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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4048706, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148649

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of yeast selenium (Se-Y) on ochratoxin- (OTA-) induced nephrotoxicity of chickens. A total of 80 one-day-old healthy chickens were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: control, OTA (50 µg/kg OTA), Se-Y (0.4 mg/kg Se-Y), and OTA+Se-Y (50 µg/kg OTA+0.4 mg/kg Se-Y). In the OTA chickens, differences in body weight, kidney coefficient, biochemical histological analysis, antioxidant capability, and the expression levels of the PI3K/AKT and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway-related genes were observed. The levels of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (T-GSH) significantly decreased, but the malondialdehyde (MDA) level of the kidneys significantly increased in the OTA treatment group. More importantly, treatment with Se-Y improved the antioxidant enzyme activities within the kidneys of chickens exposed to OTA. In addition, administration of OTA resulted in apoptosis and was associated with decreased expression of AKT, PI3K, and Bcl-2, which in turn enhanced expression of Caspase3, Bax, and P53. However, Se-Y improved the antioxidant defense system through activation of the Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathway. Gene expression of Nrf2 and its target genes (HO-1, GSH-px, GLRX2, MnSOD, and CAT) was downregulated following OTA exposure. Conversely, Se-Y treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of the same genes. Besides, significant downregulations of protein expression of HO-1, CAT, MnSOD, Nrf2, and Bcl-2 and a significant upregulation of Caspase3 and Bax levels were observed after contaminated with OTA. Notably, OTA-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage in the kidney of chickens were reverted back to normal level in the OTA+Se-Y group. Taken together, the data suggest that Se-Y alleviates OTA-induced nephrotoxicity in chickens, possibly through the activation of the PI3K/AKT and Nrf2/Keap1 signaling pathways.

2.
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(1): 191553, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218974

RESUMO

Serial and parallel processing in visual search have been long debated in psychology, but the processing mechanism remains an open issue. Serial processing allows only one object at a time to be processed, whereas parallel processing assumes that various objects are processed simultaneously. Here, we present novel neural models for the two types of processing mechanisms based on analysis of simultaneously recorded spike trains using electrophysiological data from prefrontal cortex of rhesus monkeys while processing task-relevant visual displays. We combine mathematical models describing neuronal attention and point process models for spike trains. The same model can explain both serial and parallel processing by adopting different parameter regimes. We present statistical methods to distinguish between serial and parallel processing based on both maximum likelihood estimates and decoding the momentary focus of attention when two stimuli are presented simultaneously. Results show that both processing mechanisms are in play for the simultaneously recorded neurons, but neurons tend to follow parallel processing in the beginning after the onset of the stimulus pair, whereas they tend to serial processing later on.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(13): e19377, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MRI findings of carotid plaque components have been studied recently as a tool to predict recurrent ischemic events. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the association of MRI-determined intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid-rich necrotic core, and thinning/rupture of the fibrous cap with recurrent ischemic events. METHODS: Electronic search was performed in PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to Oct 30, 2018. We included cohort studies with an average follow-up time of more than 1 month in which intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid-rich necrotic core, or thinning/rupture of the fibrous cap were associated with recurrent ipsilateral stroke or ischemic events. We performed heterogeneity assessment before carrying out meta-analysis. According to the heterogeneity, we selected fixed-effect model for meta-analysis of the included cohort studies. RESULTS: Using a prespecified search strategy, of the 2128 articles, 6 studies with a total number of 621 participants met eligibility for systematic review and meta-analysis. The hazard ratios of intra-plaque hemorrhage, thinning/rupture of the fibrous cap and lipid rich necrotic core as recurrent Stroke/Transient ischemic attack (TIA) were 7.14(95% confidence interval, 4.32 to 11.82), 5.68(95% confidence interval, 2.40 to 13.47), and 2.73(95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 7.16), respectively. No significant heterogeneity was found in the 3 meta-analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of intraplaque hemorrhage, lipid-rich necrotic core, and thinning/rupture of the fibrous cap on MRI of carotid plaque are strong predictors of recurrent stroke events. However, due to the lack of original studies, larger cohort studies are warranted.

4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 1482109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190648

RESUMO

The human gut microbiota is affected by genetic and environmental factors. It remains unclear how host genetic and environmental factors affect the composition and function of gut microbiota in populations living at high altitudes. We used a metagenome-wide analysis to investigate the gut microbiota composition in 15 native Tibetans and 12 Hans living on the Tibetan Plateau. The composition of gut microbiota differed significantly between these two groups (P < 0.05). The Planctomycetes was the most abundant phyla both in native Tibetans and in Hans. Furthermore, the most relatively abundant phyla for native Tibetans were Bacteroidetes (15.66%), Firmicutes (11.10%), Proteobacteria (1.32%), Actinobacteria (1.10%), and Tenericutes (0.35%), while the most relatively abundant phyla for Hans were Bacteroidetes (16.28%), Firmicutes (8.41%), Proteobacteria (2.93%), Actinobacteria (0.49%), and Cyanobacteria (0.21%). The abundance of the majority of genera was significantly higher in Tibetans than in Hans (P < 0.01). The number of microbial genes was 4.9 times higher in Tibetans than in Hans. The metabolic pathways and clusters of orthologous groups differed significantly between the two populations (P < 0.05). The abundance of carbohydrate-active enzyme modules and antibiotic resistance genes was significantly lower in Tibetans compared to Hans (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that different genetic factors (race) and environmental factors (diets and consumption of antibiotics) may play important roles in shaping the composition and function of gut microbiota in populations living at high altitudes.

5.
Gene ; 741: 144541, 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165303

RESUMO

Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor with multiple functions in mammals. However, the functions of MC4R in fish have not been investigated extensively. The purpose of this study was to determine potential regulation of reproduction by the MC4R. We cloned the black rockfish MC4R and analyzed its tissue distribution and function. The results showed that black rockfish mc4r cDNA consisted of 981 nucleotides encoding a protein of 326 amino acids. The quantitative PCR data showed that mc4r mRNA was primarily expressed in the brain, gonad, stomach and intestine. In the brain, mc4r was found to be primarily located in the hypothalamus. Both α-MSH and ß-MSH increased gnih expression and decreased sgnrh and cgnrh expression (P < 0.05). α-MSH and ß-MSH had opposite effects on kisspeptin expression. In contrast, α-MSH and ß-MSH increased the expression of cyp11, cyp19, 3ß-hsd and star. In summary, our study shows that MC4R in black rockfish might regulate reproductive function and that the effects of α-MSH and ß-MSH might differ.

6.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 134: 107498, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179454

RESUMO

Research on the biocathode-based bioelectrochemical system (BES) has attracted extensive attention because of its ability to increase the electricity-driven production of high-value fuels or chemicals by relying on microbial cells as catalysts. An extracellular electron transfer (EET) that makes electrical connections to microorganisms plays a key role in the BES. Compared with the better understanding of the EET-to-anode connection, the understanding of the mechanism and elements involved in inward EET from cathodes to microbes remains limited. Additionally, the low capability of the EET limits its applications in BESs for producing chemicals. Here, we introduced the Mtr pathway into Escherichia coli cells by expressing ccmABCDEFGH from E. coli and mtrABC from Shewanella oneidensis. Through selection by electrochemical pressure, the evolved E. coli could use electricity to increase the production of succinate in direct BES and enhance the electroactivity. In addition, in studying the mechanism of inward EET, menaquinone was found to be one of the key components of inward EET, and it is essential for the fumarate reduction reaction. Lastly, the intracellular NADH and ATP levels showed that there were differences in the energy conservation coupling between the electron transfer routes of the inward Mtr pathway and the electron mediator.

7.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207605

RESUMO

Untargeted metabolomics based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry is affected by nonlinear batch effects, which cover up biological effects, result in nonreproducibility, and are difficult to be calibrate. In this study, we propose a novel deep learning model, called Normalization Autoencoder (NormAE), which is based on nonlinear autoencoders (AEs) and adversarial learning. An additional classifier and ranker are trained to provide adversarial regularization during the training of the AE model, latent representations are extracted by the encoder, and then the decoder reconstructs the data without batch effects. The NormAE method was tested on two real metabolomics data sets. After calibration by NormAE, the quality control samples (QCs) for both data sets gathered most closely in a PCA score plot (average distances decreased from 56.550 and 52.476 to 7.383 and 14.075, respectively) and obtained the highest average correlation coefficients (from 0.873 and 0.907 to 0.997 for both). Additionally, NormAE significantly improved biomarker discovery (median number of differential peaks increased from 322 and 466 to 1140 and 1622, respectively). NormAE was compared with four commonly used batch effect removal methods. The results demonstrated that using NormAE produces the best calibration results.

8.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 1324-1336, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114435

RESUMO

Glycerol-lactate esters are energy supplements for exercise, but effects of trilactic glyceride (TLG) on intestinal function and hepatic metabolism are unknown. We found that dietary supplementation with 0.5% TLG to weanling piglets decreased plasma concentrations of low-density lipoprotein and gamma-glutamyl transferase but increased those of D-xylose and high-density lipoprotein. TLG supplementation enhanced mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase (FASN) and SLC27A2 in white adipose tissue; insulin receptor in duodenum; aquaporin-8 in ileum, jejunum and colon; aquaporin-10 in duodenum and ileum; nuclear factor like-2 in jejunum and colon; glutathione S-transferase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-1 in intestines; and abundances of claudin-1 and occludin proteins. TLG supplementation decreased mRNA levels for: hepatic hormone-sensitive lipase E, lipoprotein lipase, FASN, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3, and SLC27A2; and intestinal lipoprotein lipase, FASN and NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, TLG supplementation enhanced abundances of genus Bifidobacterium, while reducing abundances of family Enterobacteriaceae in ileum, colon and cecum; jejunal caspase-3 protein and diarrhea rate. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with TLG modulated lipid metabolism and alleviated diarrhea by improving intestinal function and regulating intestinal microflora in piglets.

9.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 65, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The performance of drug-coated balloons (DCBs) in femoropopliteal interventions has been proven through randomized trials in short lesions and lesions with relatively low proportion of occlusions. There is limited evidence of DCBs in long or occlusive lesions. This study is to investigate the efficacy of the paclitaxel-coated balloon for treatment of long and occlusive femoropopliteal arterial lesions. METHODS: A single-arm trial including 44 femoropopliteal lesions (chronic total occlusion (CTO) plus > 10 cm) treated with DCBs was performed to collect data of average 1-year follow-up. Endpoints contain primary patency, target lesion revascularization (TLR), amelioration of the Rutherford classification, change of ankle brachial index (ABI) and major adverse events. RESULTS: Technical success is 97.7% while device success is 100%. Mean lesion length was 186 ± 86.3 cm. Stent implantation was performed in 13.6%. Cumulative probability of primary patency was 78.8% ± 6.8% at 1 year while that of freedom from TLR was 91.4% ± 4.9%. Rutherford classification improved from average 3.3 ± 1.0 to 2.1 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001) at follow-up with a 72.7% amelioration rate. Ankle-branchial index changed from 0.33 ± 0.40 to 0.67 ± 0.37 (p = 0.002). No major adverse event was observed. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that it is safe and effective to treat long and totally occlusive femoropopliteal artery disease with DCBs. Further studies are demanded to confirm these results.

10.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126261, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109701

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rhamnolipid (RL) and ferric ions on the performance of a biotrickling filter (BTF) for the removal of gas-phase 1,2-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB). A comprehensive investigation of microbial growth, pollutant solubility, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and enzymatic activity in o-DCB degradation by an isolated strain Bacillus cereus DL-1 with/without RL and Fe3+ were carried out using batch microcosm experiments. In addition, o-DCB removal performance, biofilm morphology, and microbial community structures in two identical lab-scale biotrickling filters (named BTF1 and BTF2) inoculated with strain DL-1 were studied. The batch microcosm experiments demonstrated that 120 mg L-1 RL and 4 mg L-1 Fe3+ could enhance the biodegradation of o-DCB, which may be due to promotion on bacterial growth, o-DCB solubilization, C12O enzyme activity, and polysaccharide (PS) and protein (PN) in EPS. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra indicated that the addition of RL with Fe3+ had notable effects on the functional groups of PS and PN in EPS. The experimental results in BTFs indicate that the removal efficiency of o-DCB decreased from 100% to 56.4% for BTF1, which was not fed with RL and Fe3+, and from 100% to 80.3% for BTF2, which was fed with RL and Fe3+, when the inlet loading rate increased from 4.88 to 102 g m-3 h-1 at an empty bed residence time of 60 s. In addition, the microbial adhesive strength and the microbial community structure were different among both BTFs, highlighting the positive effects of RL and Fe3+.

11.
J Cell Biochem ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030808

RESUMO

The tumor immune microenvironment is heterogeneous, and its impact on treatment responses is not well understood. It is still a challenge to analyze the interaction between malignant cells and the tumor microenvironment to apply suitable immunotherapy in lung adenocarcinoma. We performed the nonnegative matrix factorization method to 513 messenger RNA expression profiles of lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to obtain an immune-related expression pattern. Subsequently, we characterized the immune-related gene signatures and clinical and survival characteristics. We used 576 patients from Gene Expression Omnibus to confirm our findings. Of the patients in the training cohort, 51% had a high immune enrichment score, high expression of immune cell signaling, cytolytic activity, and interferon (IFN)-related signatures (all P < .05). We denoted these as the Immune Class. We further subdivided the Immune Class into two subclasses based on the tumor microenvironment. These were denoted the Active Immune Class and Exhausted Immune Class. The former showed significant IFN, T-cells, M1 macrophage signatures, and better prognosis (all P < .05), while the latter presented an exhausted immune response with activated stromal enrichment, M2 macrophage signatures, and immunosuppressive factors such as WNT/transforming growth factor-ß (all P < .05). Furthermore, we predicted the response of our immunophenotypes to immunological checkpoint inhibitors (P < .05). Our findings provide a novel insight into the immune-related state of LUAD and can identify the patients who will be receptive to suitable immunotherapeutic treatments.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 392: 122312, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105957

RESUMO

The central nervous system is a potential target for Al2O3 nanoparticles (Nano-Al2O3). Here, we investigated the effects of intranasal instillation of Nano-Al2O3 on the distribution and damage in crucial functional sub-brain regions of rats. In vivo results show that Nano-Al2O3 was translocated into the brain via the olfactory nerve pathway. Nano-Al2O3 accumulated in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, and striatum, causing ultrastructural changes, oxidative damage, inflammatory responses, and histopathological damage in sub-brain regions. As indicated by in vitro studies, cell viability decreased with the addition of Nano-Al2O3, which increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase and oxidative stress. Nano-Al2O3 also impaired mitochondrial function, disturbed the cell cycle and induced apoptosis. In addition, Nano-Al2O3 decreased the expression of cyclin D1, bcl-2, Mdm2, and phospho-Rb and increased the expression of p53, p21, Bax, and Rb. Therefore, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and p53-related pathways might be important in the process of dopaminergic neurotoxicity induced by Nano-Al2O3. The current study establishes a striatum damage model and identifies molecular biomarkers of dopaminergic neuron damage induced by Nano-Al2O3. In brief, our study demonstrates that Nano-Al2O3 exposure can be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and may negatively impact the hippocampus, striatum, and dopaminergic neurons.

13.
Autophagy ; : 1-17, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013726

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important for global gene expression and contribute to numerous physiological events. Deacetylase Rpd3 in yeast and its conserved homolog HDAC1 in mammals oppositely regulate autophagy; however, how Rpd3/HDAC1 is regulated to mediate autophagy remains unclear. Here, we showed autophagy occurrence in silkworm (Bombyx mori) required BmRpd3, wherein steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling regulated its protein level and nuclear localization negatively. Inhibition of MTOR led to dephosphorylation and nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1. Besides, cholesterol, 20E, and 27-hydroxycholesterol could all induce massive dephosphorylation and cytoplasmic localization of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1, and thus autophagy by affecting MTORC1 activity. In addition, three phosphorylation sites (Ser392, Ser421, and Ser423) identified in BmRpd3 were conserved in HsHDAC1. Single or triple phosphorylation-site mutation attenuated the phosphorylation levels of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1, leading to their cytoplasmic localization and autophagy activation. In general, cholesterol derivatives, especially hydroxylated cholesterol, caused dephosphorylation and nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1 through inhibition of MTOR signaling to facilitate autophagy in B. mori and mammals. These findings improve our understandings of BmRpd3/HsHDAC1-mediated autophagy induced by cholesterol derivatives and shed light on their potential as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases and autophagy-related studies.Abbreviations: 20E: 20-hydroxyecdysone; 27-OH: 27-hydroxycholesterol; ACTB: actin beta; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; Atg: autophagy-related; BmSqstm1: Bombyx sequestosome 1; CQ: chloroquine; HDAC: histone deacetylase; LMNB: Lamin B1; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TUBA1A: tubulin alpha 1a.

14.
Metabolomics ; 16(3): 29, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32095917

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains an incurable disease. Previous metabolomic studies show that metabolic signatures in plasma distinguish CRC patients from healthy controls. Chronic enteritis (CE) represents a risk factor for CRC, with a 20 fold greater incidence than in healthy individuals. However, no studies have performed metabolomic profiling to investigate CRC biomarkers in CE. OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to identify metabolomic signatures in CRC and CE and to search for blood-derived metabolite biomarkers distinguishing CRC from CE, especially early-stage biomarkers. METHODS: In this case-control study, 612 subjects were prospectively recruited between May 2015 and May 2016, and including 539 CRC patients (stage I, 102 cases; stage II, 259 cases; stage III, 178 cases) and 73 CE patients. Untargeted metabolomics was performed to identify CRC-related metabolic signatures in CE. RESULTS: Five pathways were significantly enriched based on 153 differential metabolites between CRC and CE. 16 biomarkers were identified for diagnosis of CRC from CE and for guiding CRC staging. The AUC value for CRC diagnosis in the external validation set was 0.85. Good diagnostic performances were also achieved for early-stage CRC (stage I and stage II), with an AUC value of 0.84. The biomarker panel could also stage CRC patients, with an AUC of 0.72 distinguishing stage I from stage II CRC and AUC of 0.74 distinguishing stage II from stage III CRC. CONCLUSIONS: The identified metabolic biomarkers exhibit promising properties for CRC monitoring in CE patients and are superior to commonly used clinical biomarkers (CEA and CA19-9).

15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 40(2): 129-34, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) combined with lifestyle control on hepatic fat status, hepatic enzymology, glycolipid metabolism and anthropological parameters in patients with obese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD). METHODS: A total of 90 patients with obese NAFLD were randomized into an observation group (45 cases, 4 cases dropped off) and a control group (45 cases, 1 case dropped off). Lifestyle control was implemented in the control group. On the basis of the treatment in the control group, acupuncture was applied at Zhongwan (CV 12), Quchi (LI 11), Shuifen (CV 9), Huaroumen (ST 24), Daheng (SP 15), Guanyuan (CV 4), Qihai (CV 6), etc. EA was provided at Huaroumen (ST 24) and Daheng (SP 15) with dilatational wave, 2 Hz/100 Hz in frequency, 30 min each time, once every other day, 3 times a week. The treatment for 12 weeks was required in both of the two groups. Hepatic fat status [controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM)], hepatic enzymology [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT)], glycolipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity [fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting serum lisulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)] and anthropological parameters [body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), fat percentage (FP), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)] in the two groups were observed before and after treatment. RESULTS: ①Compared before treatment, hepatic CAP, LSM, serum ALT, AST and GGT after treatment were obviously reduced in the two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). After treatment, CAP and ALT in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). ②Compared before treatment, FINS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C, TC and TG after treatment were obviously reduced in the two groups (P<0.05, P<0.01),while the levels of HDL-C were increased (P<0.05). Compared before treatment, FPG after treatment in the observation group was reduced (P<0.05). Compared with the control group, FINS, HOMA-IR, TC and TG in the observation group were lower than those in the control group after treatment (P<0.05). ③Compared before treatment, BW BMI, FP, WC, HC, WHR after treatment were obviously reduced in the two groups (P<0.01). After treatment, WC and WHR in the observation group were lower than the control group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture combined with lifestyle control can effectively treat obese nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and present better therapeutic effect on hepatic fat status, glycolipid metabolism, insulin resistance, WC and WHR.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Estilo de Vida , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Glicemia , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/enzimologia , Obesidade/complicações
16.
Cell Cycle ; 19(7): 787-800, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075502

RESUMO

The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) LINC00520 is an important modulator of the oncogenicity of multiple human cancers. However, whether LINC00520 is involved in the malignancy of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been extensively studied until recently. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect LINC00520 expression and evaluate its clinical significance in PTC. Functional experiments were conducted to test the biological role(s) and underlying mechanisms of LINC00520 in PTC progression. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect LINC00520 expression in PTC. A series of functional experiments, including Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, Transwell migration assay, and tumor xenograft assay, was employed to investigate the biological roles of LINC00520 in PTC cells. High LINC00520 expression was verified in PTC tissues and cell lines, and this high expression was associated with the unfavorable clinicopathological parameters and short overall survival of patients. Functionally, LINC00520 interference resulted in a significant decrease in PTC cell proliferation, migration, and in vitro invasion and an increase in cell apoptosis. Further, its downregulation impaired tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, LINC00520 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA by sponging microRNA-577 (miR-577) and thereby increasing sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2) expression. Rescue experiments revealed that inhibiting miR-577 or restoring Sphk2 could abrogate the effects of LINC00520 silencing on the malignant phenotypes of PTC. LINC00520 functioned as an oncogenic lncRNA in PTC, and it facilitated PTC progression by regulating the miR-577/Sphk2 axis, suggesting that the LINC00520/miR-577/Sphk2 axis is an effective target in anticancer management.

17.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; : e13229, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer patients exhibit disparity in mortality risks across demographic divisions as well as insurance groups. The effects of macroeconomic environment also vary for such strata. This study analyses the gaps between mortality risks for male and female cancer patients with and without insurance and examines how such gaps transform over time with macroeconomic shifts. METHODS: Demographic, clinical and treatment records of 45,750 melanoma and 91,157 lung cancer patients diagnosed in 2007-2009 and 2011-2013 were extracted from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Kaplan-Meier test was applied to ascertain survival probability of each insurance group, while Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess relative mortality risk for Medicaid and uninsured patients, for the whole data as well as separately for both time periods and genders. RESULTS: Both the hazard ratios and change thereof over time are greater for female patients without insurance, than for male patients. More than any insurance-gender subgroup, uninsured female patients of melanoma have much increased hazard ratios, from 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.92] to 2.22 [95% CI, 1.67-2.94]. CONCLUSION: Despite diagnostic improvements and technology advancements, the adverse effects of macroeconomic crisis are associated with increased relative mortality risks for cancer patients without insurance, more for women than men.

18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(3)2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106596

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of selenium yeast (Se-Y) against hepatotoxicity induced by ochratoxin A (OTA). The OTA-induced liver injury model was established in chickens by daily oral gavage of 50 µg/kg OTA for 21 days. Serum biochemistry analysis, antioxidant analysis, as well as the qRT-PCR and Western blot (WB) analyses were then used to evaluate oxidative damage and apoptosis in chicken liver tissue. The results showed that Se-Y significantly increased liver coefficient induced by OTA (P < 0.05). OTA + Se-Y treated group revealed that Se-Y reduced the OTA-induced increase in glutamic pyruvic transaminase (ALT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (AST) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, and reversed the decrease in antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) (P < 0.05). In this study, we found that OTA is involved in the mRNA expression levels about Nrf2/Keap1 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, such as oxidative stress-related genes (Nrf2, GSH-Px, GLRX2 and Keap1) and apoptosis-related genes (Bax, Caspase3, P53, AKT, PI3K and Bcl-2). Besides, significant downregulations of protein expression of HO-1, MnSOD, Nrf2 and Bcl-2, as well as a significant upregulation of Caspase3 and Bax levels were observed after contaminated with OTA (P < 0.05). Notably, OTA-induced apoptosis and oxidative damage in the liver of chickens were reverted back to normal level in the OTA + Se-Y group. Our findings indicate that pretreatment with Se-Y effectively ameliorates OTA-induced hepatotoxicity.

19.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 34(3): e22444, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954379

RESUMO

Smoking is associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases, including lung cancer and asthma. However, the mechanisms or diagnostic markers for smoking-related diseases remain largely unknown. Here we investigated the role of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) in the regulation of human bronchial epithelial cell (BEAS-2B) behavior. We found that exposure to CSC significantly inhibited BEAS-2B cell viability, impaired cell morphology, induced cell apoptosis, triggered oxidative damage, and promoted inflammatory response, which suggests a deleterious effect of CSC on bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, CSC markedly altered the expression of apoptosis-associated protein factors, including p21, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1, and Fas ligand. In sum, our study identified a panel of novel protein factors that may mediate the actions of CSC on bronchial epithelial cells and have a predictive value for the development and progression of smoking-related diseases, thus providing insights into the development of potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies against these diseases.

20.
Health Commun ; : 1-10, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992087

RESUMO

Given that many health problems in the United States are closely related to high sugar consumption, this research examined the effectiveness of ad forms (narrative vs. non-narrative) on persuading people to limit sugar intake through an online experiment completed by 1,104 participants. It was found that individual difference of regulatory focus moderated the effect of narrative vs. non-narrative advertising. Moreover, this study revealed an underlying mechanism of how audiences processed narrative vs. non-narrative advertising differently via the mediator of processing fluency, and further resulted in different advertising effectiveness. The findings contributed in providing implications for policy makers and ad professionals to help them with the improvement of public's health in the USA.

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