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1.
Int J Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-9, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749580

RESUMO

The purpose of this cross-sectional study is to determine the association between yogurt consumption and lipid profiles in the general Chinese population. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 26,824 participants were included from Tianjin, China. Lipid profiles were determined by automated biochemical analyser. Yogurt consumption frequency was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was used to determine the association between daily yogurt consumption and lipid profiles. In the final multivariate model, daily yogurt consumption was negatively associated with triglyceride (TG) (p for trend <0.001) and positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (p for trend = 0.02). There were no significant differences (p for trend >0.05) between daily yogurt consumption and total cholesterol (TC) or low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Results suggested that higher daily yogurt consumption was negatively correlated with TG and positively correlated with HDL-C in the general Chinese population.

2.
Neuron ; 109(22): 3609-3618.e9, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793707

RESUMO

Mechanisms governing how immune cells and their derived molecules impact homeostatic brain function are still poorly understood. Here, we elucidate neuronal mechanisms underlying T cell effects on synaptic function and episodic memory. Depletion of CD4 T cells led to memory deficits and impaired long-term potentiation. Severe combined immune-deficient mice exhibited amnesia, which was reversible by repopulation with T cells from wild-type but not from IL-4-knockout mice. Behaviors impacted by T cells were mediated via IL-4 receptors expressed on neurons. Exploration of snRNA-seq of neurons participating in memory processing provided insights into synaptic organization and plasticity-associated pathways regulated by immune cells. IL-4Rα knockout in inhibitory (but not in excitatory) neurons was sufficient to impair contextual fear memory, and snRNA-seq from these mice pointed to IL-4-driven regulation of synaptic function in promoting memory. These findings provide new insights into complex neuroimmune interactions at the transcriptional and functional levels in neurons under physiological conditions.

3.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 751364, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34776852

RESUMO

SH3 and Multiple Ankyrin Repeat Domains 3 (SHANK3)-caused autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may present a unique opportunity to clarify the heterogeneous neuropathological mechanisms of ASD. However, the specificity and commonality of disrupted large-scale brain organization in SHANK3-deficient children remain largely unknown. The present study combined genetic tests, neurobehavioral evaluations, and magnetic resonance imaging, aiming to explore the disruptions of both local and networked cortical structural organization in ASD children with and without SHANK3 deficiency. Multiple surface morphological parameters such as cortical thickness (CT) and sulcus depth were estimated, and the graph theory was adopted to characterize the topological properties of structural covariance networks (SCNs). Finally, a correlation analysis between the alterations in brain morphological features and the neurobehavioral evaluations was performed. Compared with typically developed children, increased CT and reduced nodal degree were found in both ASD children with and without SHANK3 defects mainly in the lateral temporal cortex, prefrontal cortex (PFC), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal gyrus (STG), and limbic/paralimbic regions. Besides commonality, our findings showed some distinct abnormalities in ASD children with SHANK3 defects compared to those without. Locally, more changes in the STG and orbitofrontal cortex were exhibited in ASD children with SHANK3 defects, while more changes in the TPJ and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in those without SHANK3 defects were observed. For the SCNs, a trend toward regular network topology was observed in ASD children with SHANK3 defects, but not in those without. In addition, ASD children with SHANK3 defects showed more alterations of nodal degrees in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices and right insular, while there were more disruptions in the sensorimotor areas and the left insular and dorsomedial PFC in ASD without SHANK3 defects. Our findings indicate dissociable disruptions of local and networked brain morphological features in ASD children with and without SHANK3 deficiency. Moreover, this monogenic study may provide a valuable path for parsing the heterogeneity of brain disturbances in ASD.

4.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 388-395, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is limited regarding the impact of comprehensive mental health on the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of mental health status with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the UK Biobank. METHODS: This prospective study included 339,616 participants aged 40 to 69 years who were enrolled between 2006 and 2010 and were followed up to 2020, without CVD at baseline. A mental health score was created using information about depressive symptoms, anxiety, loneliness, and neuroticism. Cardiovascular disease events ascertained through hospital inpatient. Cox models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals across mental health score. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.3 years (3.7 million person-years), we documented 22,688 CVD cases including 18,460 CHD cases and 5,070 stroke cases (some individuals were diagnosed as having both CHD and stroke). A statistically significantly increased risk of incident CVD was observed for the four mental factors individually, with adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.03 to 1.44. The composite score of such four mental factors was also positively associated with CVD risk in a dose-response manner, with the highest scores associated with a 1.56-fold (95% confidence interval 1.47 to 1.65), 1.61-fold (1.51 to 1.72), and 1.44-fold (1.25 to 1.67) higher CVD, CHD, and stroke risk, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this large prospective study, poor mental health status was associated with an increased risk of CVD. Our results highlight the importance to jointly investigate the mental health factors in relation to the risk of CVD.

5.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 574, 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy is a neurodegenerative condition that worsens over time. Given the lack of targeted treatments, patients with severe progressive supranuclear palsy have very low life expectancy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of a 61-year-old Chinese man with severe progressive supranuclear palsy and treated with umbilical cord blood stem cells transplantation. After the umbilical cord blood stem cells therapy, his neurologic symptoms stopped deteriorating, his muscle rigidity was mildly improved, and he remains alive for more than 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: Umbilical cord blood stem cells transplantation may be an alternative therapy for patients with severe progressive supranuclear palsy.

6.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2103229, 2021 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716689

RESUMO

Searching multiple types of terahertz (THz) irradiation source is crucial for the THz technology. In addition to the conventional fermionic cases, bosonic quasi-/particles also promise energy-efficient THz wave emission. Here, by utilizing a 2D ferromagnetic Cr2 Ge2 Te6 crystal, first a phonon-related magneto-tunable monochromatic THz irradiation source is demonstrated. With a low-photonic-energy broadband THz pump, a strong THz irradiation with frequency ≈0.9 THz and bandwidth ≈0.25 THz can be generated and its conversion efficiency could even reach 2.1% at 160 K. Moreover, it is intriguing to find that such monochromatic THz irradiation can be efficiently modulated by external magnetic field below 160 K. According to both experimental and theoretical analyses, the emergent THz irradiation is identified as the emission from the phonon-polariton and its temperature and magnetic field dependent behaviors confirm the large spin-lattice coupling in this 2D ferromagnetic crystal. These observations provide a new route for the creation of tunable monochromatic THz source which may have great practical interests in future applications in photonic and spintronic devices.

7.
J Vet Sci ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34697919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maedi/Visna virus (MVV) is a contagious viral pathogen that causes considerable economic losses to the sheep industry worldwide. OBJECTIVES: In China, MVV has been detected in several regions, but its molecular characteristics and genetic variations were not thoroughly investigated. METHODS: Therefore, in this study, we conducted next-generation sequencing on an MVV strain obtained from northwest China to reveal its genetic evolution via phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: A MVV strain obtained from Inner Mongolia (NM) of China was identified. Sequence analysis indicated that its whole-genome length is 9193 bp. Homology comparison of nucleotides between the NM strain and reference strains showed that the sequence homology of gag and env were 77.1%-86.8% and 67.7%-75.5%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the NM strain was closely related to the reference strains isolated from America, which belong to the A2 type. Notably, there were 5 amino acid insertions in variable region 4 and a highly variable motif at the C-terminal of the surface glycoprotein (SU5). CONCLUSIONS: The present study is the first to show the whole-genome sequence of an MVV obtained from China. The detailed analyses provide essential information for understanding the genetic characteristics of MVV, and the results enrich the MVV library.

8.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 9178-9187, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606546

RESUMO

Background: Basic studies have found that xanthine oxidase inhibitors extracted from mushrooms have inhibitory effects on hyperuricemia. However, the association between mushroom consumption and hyperuricemia is unknown in humans. Objective: We therefore designed a large-scale cohort study to examine whether mushroom consumption is a protective factor for developing hyperuricemia in adults. Methods: This prospective cohort study investigated 19 830 participants (mean age: 39.4 years; and 9906 [50.0%] men) who were free of hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at the baseline. Mushroom consumption was measured at the baseline using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia is defined as serum uric acid levels >420 µmol L-1 in men and >350 µmol L-1 in women. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of mushroom consumption with incident hyperuricemia. Restricted cubic spline regression was used to estimate the dose-response relationship between mushroom consumption and risk of hyperuricemia. Results: A total of 4260 first incident cases of hyperuricemia occurred during 61 421 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up of 4.2 years). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, dietary intake, and inflammatory markers, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident hyperuricemia were 1.00(reference) for <1.76 g per 1000 kcal per day, 0.93(0.86, 1.01) for 1.76-2.84 g per 1000 kcal per day, 0.93(0.85, 1.01) for 2.85-5.52 g per 1000 kcal per day, and 0.88 (0.80, 0.96) for >5.52 g per 1000 kcal per day, respectively (P for trend = 0.007). Conclusions: This population-based prospective cohort study has firstly demonstrated that higher mushroom consumption is significantly associated with lower incidence of hyperuricemia among general adults.

9.
Nutrition ; 93: 111501, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prospective cohort studies linking dietary patterns and hyperuricemia (HUA) are limited, especially in Asian populations. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between various dietary patterns and risk for HUA in a general adult population. METHOD: We used data from the TCLSIH (Tianjin Chronic Low-grade Systemic Inflammation and Health) cohort study of 20 766 men and women who were free from HUA, cancer, and cardiovascular disease at baseline. Dietary patterns at baseline were identified with factor analysis based on responses to a validated 81-item food frequency questionnaire. HUA was defined as serum uric acid levels >420 µmol/L in men and >350 µmol/L in women. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to examine the association of dietary patterns with incident HUA. RESULTS: In all, 4389 first incident cases of HUA occurred during 73 822 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up of 4.2 y). Three main dietary patterns were extracted. They were the vegetable, sweet food, and animal food patterns. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, other dietary pattern scores, and inflammatory markers, comparing the highest with the lowest quartiles of dietary pattern scores, the multivariable hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of HUA were 0.79 (0.72-0.87; Ptrend < 0.0001) for the vegetable pattern, 1.22 (1.12-1.33; Ptrend < 0.0001) for the sweet food pattern, and 1.24 (1.13-1.37; Ptrend < 0.0001) for the animal food pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns rich in animal or sweet foods were positively associated with a higher risk for HUA, whereas the vegetable pattern was negatively associated.

10.
Exp Ther Med ; 22(4): 1116, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504570

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. The airflow limitation is usually progressive and associated with an abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particles or gases. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on lung function and airway inflammation in a rat model of COPD. A rat model of COPD was established in this study, and anti-BDNF antibody was injected to observe the effect of BDNF on pulmonary function and airway inflammation. Lung function and hematoxylin and eosin staining analyses were performed. BDNF in the airway was examined using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of oxidant stress and inflammatory cytokines were measured. After long-term heavy cigarette exposure, pulmonary inflammation and emphysema were observed, while lung function had deteriorated in the COPD, COPD + anti-BDNF and COPD + normal saline groups. Levels of BDNF expression, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were increased in rats with COPD compared with control rats, while levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased. Anti-BDNF intervention improved airway inflammation. To conclude, anti-BDNF intervention could alleviate inflammation and improve any imbalance between oxidation and antioxidation in the airway.

11.
Cancer Nurs ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compression therapy is a common method for treating breast cancer-related lymphedema. However, no specific evidence exists to guide practitioners on the morbidity of lymphedema, limb volume, and range of motion. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of compression therapy and routine nursing during the treatment of breast cancer-related lymphedema and to provide a basis for better clinical decision-making. METHODS: The PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, CBM, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP databases were searched through January 21, 2021. Meta-analysis and description of the outcomes were performed by using the RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included. A meta-analysis of 13 studies was conducted. The experimental group had a lower morbidity of lymphedema, the difference was significant, and there was no heterogeneity (P < .05; odds ratio, 0.35, I2 = 31%). There was no significant difference between the experimental group and control group in limb volume, and there was significant heterogeneity (P = .44, mean difference = 4.51, I2 = 85%). Regarding range of motion, the standardized mean difference of shoulder adduction, shoulder lift, shoulder abduction, and shoulder extension were 1.37, 0.69, 0.56, and 0.87, respectively, and the differences were significant; there was heterogeneity (P < .05, I2 = 92%). CONCLUSIONS: Compression therapy can reduce the morbidity of lymphedema and improve limb movement, but the effect on limb volume needs to be further explored. IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE: In terms of therapeutic effectiveness and limb function, the results provide evidence that physicians can reduce the morbidity of lymphedema, reduce the degree of limb, and increase limb mobility by applying compression therapy.

12.
Target Oncol ; 16(6): 701-741, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582007

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) among Asians accounts for ~ 40% of the global BC burden. Differences in BC risk, presentation, tumor biology, and response to treatment exist between Asian and non-Asian patients; however, Asian patients are often under-represented in clinical trials. This narrative review summarizes the efficacy and safety of pharmacological therapies for BC in Asian populations, with a focus on outcomes in Asian versus non-Asian patients treated with chemotherapy, hormone therapy, anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 targeted therapies, cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors, bone-targeted therapies, poly-ADP ribose polymerase, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and checkpoint inhibitors. While most therapies have demonstrated comparable efficacy and safety in Asian and non-Asian patients with BC, differences that are largely attributed to pharmacogenetic variations between populations exist. Pharmacogenetic differences may contribute to a reduced clinical benefit of tamoxifen, whereas improved clinical outcomes have been reported with tyrosine kinase inhibitors and CDK4/6 inhibitors in Asian versus non-Asian patients with BC. In particular, Asian patients have an increased incidence of hematological toxicities, including neutropenia, although adverse events can be effectively managed using dose adjustments. Recent trials with CDK4/6 inhibitors have increased efforts to include Asians within study subsets. Future clinical trials enrolling higher numbers of Asian patients, and an increased understanding of differences in patient and tumor genetics between Asians and non-Asians, have the potential to incrementally improve the management of BC in Asian patients.

13.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 190(2): 213-226, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471951

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Meaningful comparison of mutational landscapes across ethnic groups requires the use of standardized platform technology. We have used a harmonized NGS-based liquid biopsy assay to explore the differential genomic landscape of patients with initially hormone receptor-positive (HR+), HER2-negative MBC of first line metastasis or primary Stage IV at diagnosis from the United States (US) and China (CN). METHODS: Plasma circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) from 27 US patients and 65 CN patients was sequenced using the harmonized CLIA-certified, 152-gene PredicineCare™ liquid biopsy assay. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between genomic alterations and progression-free survival (PFS), and p-values were calculated using the log-rank test. RESULTS: All patients in the CN cohort received chemotherapy and/or hormonal therapy, while 85.2% (23/27) patients in the US cohort received hormonal therapy plus CDK4/6 inhibitors. Mutations were detected in 23 of 27 (85%) US patients and 54 of 65 (83%) CN patients. The prevalence of AKT1 (P = 0.008) and CDH1 (P = 0.021) alterations were both higher in the US vs. CN cohort. In addition, FGFR1 amplification were more frequent in the CN vs. US cohort (P = 0.048). PTEN deletions (P = 0.03) and ESR1 alterations (P = 0.02) were associated with shorter PFS in the CN cohort, neither of these associations were observed in the US cohort. Interestingly, a reduced association between PTEN deletion and PFS was observed in patients receiving CDK4/6 inhibitor treatment. CONCLUSION: The differential prevalence of ctDNA-based alterations such as FGFR1, AKT1, and CDH1 was observed in initially HR+/HER2- MBC patients in the US vs. CN. In addition, the association of PTEN deletions with shorter PFS was found in the CN but not the US cohort. The differential genomic landscapes across the two ethnic groups may reflect biologic differences and clinical implications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/sangue , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/genética , China/epidemiologia , DNA Tumoral Circulante/sangue , DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Feminino , Genômica , Hormônios , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371506

RESUMO

To explore the efficacy and safety of palbociclib combined with endocrine therapy (ET) in advanced breast cancer (ABC). We conducted a retrospective study involving patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) ABC who received palbociclib combined with ET in the first- to third-line at three centers in China between January 2018 and October 2020. A total of 151 patients were included in this study. The median age of the patients at palbociclib initiation was 56 years (range 30-86 years) with a median follow-up of 10.9 months (range 2.0-41.2 months). Among these patients, 88 patients received palbociclib combined with ET as first-line therapy, and achieved a median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 19.8 months and an objective response rate (ORR) of 40.9%, meanwhile, in the first-line setting, 62 patients received palbociclib at an initial dose of 125 mg, achieving a mPFS of 20.9 months and an ORR of 46.8%. There were 39 and 24 patients who received palbociclib combined with ET as second- and third-line therapy, the mPFS were 10.0 months and 6.1 months, respectively. The most common and serious adverse events (AEs) were leukopenia and neutropenia. A total of 64 patients (42.4%) underwent palbociclib dose reduction due to AEs. Palbociclib combined with ET is an effective therapeutic regimen for HR+/HER2- ABC, particularly in the first-line setting with palbociclib initial dose of 125 mg, and AEs were manageable.

15.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7289-7297, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study is to investigate the impact of the simple breathing exercises (LHP's respiratory rehabilitation for pulmonary fibrosis, LHP's RRPF) on patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). METHODS: (I) The safety and effectiveness of LHP's RRPF were first verified in 20 healthy individuals. (II) A total of 101 patients with IPF administrated in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2015 and May 2017 were screened, and 82 cases were randomly assigned to receive a 12-month LHP's RRPF program (exercise group) or usual medical care (control group). Lung function, chest X-ray, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), quality of life (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ), and EKG were measured at the 6th and 12th month during the trial. RESULTS: At the 6th month visit, the exercise group showed improved SGRQ score and lung function parameters (FVC, FEV1, and DLCO). At the 12th months visit, the exercise group had significantly improved SGRQ score, 6MWD, and lung function (FVC, FEV1, and DLCO) compared to the control group (P<0.05). No obvious adverse events occurred in the exercise group. The incidence of acute exacerbation and one-year mortality were 7.69% and 2.56%, respectively in the exercise group, which were lower than those (20.9% and 9.3%, respectively) in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: LHP's RRPF can delay the pulmonary function decline of patients with IPF and improve their quality of life. This breathing exercise may be an adjunct to pulmonary rehabilitation for IPF.


Assuntos
Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Qualidade de Vida , China , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/terapia , Pulmão
16.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 724286, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456734

RESUMO

Background: Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) often have irritating persistent dry cough. Possible correlations between dry cough and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) remain unclear. Methods: 44 patients with IPF and 30 healthy individuals underwent 24 h laryngopharyngeal pH monitoring. Ryan index score was calculated. Patients' demographic and clinical data were collected. Results: 44 patients with IPF and 30 healthy individuals were included. The proportions of men and smokers were significantly higher in IPF group than control group (All p < 0.01). The average laryngopharyngeal pH value for 24 h was similar in the IPF (7.11 ± 0.08) group and control group (7.09 ± 0.06). According to the percentage duration of pH < 6.5, pH6.5-7.5, and pH > 7.5 in the overall measure duration, the patients were classified into three pH groups. In entire pH monitoring duration, the proportion of pH > 7.5 group in IPF patients was higher than control group; at upright position, the proportion of pH > 7.5 group in IPF patients was higher than control group; at supine position, the proportion of pH < 6.5 group in IPF patients was higher than control group (All p < 0.01). Seven patients had Ryan index score>9.41 at upright position. All patients had Ryan index score<6.79 at supine position. Four patients showed significantly higher and one patient had significantly lower average pH at coughing than the overall average pH (All p < 0.05). Conclusions: Patients with IPF may have LPR. Basic and acidic LPR may likely occur at upright and supine position, respectively. Ryan index may not accurately reflect LPR in patients with IPF.

17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 375-384, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371049

RESUMO

Silkworm, as a model organism, has very high economic value due to its silk secretion ability. Although a large number of studies have attempted to elucidate the mechanism of silk secretion, it remains unclear. In this study, the fibroin light chain (Fib-L) gene of silkworm was subjected to CRISPR/Cas9 editing, which yielded premature termination of translation at 135 aa. Compared with those of the wild type, the posterior silk glands (PSGs) of the homozygous mutants on the third day of the fifth instar showed obvious premature degeneration. Comparative transcriptome and proteomic analyses of the PSGs of wild-type individuals, heterozygous mutants and homozygous mutants were performed on the fourth day of the fifth instar. A GO enrichment analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between homozygous mutants and wild-type individuals were enriched in cytoskeleton-related terms, and a KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs between homozygous mutants and wild-type individuals were enriched in the phagosome and apoptosis pathways. These results indicated that apoptosis was activated prematurely in the PSGs of homozygous mutants. Furthermore, autophagy and heat shock response were activated in the PSGs of homozygous mutants, as demonstrated by an analysis of the DEGs related to autophagy and heat shock. A comparative proteomic analysis further confirmed that autophagy, apoptosis and the heat shock response were activated in the PSGs of homozygous mutants, which led to premature degradation of the PSGs. These results provide insights for obtaining a more in-depth understanding of the mechanism of silk secretion in silkworms.

18.
Cancer Med ; 10(17): 6089-6098, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346560

RESUMO

Bilateral breast cancer (BBC) is an uncommon subset of breast cancer (BC), and it may present as synchronous bilateral breast cancer (sBBC) or metachronous bilateral breast cancer (mBBC). Through this study, we aimed to evaluate the proportion of BBC in BC and compare the clinicopathological characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of sBBC and mBBC at an academic cancer center in China. Patients with BC consecutively treated between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with BBC were included. In total, 3924 patients with BC were analyzed and 127 patients with BBC (28 sBBC, 99 mBBC) with a median follow-up of 98 months were identified. The proportion of BBC was 3.2% (0.7%, sBBC; 2.5%, mBBC). The median age at the first diagnosis of mBBC was significantly younger than that at the first diagnosis of sBBC (p = 0.027). Patients diagnosed as having sBBC were more likely to have a positive family history (p = 0.047). The first tumors of mBBC were detected at a significantly earlier tumor stage compared with those of sBBC (p = 0.028). The concordance rates of histopathologic type in the first and second tumors were 60.7% and 58.0% in sBBC and mBBC, respectively. sBBC had a significantly poorer disease-free survival than mBBC did (p = 0.001). BBC is a rare disease affecting the Chinese population. sBBC is associated with a greater prevalence of a family history of breast cancer and poorer prognosis, compared with mBBC.

19.
Drugs Aging ; 38(10): 921-930, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the associations between drug therapies targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the associations between using medications for the cardiovascular system and the risks associated with COVID-19 in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A total of 77,221 participants (aged 50-86 years) from UK Biobank were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The medications included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), ß-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCB), statins, and aspirin. COVID-19 outcomes comprised a positive test result and severity of COVID-19 (defined as mild, hospitalization or death). We evaluated the risk among total participants and for sub-groups based on sex. Propensity score matching was performed 1:1 and logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Among the middle- and older aged participants, no significant associations between any class of medications and the likelihood of COVID-19 infection were observed. ACEI were associated with a higher mortality risk from COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.32) and CCB were associated with a lower hospitalization risk for COVID-19 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.96) among the male patients with COVID-19, while a lower mortality risk from COVID-19 (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96) was observed with ARB among the female patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggested sex differences in the risk of death from COVID-19 with the use of ACEI and ARB among middle-aged and older adults. Sex differences in the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 with the use of CCB was observed as well. It is of clinical importance that clinicians adopt different CVD treatment approaches for female and male patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipertensão , Idoso , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Caracteres Sexuais
20.
Nano Lett ; 21(18): 7789-7795, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460262

RESUMO

Surface functionalization with atoms serves as an important strategy to modulate the catalytic activities of low-dimensional nanomaterials. Herein, we developed a facile hydrogen incorporation strategy for improving the catalytic activities of SnS2 nanosheets toward CO2 electroreduction. Compared with SnS2 nanosheets, the hydrogen-incorporated SnS2 (denoted as H-SnS2) nanosheets exhibited high current density and Faradaic efficiency (FE) for formate. At -0.9 V vs RHE, H-SnS2 nanosheets displayed a maximum FE of 93% for carbonaceous product, which rivals the activities of most Sn-based catalysts in CO2 electroreduction. Mechanistic studies disclosed that the incorporation of surface hydrogen induced the electron injection into the structures of H-SnS2 nanosheets, which largely facilitates the process of CO2 activation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations further revealed that hydrogen incorporation decreased the energy barrier for the formation of HCOO* intermediates, thus contributing to the CO2-to-formate conversion on H-SnS2 nanosheets.

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