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1.
J Appl Clin Med Phys ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33817981

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate dosimetric properties of intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for simulated treatment planning in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) targeting left atrial-pulmonary vein junction (LA-PVJ), in comparison with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and helical tomotherapy (TOMO). METHODS: Ten thoracic 4D-CT scans with respiratory motion and one with cardiac motion were used for the study. Ten respiratory 4D-CTs were planned with VMAT, TOMO, and IMPT for simulated AF. Targets at the LA-PVJ were defined as wide-area circumferential ablation line. A single fraction of 25 Gy was prescribed to all plans. The interplay effects from cardiac motion were evaluated based on the cardiac 4D-CT scan. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the ITV and normal tissues were compared. Statistical analysis was evaluated via one-way Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Friedman's test with Bonferroni's multiple comparisons test. RESULTS: The median volume of ITV was 8.72cc. All plans had adequate target coverage (V23.75Gy  ≥ 99%). Compared with VMAT and TOMO, IMPT resulted in significantly lower dose of most normal tissues. For VMAT, TOMO, and IMPT plans, Dmean of the whole heart was 5.52 ± 0.90 Gy, 5.89 ± 0.78 Gy, and 3.01 ± 0.57 Gy (P < 0.001), mean dose of pericardium was 4.74 ± 0.76 Gy, 4.98 ± 0.62 Gy, and 2.59 ± 0.44 Gy (P < 0.001), and D0.03cc of left circumflex artery (LCX) was 13.96 ± 5.45 Gy, 14.34 ± 5.91 Gy, and 8.43 ± 7.24 Gy (P < 0.001), respectively. However, no significant advantage for one technique over the others was observed when examining the D0.03cc of esophagus and main bronchi. CONCLUSIONS: IMPT targeting LA-PVJ for patients with AF has high potential to reduce dose to surrounding tissues compared to VMAT or TOMO. Motion mitigation techniques are critical for a particle-therapy approach.

2.
Metabolites ; 11(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809004

RESUMO

Fruits provide humans with multiple kinds of nutrients and protect humans against worldwide nutritional deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to understand the nutrient composition of various fruits in depth. In this study, we performed LC-MS-based non-targeted metabolomic analyses with ten kinds of fruit, including passion fruit, mango, starfruit, mangosteen, guava, mandarin orange, grape, apple, blueberry, and strawberry. In total, we detected over 2500 compounds and identified more than 300 nutrients. Although the ten fruits shared 909 common-detected compounds, each species accumulated a variety of species-specific metabolites. Additionally, metabolic profiling analyses revealed a constant variation in each metabolite's content across the ten fruits. Moreover, we constructed a neighbor-joining tree using metabolomic data, which resembles the single-copy protein-based phylogenetic tree. This indicates that metabolome data could reflect the genetic relationship between different species. In conclusion, our work enriches knowledge on the metabolomics of fruits, and provides metabolic evidence for the genetic relationships among these fruits.

3.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 113: 51-60, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798718

RESUMO

Killer cell lectin-like receptor G subfamily 1 (KLRG1) is a receptor generally expressed on effector CD8+ T cells or NK cells at terminal differentiation stage, and it will be highly induced for lymphocyte cytotoxicity upon pathogen infection or lymphocyte activation. However, little is known about the character or function of KLRG1 in lower vertebrates. In present study, we reappraised a molecule that previously defined as KLRG1 in the genomic sequence of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and identified it as an atypical KLRG1-like molecule (defined as On-KLRG1-L), and illustrated its potential function serving as a marker representing effector T lymphocytes of fish species. On-KLRG1-L consists of two C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs) without transmembrane region, and the tertiary structure of the CTLD is highly alike to that in mouse KLRG1. As a CTLD-containing protein, the recombinant On-KLRG1-L could bind PGN and several microbes in vitro. On-KLRG1-L was widely expressed in immune-associated tissues, with the highest expression level in the gill. Once Nile tilapia is infected by Aeromonas hydrophila, mRNA level of On-KLRG1-L in spleen lymphocytes were significantly up-regulated on 5 days after infection. Meanwhile, On-KLRG1-L protein was also induced on 5 or 8 days after A. hydrophila infection. Furthermore, we found both mRNA and protein levels of On-KLRG1-L were dramatically enhanced within several hours after spleen lymphocytes were activated by T cell-specific mitogen PHA in vitro. More importantly, the ratio of On-KLRG1-L+ T cells was also augmented after PHA stimulation. The observations suggested that the KLRG1-like molecule from Nile tilapia participated in lymphocyte activation and anti-bacterial adaptive immune response, and could serve as an activation marker of T lymphocytes. Our study thus provided new evidences to understand lymphocyte-mediated adaptive immunity of teleost.

4.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 551: 133-139, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33735625

RESUMO

With undetermined etiology and limited treatment option, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) an age related disease is extremely lethal. Persistent injury of epithelial cells, abnormal activation of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, and superabundant deposition of extracellular matrix protein pathologically characterize IPF. Redox imbalance is reported to play a vital role in both IPF development and senescence. This study aim to investigate whether and how Liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1), a strong lipid autoxidation inhibitor, regulates bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis both in vivo and in vitro. It's demonstrated that Lip-1 exerted a potent anti-fibrotic function in BLM-induced mice pulmonary fibrosis via alleviating inflammatory, reshaping redox equilibrium, and ameliorating collagen deposition. Lip-1 reduced the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), promoted the expression of glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) after BLM treatment. Moreover, in vitro experiments verified that Lip-1 protected A549 cells from BLM-induced injury and fibrosis. Lip-1 seemed to attenuate BLM-induced fibrosis by targeting ROS/p53/α-SMA signaling both in vivo and in vitro. In summary, this study demonstrates that Lip-1 administration performs a protective role in against pulmonary fibrosis and lights up the potential of Lip-1 treatment for patient with IPF in future.

5.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 103: 108-118, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743893

RESUMO

Biotrickling filters (BTFs) for hydrophobic chlorobenzene (CB) purification are limited by mass transfer and biodegradation. The CB mass transfer rate could be improved by 150 mg/L rhamnolipids. This study evaluated the combined use of Fe3+ and Zn2+ to enhance biodegradation in a BTF over 35 day. The effects of these trace elements were analysed under different inlet concentrations (250, 600, 900, and 1200 mg/L) and empty bed residence times (EBRTs; 60, 45, and 32 sec). Batch experiments showed that the promoting effects of Fe3+/Zn2+ on microbial growth and metabolism were highest for 3 mg/L Fe3+ and 2 mg/L Zn2+, followed by 2 mg/L Zn2+, and lowest at 3 mg/L Fe3+. Compared to BTF in the absence of Fe3+ and Zn2+, the average CB elimination capacity and removal efficiency in the presence of Fe3+ and Zn2+ increased from 61.54 to 65.79 g/(m3⋅hr) and from 80.93% to 89.37%, respectively, at an EBRT of 60 sec. The average removal efficiency at EBRTs of 60, 45, and 32 sec increased by 2.89%, 5.63%, and 11.61%, respectively. The chemical composition (proteins (PN), polysaccharides (PS)) and functional groups of the biofilm were analysed at 60, 81, and 95 day. Fe3+ and Zn2+ significantly enhanced PN and PS secretion, which may have promoted CB adsorption and biodegradation. High-throughput sequencing revealed the promoting effect of Fe3+ and Zn2+ on bacterial populations. The combination of Fe3+ and Zn2+ with rhamnolipids was an efficient method for improving CB biodegradation in BTFs.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Filtração , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Reatores Biológicos , Clorobenzenos , Glicolipídeos , Zinco
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145495, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770851

RESUMO

A large gap exists between laboratory findings and successful implementation of bioremediation technologies for the treatment of chromium (Cr)-contaminated sites. This work conducted the enhanced bioremediation of Cr(VI) in situ via the addition of organic carbon (ethanol) coupled with a dynamic groundwater recirculation (DGR)-based system in a field-scale study. The DGR system was applied to successfully (1) remove Cr(VI) from groundwater via enhanced flushing by the recirculation system and (2) deliver the biostimulant to the heterogeneous subsurface environment, including a sand/cobble aquifer and a fractured bedrock aquifer. The results showed that the combined extraction and bioreduction of Cr(VI) were able to reduce Cr(VI) concentrations from 1000 to 2000 mg/L to below the clean-up goal of 0.1 mg/L within the operation period of 52 days. The effectiveness of Cr(VI) bioremediation and the relationship between microbial communities and geochemical parameters were evaluated. Multiple-line of evidence demonstrated that the introduction of ethanol significantly stimulated a variety of bacteria, including those responsible for denitrification, sulfate reduction and reduction of Cr(VI), which contributed to the establishment of reducing conditions in both aquifers. Cr(VI) was removed from groundwater via combined mechanisms of physical removal through the DGR system and the bioreduction of Cr(VI) followed by precipitation. In particular, it was found competitive growth among Cr(VI)-reducing bacteria (such as the enrichment of Geobacter, along with the reduced relative abundance of Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas) was induced by ethanol injection. Furthermore, Cr(VI), total organic carbon, NO2-, and SO42- played important roles in shaping the composition of the microbial community and its functions.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromo/análise , Oxirredução
7.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21457, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689192

RESUMO

As fish constitute the first evolutionary group with primordial T cells, they are of importance for understanding the origin and evolution of adaptive immunity. Yet, the knowledge about how ancestral T cells function remains limited. Therefore, the teleost model Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was used in this study to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of T-cell immunity in fish. We identified an evolutionarily conserved canonical NF-κB signaling pathway in Nile tilapia, which participates in primary adaptive immune response during Streptococcus agalactiae infection. Blockade of NF-κB activity severely impairs T-cell activation and expansion, rendering the animals more vulnerable to pathogen attack. Meanwhile, NF-κB signaling is indispensable for fish T cells to produce IL-17A during the antibacterial immune response. Moreover, IL-17A binds its receptor IL-17RA, initiates the ACT1-TRAF6-TAK1 axis, and triggers NF-κB-dependent T-cell activation, thus forming a positive feedback loop of T-cell immunity in Nile tilapia. Furthermore, IL-17A seems to promote innate immunity by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines via TRAF6-NF-κB axis, indicating the presence of an NF-κB-dependent IL-17A signaling pathway for coordinating adaptive and innate immunity in fish. Our results suggest that fish NF-κB couples TCR and IL-17 signals to modulate ancestral T-cell immunity against bacterial infection, and the regulation of T-cell immunity by NF-κB and IL-17 is a strategy that existed prior to the divergence of the tetrapod lineage from teleost fish. This study, therefore, provides a new perspective on the evolution of adaptive immunity.

8.
Opt Lett ; 46(5): 1101-1104, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649667

RESUMO

In this Letter, we propose a microstructured in-fiber optofluidic surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensor for the initial inspection of uremia through the detection of unlabeled urea and creatinine. As a natural microfluidic device, microstructured hollow fiber has a special structure inside. Through chemical bonds, the SERS substrate can be modified and grown on the surface of the suspended core. Here, the silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are embedded on the poly diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride-modified graphene oxide sheet to achieve the self-assembled SERS substrate. The reduced distance between Ag NPs can increase the strong hot spots that generate enhanced Raman signals. Therefore, it can effectively detect the Raman signal of unlabeled trace uremic toxin analytes (urea, creatinine) inside the optical fiber. The results show that under simulated biophysical conditions, the limit detection (LOD) for urea is 10-4M and the linearity is good, especially at the clinical conventional concentration range (2.5-6.5×10-3M). In addition, the online Raman detection of creatinine aqueous solution LOD is 10-6M, which also has good linearity. Significantly, this Letter provides a microstructured optofluidic in-fiber Raman sensor for the preliminary detection of uremia, which will have good development prospects in the field of clinical biomedicine.

9.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(4): 111, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666754

RESUMO

For the first time CoS-nanoparticles attached ZnS rods (CoS/ZnS composites) have been synthesized using cobalt(II)-ion-exchanged zinc-based biological metal-organic framework-1 (Zn-bio-MOF-1) as precursors by a solvothermal method. Among them, the cobalt(II)-ion-exchanged Zn-bio-MOF-1 was obtained by exchanging the dimethylammonium cations (Me2NH2+) of Zn-bio-MOF-1 with cobalt ions. A novel electrochemical sensor based on CoS/ZnS composites and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) was proposed for rapid, sensitive, and highly selective detection of organochlorine pesticide chloroneb. The MIP film was obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV), and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to detect chloroneb. Under the optimal conditions, the oxidation peak current density of chloroneb was linearly related to the concentration from 0.003 to 0.2 µM and 0.2 to 3.2 µM with a detection limit of 0.87 nM (S/N = 3) and a sensitivity of 52.27 µA·µM-1·cm-2. The proposed sensor exhibits a favorable selectivity, stability, and reproducibility, and was applied to detect chloroneb residues in licorice, cucumber, river water, and soil samples with satisfactory results.Graphical abstract.

10.
EMBO Rep ; : e52141, 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764618

RESUMO

Tyrosine phosphorylation of secretion machinery proteins is a crucial regulatory mechanism for exocytosis. However, the participation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in different exocytosis stages has not been defined. Here we demonstrate that PTP-MEG2 controls multiple steps of catecholamine secretion. Biochemical and crystallographic analyses reveal key residues that govern the interaction between PTP-MEG2 and its substrate, a peptide containing the phosphorylated NSF-pY83 site, specify PTP-MEG2 substrate selectivity, and modulate the fusion of catecholamine-containing vesicles. Unexpectedly, delineation of PTP-MEG2 mutants along with the NSF binding interface reveals that PTP-MEG2 controls the fusion pore opening through NSF independent mechanisms. Utilizing bioinformatics search and biochemical and electrochemical screening approaches, we uncover that PTP-MEG2 regulates the opening and extension of the fusion pore by dephosphorylating the DYNAMIN2-pY125 and MUNC18-1-pY145 sites. Further structural and biochemical analyses confirmed the interaction of PTP-MEG2 with MUNC18-1-pY145 or DYNAMIN2-pY125 through a distinct structural basis compared with that of the NSF-pY83 site. Our studies thus provide mechanistic insights in complex exocytosis processes.

11.
Cancer Lett ; 507: 55-69, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741424

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment has been recently reported to play a pivotal role in sustaining tumor cells survival and protecting them from immunotherapy and chemotherapy-induced death. It remains largely unknown how the specific signaling pathway exerts the tumor microenvironment in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma though previous studies have elucidated the regulatory mechanisms involve in tumor immune microenvironment, stromal cells, tumor angiogenesis and cancer stem cell. These components are responsible for tumor progression as well as anti-cancer therapy resistance, leading to rapid tumor growth and treatment failure. In this review, we focus on discussing the interaction between tumor cells and the surrounding components for better understanding of anti-cancer treatment ineffectiveness and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 497-506, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657968

RESUMO

HIV-1 CRF08_BC has become a major epidemic in heterosexuals and intravenous drug users (IDUs) in southern China. In order to evaluate the trends of its epidemic and facilitate targeted HIV prevention, we constructed the genetic transmission networks based on its pol sequences, derived from the National HIV Molecular Epidemiology Survey. Through retrospective network analysis, to study the epidemiological and demographic correlations with the transmission network. Of the 1,829 study subjects, 639 (34.9%) were clustered in 151 transmission networks. Factors associated with increased clustering include IDUs, heterosexual men, young adults and people with lower education (P < 0.05 for all). The IDUs, MSM, young adult and person with low education had more potential transmission links as well (P < 0.05 for all). The most crossover links were found between heterosexual women and IDUs, with 30.9% heterosexual women linked to IDUs. The crossover links heterosexual women were mainly those with middle age and single (P < 0.001). This study indicated that the HIV-1 CRF08_BC epidemic was still on going in China with more than one third of the infected people clustered in the transmission networks. Meanwhile, the study could help identify the active CRF08_BC spreader in the local community and greatly facilitate précising AIDS prevention with targeted intervention.

13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112026, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582411

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a typical environmental endocrine disruptor that can migrate into organisms through skin contact, breathing, diet and various other approaches. The reproductive toxicity and neurotoxicity of BPA has been confirmed by several toxicological studies. However, the neurotoxicity of BPA is still controversial. In the present study, we used PC12 cells as a model to investigate the mechanism of BPA-induced neuronal apoptosis. BPA exposure reduced cell viability, altered cell morphology and aggravated intracellular Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, intracellular Ca2+ concentration, Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, apoptosis and the reduction in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). Moreover, the results of the Western blot (WB) and Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays indicated that the expression levels of Nur77 in the BPA group were down-regulated and accompanied by the downregulation of the NF-κb/Bcl-2 proteins and the upregulation of cleaved-caspase 3, which is a marker of apoptosis. However, these changes were significantly reversed with the upregulation of the Nur77 protein by introducing plasmids carrying the nur77 gene. These results indicated that BPA-induced apoptosis was closely related to Nur77-mediated inhibition of the NF-κb/Bcl-2 pathway.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose , Sobrevivência Celular , Receptores Nucleares Órfãos , Células PC12 , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Dent Mater ; 37(4): 655-671, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579531

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To give a current review of the mechanism of mussel adhesion, the application of mussel-inspired compounds in dentistry and the challenges associated with clinical application. METHODS: Inspired by the wet adhesion property of 3,4-dihydroxyphenol-l-alanine (Dopa) in mussel plaques, various chemical compounds have been synthesized to mimic the mussel as an adhesion model for medical applications. Similar to mussels in the marine environment, dental materials in the oral environment have to endure long-term water hydrolysis, mechanical stress and other chemical challenges. These challenges have influenced an increasing number of studies that are exploring the translation of mussel-inspired adhesion to clinical applications. Therefore, this review discusses the mussel adhesion chemistry and its related application in dentistry. RESULTS: Mussel-inspired compounds have achieved relatively acceptable performances in various dental fields, including surface coating, metal ions chelation, dentin bonding and mucosal adhesion. However, two practical problems remain to be comprehensively addressed, namely the protection of catechol groups from oxidation, and the feasibility for clinical application. SIGNIFICANCE: The mussel's wet adhesion ability has attracted much research interest in the dental field because of its properties of moisture-resistant adhesion and surface coating. Despite the emergence of several mussel-inspired compounds in recent years, a comprehensive and timely review of their applications in dentistry is lacking. Therefore, the current review hopes to provide valuable information around the application of mussel-inspired compounds in dentistry with their pros and cons discussed.

15.
FEBS Open Bio ; 11(3): 782-792, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527708

RESUMO

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), an immune checkpoint receptor expressed by activated T, B, and NK cells, is a well-known target for cancer immunotherapy. Tislelizumab (BGB-A317) is an anti-PD-1 antibody that has recently been approved for treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and urothelial carcinoma. Here, we show that tislelizumab displayed remarkable antitumor efficacy in a B16F10/GM-CSF mouse model. Structural biology and Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses revealed unique epitopes of tislelizumab, and demonstrated that the CC' loop of PD-1, a region considered to be essential for binding to PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) but not reported as targeted by other therapeutic antibodies, significantly contributes to the binding of tislelizumab. The binding surface of tislelizumab on PD-1 overlaps largely with that of the PD-L1. SPR analysis revealed the extremely slow dissociation rate of tislelizumab from PD-1. Both structural and functional analyses align with the observed ability of tislelizumab to completely block PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, broadening our understanding of the mechanism of action of anti-PD-1 antibodies.

16.
Med Image Anal ; 69: 101954, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550006

RESUMO

Limb salvage surgery of malignant pelvic tumors is the most challenging procedure in musculoskeletal oncology due to the complex anatomy of the pelvic bones and soft tissues. It is crucial to accurately resect the pelvic tumors with appropriate margins in this procedure. However, there is still a lack of efficient and repetitive image planning methods for tumor identification and segmentation in many hospitals. In this paper, we present a novel deep learning-based method to accurately segment pelvic bone tumors in MRI. Our method uses a multi-view fusion network to extract pseudo-3D information from two scans in different directions and improves the feature representation by learning a relational context. In this way, it can fully utilize spatial information in thick MRI scans and reduce over-fitting when learning from a small dataset. Our proposed method was evaluated on two independent datasets collected from 90 and 15 patients, respectively. The segmentation accuracy of our method was superior to several comparing methods and comparable to the expert annotation, while the average time consumed decreased about 100 times from 1820.3 seconds to 19.2 seconds. In addition, we incorporate our method into an efficient workflow to improve the surgical planning process. Our workflow took only 15 minutes to complete surgical planning in a phantom study, which is a dramatic acceleration compared with the 2-day time span in a traditional workflow.

17.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 119: 104042, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582106

RESUMO

Serving as a significant signaling molecule, RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (Akt1) plays indispensable roles in cell cycle, growth, survival, metabolism, as well as immune response. However, how Akt1 regulates adaptive immune response in early vertebrate, especially the teleost, is largely unknown. Here, using a Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus model, we investigated the regulatory role of Akt1 in adaptive immunity of teleost. Both sequence and structure of the O. niloticus Akt1 (OnAkt1), were evolutionarily conserved comparing with the counterparts from other vertebrates. mRNA of OnAkt1 was widely expressed in lymphoid organs/tissues of Nile tilapia, with relative higher level in PBL. After Nile tilapia was infected by Aeromonas hydrophila, both transcription and phosphorylation levels of OnAkt1 were obviously elevated in spleen lymphocytes at the adaptive immune stage, suggesting Akt1 participated in primary adaptive immune response of Nile tilapia. Furthermore, OnAkt1 transcript or phosphorylation was dramatically augmented after spleen lymphocytes were activated by T cell specific mitogen PHA or lymphocyte agonist PMA. More critically, inhibition of Akt1 by specific inhibitor crippled the activation of downstream mTORC1 signaling, and impaired the up-regulation of T cell activation markers CD44, IFN-γ and CD122 in spleen lymphocytes upon PHA-induced T cell activation. Meanwhile, blockade of Akt1-activated mTORC1 signaling also decreased the frequency of BrdU+ lymphocytes during A. hydrophila infection, indicating the critical role of Akt1 in regulating lymphocyte proliferation of Nile tilapia. Together, our results demonstrated that Akt1 modulated adaptive immune response of Nile tilapia by promoting lymphocyte activation and proliferation via mTORC1 signaling. Our study enriched the regulatory mechanism of lymphocyte-mediated adaptive immunity in teleost, and thus provided novel insights into the evolution of adaptive immune system.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579054

RESUMO

The author wishes to make the following correction to this paper [...].

19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2905, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536526

RESUMO

We constructed a mining soil restoration system combining plant, complex substrate and microbe. Sludge was added to reconstructed mine substrates (RMS) to accelerate the reclamation process. The effect of sludge on plant growth, microbial activity, soil aggregate stability, and aggregation-associated soil characteristics was monitored during 10 years of reclamation. Results show that the height and total biomass of ryegrass increases with reclamation time. Sludge amendment increases the aggregate binding agent content and soil aggregate stability. Soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction SOC (LFOC) in the RMS increase by 151% and 247% compared with those of the control, respectively. A similar trend was observed for the glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP). Stable soil aggregate indexes increase until the seventh year. In short, the variables of RMS determined after 3-7 years insignificantly differ from those of the untreated sample in the tenth-year. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between the GRSP and SOC and GRSP and soil structure-related variables were observed in RMS. Biological stimulation of the SOC and GRSP accelerates the recovery of the soil structure and ecosystem function. Consequently, the plant-complex substrate-microbe ecological restoration system can be used as an effective tool in early mining soil reclamation.

20.
J Forensic Sci ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634870

RESUMO

Fingerprint identification errors may be due to the high similarity of fingerprints from different sources, especially when queries are conducted in a large database with the application of the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS). In this study, a database of ten-prints of 6.964 million individuals was used; 20 sets of 60 simulated fingermarks of different qualities were used and compared with fingerprints from the database. A total of 245 queries were conducted based on both the quality of each fingermark and the number of minutiae. Four types of results were obtained from these queries on the large database, and were categorized as follows: (A) Neither Same Source nor Close Non-Match appears in the candidate list, (B) Only Same Source appears, (C) Only Close Non-Matches appear, and (D) Both Same Source and Close Non-Matches appear. When the quality of the fingermark was improved, more minutiae could be identified, and the degree of accuracy of the placement as well as orientation was higher. As a result, highly Close Non-Match fingerprints appeared; this made it harder to distinguish these fingerprints from Same Source fingerprints, especially in the large database. We concluded that more highly Close Non-Matches might appear when the database is consistently expanded, and an increasing number of Close Non-Matches might be found with a higher ranking and score than the Same Source; this would make the identification harder for examiners and might increase the possibility of identification errors.

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