatus Bacilloplasma, Tamlana agarivorans, Donghicola tyrosinivorans, and uncultured_bacterium_f_Flavobacteriaceae were overrepresented in the intestines of fast-growing shrimp, while Shimia marina, Vibrio sp., and Vibrio campbellii showed the opposite trends. We further found that the bacterial community composition was significantly correlated with shrimp length, and some bacterial species abundances were found to be significantly correlated with shrimp weight and length, including T. agarivorans and V. campbellii, which were chosen as indicators for a reverse gavage experiment. Finally, T. agarivorans was found to significantly promote shrimp growth after the experiment. Collectively, these results suggest that intestine bacterial community could be important factors in determining the growth of shrimp, indicating that specific bacteria could be tested in further studies against shrimp growth retardation. KEY POINTS: • A close relationship between intestine bacterial community and shrimp growth was proven by controllable experiments. • The bacterial signatures of the intestine were markedly different between slow- and fast-growing shrimp, and the relative abundances of some intestine bacterial species were correlated significantly with shrimp body size. • Reverse gavage by Tamlana agarivorans significantly promoted shrimp growth.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae , Penaeidae , Animais , Alimentos Marinhos
18.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 151: 106367, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38194787

RESUMO

Poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement relies on the loaded antibiotic to realize the antibacterial purpose. But the exothermic behavior during setting often makes temperature-sensitive antibiotics inactivated. It is necessary to develop new material candidates to replace antibiotics. In this study, a new quaternary ammonium methacrylate (QAM) monomer called dimethylaminetriclosan methacrylate (DMATCM) was designed by the quaternization between 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate and triclosan, then employed as the modifier to explore the feasibility of equipping bone cement with antibacterial activity, and to investigate the variations on the physical and biological performances brought by the substitution ratio of DMATCM to MMA. Results showed that DMATCM opened its C=C bonding to participate in the MMA polymerization, and the quaternary ammonium group helped it to perform broad-spectrum antibacterial property against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli. With an increased substitution ratio of DMATCM to MMA, the glass transition temperatures, the maximum exothermic temperatures, and the contact angles of bone cements declined, but the residual monomer contents, the fluid uptakes, and the setting times under Vical indentation increased. Long-term soaking made almost no changes to the weight loss and the mechanical properties of DMATCM-modified cements with lower substitution ratios of 0∼20%, and the activation rather enhanced the strengths of uncured AMBC-4 and AMBC-5 samples. Owing to more DMATCM exposed on the cement surface, the inhibition ring diameter produced by modified cement was improved to a maximum of 28.09 mm, and MC3T3-E1 cells performed the cell viabilities all beyond 70% and healthy adhesion after 72 h co-culturing. Taking all measured properties and ISO standards into account, the antibacterial bone cement under the ratio of 10% performed better, besides its good bactericidal effect, the other properties satisfied the requirements for clinical application.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Polimetil Metacrilato , Polimetil Metacrilato/farmacologia , Cimentos Ósseos/farmacologia , Polimerização , Metacrilatos , Teste de Materiais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 394: 130305, 2024 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199438

RESUMO

Haematococcus lacustris is a precious algal species renowned for its ability to simultaneous production of astaxanthin and lipid. However, its slow growth rate necessitates the development of appropriate mutagenesis methodologies to effectively enhance its synchronous production of both astaxanthin and lipid. This study introduced the co-mutation of Atmospheric and Room Temperature Plasma (ARTP) and ethanol. The performance and preliminary mechanisms underlying the combined accumulation of astaxanthin and lipid in H. lacustris under both mutations by ARTP and ethanol were comparatively analyzed. Combined astaxanthin and lipid contents relative to total cell mass in the 110-2 strain reached 54.4%, surpassing that of strain 0-3 and the control by 17.0% and 47.6% respectively. Transcriptome level analysis revealed how both ethanol and ARTP induction promote the expressions of carotenoid and lipid synthesis genes and related enzymatic activities. Upregulation of genes associated with cell activity contributed to lipid and astaxanthin metabolism in multi pathways.


Assuntos
Clorofíceas , Etanol , Temperatura , Etanol/metabolismo , Clorofíceas/metabolismo , Mutação/genética , Lipídeos , Xantofilas
20.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 19(1): 17, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38263113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread utilization of chest High-resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) has prompted detection of pulmonary ground-glass nodules (GGNs) in otherwise asymptomatic individuals. We aimed to establish a simple clinical risk score model for assessing GGNs based on HRCT. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 574 GGNs in 574 patients undergoing HOOK-WIRE puncture and pulmonary nodule surgery from January 2014 to November 2018. Clinical characteristics and imaging features of the GGNs were assessed. We analyzed the differences between malignant and benign nodules using binary logistic regression analysis and constructed a simple risk score model, the VBV Score, for predicting the malignancy status of GGNs. Then, we validated this model via other 1200 GGNs in 1041 patients collected from three independent clinical centers in 2022. RESULTS: For the exploratory phase of this study, out of the 574 GGNs, 481 were malignant and 93 were benign. Vacuole sign, air bronchogram, and intra-nodular vessel sign were important indicators of malignancy in GGNs. Then, we derived a VBV Score = vacuole sign + air bronchogram + intra-nodular vessel sign, to predict the malignancy of GGNs, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 95.6%, 80.6%, and 93.2%, respectively. We also validated it on other 1200 GGNs, with a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 96.0%, 82.6%, and 95.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vacuole sign, air bronchogram, and intra-nodular vessel sign were important indicators of malignancy in GGNs. VBV Score showed good sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for differentiating benign and malignant pulmonary GGNs.


Assuntos
Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Punções , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Pulmão
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