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1.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 1): 137027, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419262

RESUMO

Reproduction is a significant biological process for organisms responding to environmental stresses, however, little is known about the reproductive strategies of invertebrates under long-term exposure to contaminations. In this study, earthworm Metaphire californica (Kinberg, 1867) from contaminated fields with an increased metal gradient were collected to investigate their reproductive responses. The results showed heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb) induced histological damage to earthworms' seminal vesicles, including tissue disorders and cavities, and decreases in mature spermatozoa. Sperm morphology analysis indicated deformity rates were up to13.2% (e.g. head swollen or missing) for worms from the most contaminated site, which coincided with DNA damages. Furthermore, the computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) system was employed for the evaluation of sperm kinetic traits. Results suggested earthworms exposed to higher contamination showed a lower sperm viability rate but faster sperm velocity after re-exposure with Cd solution (like the curvilinear velocity and straight-line velocity paraments) compared with those from relatively clean sites. The activities of lactate dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase showed the highest 32.5% and 12.5% up-regulation respectively with the increased metal gradient. In conclusion, this study elucidated the earthworm reproductive toxicity, underlying reproductive compensation, metal stress-induced damages, and adaptive responses caused by heavy metal exposure, while also providing the possibility of sperm trait analysis (CASA) for related earthworm toxicological studies.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoquetos , Masculino , Animais , Cádmio , Sêmen , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Reprodução
2.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 2): 114623, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273596

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are ubiquitous in the environment. However, it is unclear whether MPs are present in mammalian lungs through inhalation, and if so, could be possibly found in fetal tissues. In this study, we aim to determine the presence and characteristics of particles in domestic and fetal pig lung tissue in the natural environment. Specimens from the lungs of domestic pigs (n = 10) and fetal pigs that already died in matrix during vaginal birth from the non-contaminated area (n = 10) were obtained from farmers' nearby sludge treatment plant. These specimens were compressed between two glass microscope slides, which were examined under polarized light microscopy. In addition, Agilent 8700 LDIR Chemical imaging system (LDIR) was used to determine the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of MPs. According to the polarized light microscope survey of domestic pig lungs, we observed an average of 12 particles/g, which was more than the 6 particles/g observed in fetal pig lungs, which ranged in size from 115.14 µm to 1370.43 µm. All the observed MP particles were fiber in shape. LDIR indicated an average of 180 particles/g of domestic pig lungs, ranging in size from 20.34 µm to 916.36 µm, which was twice as many MPs observed in fetal pig lungs. Furthermore, the compositions of MPs were different between them. LDIR indicated that polyamide (PA) was the most common polymer identified in domestic pig lungs (46.11%), while polycarbonate (PC) was the most common polymer in fetal pig lungs (32.99%). These findings confirmed the presence of MPs in the lung tissue of both domestic and fetal pigs in the natural environment, but the main characteristics differed. This fact indicated the increasing risk of MPs to human respiratory tract is increasing. Further research should be conducted to entirely estimate the specific exposure level on humans and offspring.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Suínos , Animais , Humanos , Plásticos , Pulmão , Feto , Sus scrofa , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental
3.
Am J Transl Res ; 14(10): 7052-7062, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398209

RESUMO

When bone cement is used to strengthen the vertebrae in patients with Kummell disease (KD), loosening and displacement of cement are common complications that can cause poor results. We developed a bone cement bridging screw system to avoid this complication. This three-dimensional finite element study aims to analyze the biomechanical properties of the novel bridging screw system and compare it to single vertebroplasty and vertebroplasty combined with pediculoplasty. After the effective establishment of a KD three-dimensional finite element model, the stability of the bone cement in the five treatment methods was analyzed and compared on four aspects. According to the calculation results of the maximum von Mises stress of bone cement and the relative displacement ratio of bone cement, it was determined that the stability of the bone cement was significantly improved when combined with the bridging screw system or pediculoplasty. In addition, according to the calculation results of the maximum von Mises stress of the inferior endplate of T12 and the displacement load ratio of the bone cement, we further found that after using the bridging screw system, the bone cement in the vertebral body has the best stability, and the risk of bone cement loosening or displacement is the lowest. In conclusion, for treating KD with bone cement augmentation, the bone cement bridging screw system combined with vertebroplasty has better stability and safety than ordinary single vertebroplasty and vertebroplasty combined with pediculoplasty. This treatment approach has the most robust ability to avoid loosening and displacement of bone cement.

4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 894919, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36420264

RESUMO

Background: Thyroid tissue has a special immune microenvironment that is not well characterized. Whether immune cells have a prognostic value in the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) needs further investigation. Methods: Multinodular non-toxic goiter (MNG) was taken as normal tissue for the difficulty in obtaining completely normal thyroid tissue (normal thyroid function, no thyroiditis, and no nodules). We compared the composition of mononuclear cells (MNCs) in peripheral blood and thyroid tissues from MNG and PTC patients by high-dimensional flow cytometry profiling and verified the results by multiplex immunohistochemistry. The recurrence rates of PTC patients with different CD8+T cell subset signatures were compared using TCGA database. Results: We observed that the immune cell composition of MNG was different from that in peripheral blood. Thyroid tissue contains higher percentages of T cells and NK cells. Moreover, the percentages of memory T cells and Treg cells were higher in thyroid than in peripheral blood and increased in PTC tumors. We further focused on the antitumoral CD8+T cells and found that the expression patterns of PD-1, CD39, and CD103 on CD8+T cells were different between MNG and PTC. Importantly, we found higher percentages of PD-1+CD39+CD103+CD8+T and PD-1+CD39+CD103-CD8+T cells in PTC tumor tissues from recurrent patients than non-recurrent patients. By analyzing PTC data from TCGA database, we found that the expression patterns of these molecules were associated with different pathologic types and genders among PTC patients. Moreover, patients with PD-1hiCD39loCD103hiCD8hi, PD-1hiCD39hiCD103loCD8hi, and PD-1loCD39hiCD103hiCD8hi expression patterns have a higher 10-year recurrence-free survival. Conclusion: The immune microenvironment in MNG tissue is distinct from that in peripheral blood and paratumor tissue. More memory CD8+T cells were detected in PTC, and expression patterns of PD-1, CD39, and CD103 on CD8+T cells were significantly different in physiology and gender and associated with the recurrence rate of PTC. These observations indicate that CD8+T cell signatures may be useful prognostic markers for PTC recurrence.


Assuntos
Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1 , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(48): e2206829119, 2022 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409915

RESUMO

Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are heterogeneous projection neurons that convey distinct visual features from the retina to brain. Here, we present a high-throughput in vivo RGC activity assay in response to light stimulation using noninvasive Ca2+ imaging of thousands of RGCs simultaneously in living mice. Population and single-cell analyses of longitudinal RGC Ca2+ imaging reveal distinct functional responses of RGCs and unprecedented individual RGC activity conversions during traumatic and glaucomatous degeneration. This study establishes a foundation for future in vivo RGC function classifications and longitudinal activity evaluations using more advanced imaging techniques and visual stimuli under normal, disease, and neural repair conditions. These analyses can be performed at both the population and single-cell levels using temporal and spatial information, which will be invaluable for understanding RGC pathophysiology and identifying functional biomarkers for diverse optic neuropathies.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Animais , Camundongos , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Retina , Glaucoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo
6.
Behav Brain Res ; 438: 114179, 2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36330905

RESUMO

Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a reduction of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) when the startling stimulus is preceded by a weaker and non-startling stimulus (i.e., prepulse). Previous studies have revealed that PPI can be top-down modulated by selective attention to the fear-conditioned prepulse in animals. However, few researchers have tested this assumption in humans. Thus, in this study, the negative emotional-conditioned prepulse (CS+) was used to explore whether it could improve participants' attention, and further improve the PPI. The results showed that the CS+ prepulse increased the PPI only in females, PPI produced by CS+ prepulse was larger in females than in males, and the perceptual spatial attention further improved the PPI in both females and males. The results suggested that the PPI was affected by emotional, perceptual spatial attention, and sex. These findings highlight an additional method to measure top-down attentional regulation of PPI in humans. Which may offer a useful route to enhance the diagnosis of affective disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 947932, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408019

RESUMO

Background: Since the delivery of sex education is not standardized across local and international secondary schools in Hong Kong, this study aims to assess and compare the knowledge level of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) between university students who attended local and international secondary schools in Hong Kong. Methods: From January to March 2019, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among undergraduates at the University of Hong Kong. The primary outcome was STI knowledge as measured by a 29-item quiz. A higher quiz score meant a better STI knowledge level. Students' attitude toward sexual health and their sex education history was collected. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate the association factor with a better STI knowledge level. Results: Three hundred and ninety six students were included in the analysis. Three hundred thirty three (85.35%) students attended local secondary schools and 58 (14.65%) students attended international secondary schools in Hong Kong; 200 (50.51%) students were male and 196 (49.49%) students were female. Compared with students from local secondary school, those from international secondary schools had a significantly higher STI quiz score (18.19 vs. 15.4, p = 0.003). The results of multiple linear regression revealed that students in a higher year of study (ß = 1.07, p < 0.001), from medical faculties (ß = 6.96, p < 0.001), and from international secondary schools (ß = 2.27, p = 0.003) achieved a higher STI quiz score. Conclusion: University students who attended international secondary schools in Hong Kong possess a significantly higher knowledge level of STIs compared with those who attended local secondary schools. Nonetheless, the overall STI awareness among university students is inadequate. The inadequacy of STI awareness calls for the need to plan and implement satisfactory, comprehensive, and standardized sex education across the overall education system in Hong Kong.


Assuntos
Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Transversais , Hong Kong , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
9.
J Ultrasound Med ; 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To introduce an ultrasound training program for fetal palate screening by using a sequential sector scan through the oral fissure to train less experienced doctors and to investigate its effectiveness. METHODS: Twenty doctors and several women at approximately 20-28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancies who provided informed consent were enrolled. The training program consisted of theory and practice training, several tests, and two surveys. Trainees were tested before training and immediately after training; for the latter, each item with a score that was less than 60% of the full score was again used for training with a reconstructed plan. Finally, a post-training test was completed. RESULTS: The median theory scores, median practice scores, median language competence scores, and median self-assessment scores all increased significantly from the pre-training to post-training tests (P < .01). The median completion time for fetal palate scans decreased significantly from the pre-training to post-training tests (P < .01). The median questionnaire scores were 5.00 for pragmatism, 4.00 for content, 4.00 for scientific nature, and 5.00 for effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: The training program for fetal palate screening can effectively standardize and improve doctors' scans for fetal palates. In addition, the program feasibly allows for the incorporation of the scan sequence into fetal palate screening.

10.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 117(11): 1834-1844, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327437

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There are limited data on the effect and evolution of risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with virologically cured hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with HCV who achieved sustained virological response with direct-acting antivirals from 130 Veterans Administration hospitals during 2014-2018, followed through 2021. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed at 3 landmark times (baseline and 12 and 24 months after sustained virological response) to examine associations between demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and HCC risk, stratified by cirrhosis status. RESULTS: Among 92,567 patients (32% cirrhosis), 3,247 cases of HCC were diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 2.5 years. In patients with cirrhosis, male sex (hazard ratios [HR]: 1.89, 1.93, and 1.99), cirrhosis duration ≥5 years (HR: 1.71, 1.79, and 1.34), varices (HR: 1.73, 1.60, and 1.56), baseline albumin (HR: 0.48, 0.47, and 0.49), and change in albumin (HR: 0.82 and 0.90) predicted HCC risk at each landmark time. HCV genotype 3, previous treatment, bilirubin, smoking, and race influenced HCC risk at baseline, but their effects attenuated over time. In patients without cirrhosis, diabetes (HR: 1.54, 1.42, and 1.47) and hypertension (HR: 1.59, 1.65, and 1.74) were associated with HCC risk at all landmark times. Changes in fibrosis-4 scores over time were associated with HCC risk both in patients with and without cirrhosis. DISCUSSION: Risk factors for HCC were different in patients with and without cirrhosis and some also evolved during follow-up. These factors can help with risk stratification and HCC surveillance decisions in patients with cured HCV.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Humanos , Masculino , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Hepacivirus/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Albuminas/uso terapêutico
11.
Chemosphere ; 311(Pt 2): 137158, 2022 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343730

RESUMO

The applicability and performance of FeS in ozonation process to remove p-aminobenzenesulfonamide (SN) from water was assessed, and the working mechanism of FeS was comprehensively explored by both experimental means and density functional theory (DFT) simulation. FeS combined ozonation achieved 74% of SN removal in 60 min under the optimal condition, which was 37% higher than by ozonation alone, and 12% higher than FeO combined ozonation. Highly active species of •OH, •SO4-, 1O2 and •O2- were detected in the FeS combined ozonation system, the evolution pathway of the involved species was expounded with the aid of DFT calculation. The results revealed that •O2-, H2O2 and SO42- were originally formed via interface reactions on FeS surface, then gradually transformed into •OH, 1O2 and •SO4- through subsequent chain reactions. Moreover, FeS had a lower energy barrier of 0.16 eV than FeO with a value of 0.83 eV for the transformation of ozone to active atomic oxygen. The presented study provided a significant insight into the role of Fe-based materials in ozonation, and was of great importance to guide the route for ozonation process improvement.

12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19795, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396783

RESUMO

Ancient documents are historical evidence of cultural inheritance, and the damage brought by natural and human factors to ancient documents is inevitable, resulting in the collected images of ancient Chinese characters containing a large amount of noise, which seriously affects the accuracy of subsequent image recognition and thus creates a great obstacle to the digitization of ancient documents. To address the complexity of ancient text structure, this paper proposes a Chinese ancient text image denoising method based on the Chinese character writing standard model. The method firstly adds four additional local branches based on the global branching, and uses the supplementary character detail information to weaken the phenomenon of strokes adhering to noise due to the lack of local details; secondly, it introduces the simulation noise of ancient documents to simulate the real ancient character image morphology, which can be used for the adversarial training of this method. In the training process, the minimum absolute value deviation, smoothing loss, structural consistency loss and the refined loss function formed by the adversarial loss are used to iteratively optimize the parameters. Finally, experiments prove that the model in this paper can increase the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity (SSIM) of the image by at least 23.8% and 11.4%, and the user evaluation index (UV) has also reached more than 80%.


Assuntos
Redação , Humanos , Razão Sinal-Ruído , China
13.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; PP2022 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374902

RESUMO

Thorough performance evaluation of automated vehicles (AVs) is an essential prerequisite for AVs' release and deployment. The challenges posed by dynamics performance appraisal of AVs are centered around the complexity of chassis dynamics, performance diversity, and lack of unified quantitative metrics. Therefore, this article proposes a novel quantitative evaluation metric for AVs' chassis-domain performance. We reveal mathematically explicit chassis steady boundaries of various vehicle maneuvers based on the modeling of chassis-domain dynamics and vehicle spatiotemporal signal analysis for safety-critical AVs. By defining and analyzing the multiperformance appraisal problem, this article gives mathematically prerequisites for evaluation metrics. Then, a rigorous metric is developed to quantify AVs' safety and comfort performance comprehensively. Wherein, the steady boundaries are leveraged to the metric normalization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed quantitative evaluation methodology in various scenarios. Test results illustrate that the proposed method provides a quantitative way to test AVs' integrated dynamics performance.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-27, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posterior oropharyngeal saliva (POS) is increasingly recognized as an alternative specimen for detecting respiratory pathogens. The accuracy of Xpert® MTB/RIF Ultra (X-Ultra), when performed on POS obtained from patients with paucibacillary pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is unclear. METHODS: We consecutively recruited adults with symptoms suggestive of pulmonary TB who were negative by both smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF (X-Classic). Each participant was required to provide one bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and one POS specimen, respectively. Diagnostic performances of X-Ultra and X-Classic on POS were compared against clinical and mycobacterial reference standards. FINDINGS: 686 participants meeting inclusion criteria were consecutively enrolled into the study. The overall diagnostic sensitivities of X-Ultra and X-Classic on POS samples were 78.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 72.8-83.8] and 56.4% (95% CI: 49.7-62.9), respectively; the specificities were 96.6% (95% CI: 94.3-98.1) for X-Ultra and 97.6 (95CI: 95.5-98.8) for X-Classic in POS specimens. Notably, the sensitivity of X-Ultra on POS was as sensitive as X-Classic on BALF against microbiological reference standard (78.9% VS 73.1%). Against clinical diagnosis as a reference standard, the sensitivities of X-Ultra and X-Classic on POS were 55.9% (95% CI: 50.5-61.2; 193/345) and 40.0% (95% CI: 34.8-45.4; 138/345), respectively. The risk of negative results with POS was dramatically increased with decreasing bacterial loads. CONCLUSIONS: The testing of POS using X-Ultra shows promise as a tool to identify patients with paucibacillary TB. Considering that bronchoscopy is a semi-invasive procedure, POS testing ahead of bronchoscopy, may decrease the need for bronchoscopic procedures, and the cost of care.

15.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1235: 340551, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36368834

RESUMO

Real-time quantitative detection of uranium in ores is one of the major challenges for uranium exploration. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been regarded as a most promising technique for this application. However, due to the matrix complexity as well as low uranium concentration of ore, the detection sensitivity of LIBS for uranium in ores is still unsatisfactory. This work explored the potential of a beam-shaping plasma modulation method to improve the limit of detection of uranium in ores. By shaping the profile of laser beam from normally Gaussian distribution to flat-top, the plasma was modulated to be more excited with reduced peak electron density at the laser-plasma interaction point for plasma shielding reduction especially at high laser energy as well as to be more morphologically stable for LIBS signal repeatability improvement. It was further found that this method enhanced LIBS signal intensity mainly by increasing the plasma temperature, while the electron density was almost unchanged, which was very attractive for uranium detection in ore since one of the major problem for uranium detection was that it is hard to find clear uranium spectral lines for analysis due to the high dense emission lines of ore samples in real cases and lower electron density, indicated less line broadening and less line overlap or interferences. A clear uranium emission line has been found in crowded ore spectra, and the intensity of U II 409.013 nm based on flat-top beam was about 5 times higher than that of Gaussian beam, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the signal was reduced by about 50%. Moreover, the LOD of uranium in ores was estimated to be 21.2 ppm with flat-top beam, indicating that beam shaping is a promising method for rapid and accurate detection of uranium in ores.

16.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6796, 2022 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36357388

RESUMO

When the protein or calcium homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is adversely altered, cells experience ER stress that leads to various diseases including neurodegeneration. Genetic deletion of an ER stress downstream effector, CHOP, significantly protects neuron somata and axons. Here we report that three tricyclic compounds identified through a small-scale high throughput screening using a CHOP promoter-driven luciferase cell-based assay, effectively inhibit ER stress by antagonizing their common target, histamine receptor H1 (HRH1). We further demonstrated that systemic administration of one of these compounds, maprotiline, or CRISPR-mediated retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-specific HRH1 inhibition, delivers considerable neuroprotection of both RGC somata and axons and preservation of visual function in two mouse optic neuropathy models. Finally, we determine that maprotiline restores ER homeostasis by inhibiting HRH1-mediated Ca2+ release from ER. In this work we establish maprotiline as a candidate neuroprotectant and HRH1 as a potential therapeutic target for glaucoma.


Assuntos
Maprotilina , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Camundongos , Animais , Células Ganglionares da Retina/metabolismo , Maprotilina/metabolismo , Maprotilina/farmacologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Homeostase , Receptores Histamínicos/metabolismo
17.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359147

RESUMO

Semen volume is an important factor in artificial insemination (AI) of ducks. In drakes, seminal plasma that is produced by the epididymis determines the semen volume. However, the mechanism of epididymis regulating semen volume of drakes remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to preliminarily reveal the mechanism regulating the semen volume through comparing the epididymal histomorphology and mRNA expression profiles between drakes with high-volume semen (HVS) and low-volume semen (LVS). Phenotypically, drakes in the HVS group produced more sperm than drakes in the LVS group. In addition, compared with the HVS group, the ductal square of ductuli conjugentes (DC) and dutus epididymidis (DE) in epididymis was significantly smaller in the LVS group, and the lumenal diameter and epithelial thickness of DC/DE were significantly shorter in the LVS group. In transcriptional regulation, 72 different expression genes (DEGs) were identified from the epididymis between HVS and LVS groups. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the DEGs were mainly related to hormone secretion, neurotransmitter synthesis/transport, transmembrane signal transduction, transmembrane transporter activity, and nervous system development (p < 0.05). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) functional enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in pathways associated with hormone and neurotransmitter transmission (p < 0.05). In addition, further analysis of the top five pathways enriched by KEGG, nine key candidate genes (including SLC18A2, SNAP25, CACNA1B, GABRG2, DRD3, CAMK2A, NR5A1, and STAR) were identified, which could play a crucial role in the formation of semen. These data provide new insights into the molecular mechanism regulating semen volume of drakes and make feasible the breeding of drakes by semen volume.

18.
Foods ; 11(21)2022 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360045

RESUMO

To understand the effect of gluten on starch digestion characteristics, the structural characteristics of protein, starch, and starch digestion attributes were explored by using flours of four wheat near-isogenic lines. Protein and starch fractions from the four flours were used to form so-called recombinant flours where glutenin and gliadin protein fractions, in different ratios, were combined with starch and heated in a water slurry at 80 °C for 5 min. We found that starch digestibility of the recombinant flours could be reproducibly modified by altering the long- and short-range molecular order of starch through varying the attributes of the gluten protein by virtue of the gluten strength as well as the proportions of glutenin and gliadins. The gluten composition changes of strong-gluten flour did not improve the starch digestion resistibility, however, for the moderate- and weak-gluten flours, the proportional increase of glutenin improved the resistance of starch to digestion through the increased long- and short-range molecular order of starch. The resistance of starch to digestion could also be enhanced with increasing gliadin, and was associated with the modified short-range molecular order of starch. We propose that flour mixtures can be optimized for specified product quality by manipulating the amounts of both gliadin and glutenin.

19.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 427, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36380389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The infraorder Rhigonematomorpha comprises a group of obligate parasitic nematodes of millipedes (Arthropoda: Diplopoda). The current species identification of Rhigonematomorpha nematodes remains mainly based on morphological features, with molecular-based identification still in its infancy. Also, current knowledge of the phylogeny of Rhigonematomorpha is far from comprehensive. METHODS: The morphology of Rhigonematomorpha nematodes belonging to the genus Rhigonema, collected from the millipede Spirobolus bungii Brandt (Diplopoda: Spirobolida) in China, was studied in detail using light and scanning electron microscopy. Five different genetic markers, including the nuclear small ribosomal subunit (18S), internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large ribosomal subunit (28S) regions and the mitochondrial cox1 and cox2 genes of these Rhigonematomorpha nematodes collected from China and Rhigonema naylae collected from Japan were sequenced and analyzed using Bayesian inference (BI) and Assemble Species by Automatic Partitioning (ASAP) methods. Phylogenetic analyses that included the most comprehensive taxa sampling of Rhigonematomorpha to date were also performed based on the 18S + 28S genes using maximum likelihood (ML) and BI methods. RESULTS: The specimens of Rhigonema collected from S. bungii in China were identified as a new species, Rhigonema sinense n. sp. Striking variability in tail morphology was observed among individuals of R. sinense n. sp. ASAP analyses based on the 28S, ITS, cox1 and cox2 sequences supported the species partition of R. sinense n. sp. and R. naylae, but showed no evidence that the different morphotypes of R. sinense n. sp. represent distinct genetic lineages. BI analyses also indicated that R. sinense n. sp. represents a separated species from R. naylae based on the cox1 and cox2 genes, but showed that R. naylae nested in samples of R. sinense n. sp. based on the ITS and 28S data. Phylogenetic results showed that the representatives of Rhigonematomorpha formed two large clades. The monophyly of the families Carnoyidae and Ichthyocephalidae and the genus Rhigonema was rejected. The representatives of the family Ransomnematidae clustered together with the family Hethidae with strong support. CONCLUSIONS: A new species of Rhigonematomorpha, R. sinense n. sp. is described based on morphological and molecular evidence. ASAP analyses using 28S, ITS, cox1 and cox2 data indicate the striking variability in tail morphology of R. sinense n. sp. as intraspecific variation, and also suggest that partial 28S, ITS, cox1 and cox2 markers are effective for molecular identification of Rhigonematomorpha nematodes. The phylogenetic results support the traditional classification of Rhigonematomorpha into the two superfamilies Rhigonematoidea and Ransomnematoidea, and indicate that the families Carnoyidae and Ichthyocephalidae and the genus Rhigonema are non-monophyletic. The present phylogeny strongly supports resurrection of the family Brumptaemiliidae, and also indicates that the family Ransomnematidae is sister to the family Hethidae.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Nematoides , Espirurídios , Humanos , Animais , Filogenia , Teorema de Bayes , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Nematoides/genética
20.
J Hepatol ; 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We aim to evaluate the association between longitudinal changes in noninvasive tests for liver fibrosis such as FIB-4 over time and subsequent risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a composite endpoint of cirrhosis and HCC in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of NAFLD patients seen in 130 Veterans Administration hospitals between 1/1/2004-12/31/2008 with follow-up through 12/31/2018. We calculated FIB-4 longitudinally and categorized patients based on risk for advanced fibrosis (low risk FIB-4 < 1.45, indeterminate-risk FIB-4 1.45-2.67, and high-risk FIB-4 > 2.67). We used landmark Fine-Gray competing risks models to determine the effects of change in FIB-4 between NAFLD diagnosis date and 3-year landmark time on the subsequent risk of HCC and composite endpoint. RESULTS: Among the 202,319 NAFLD patients in the 3-year landmark analysis, 473 progressed to HCC at an incidence rate of 0.28 per 1,000 person years (PY) (95% CI, 0.26, 0.31). The incidence rate of the composite endpoint was 1.31 per 1,000 PY (95% CI, 1.25, 1.37). At baseline, 74.7 %, 21.4%, and 3.8% of patients had a low, indeterminate, and high FIB-4, respectively. Compared to patients who were at stable low FIB-4 at both time points, the risk of HCC and that of the composite endpoint was higher for all other subgroups with the highest risk in patients with persistently high FIB-4 (HCC adjusted sub-distribution hazard ratio [HR], 57.7, 95% CI, 40.5, 82.2 and composite endpoint HR, 28.6, 95% CI, 24.6, 33.2). CONCLUSION: Longitudinal changes in non-invasive tests for liver fibrosis such as FIB-4 was strongly associated with progression to cirrhosis and HCC. IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS: Risk stratification tools for developing HCC in patients with NAFLD are lacking. Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) scoring, is a widely available non-invasive test for liver fibrosis, a primary determinant for developing cirrhosis and HCC. In a large retrospective cohort of NAFLD patients, we found that serial changes in FIB-4 over time was strongly associated with progression to cirrhosis and HCC. Integrating serial measurements of non-invasive tests for fibrosis in the care pathway for patients with NAFLD can help tailor HCC risk prevention.

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