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2.
Mol Biol Rep ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009967

RESUMO

Non-SMC condensin I complex subunit H (NCAPH) is a structural component of chromosomes during mitosis, which up-regulates in various cancers. However, the role of NCAPH in breast cancer still hasn't been clearly explored. Our aim is to confirm the value of NCAPH as a prognostic biomarker of breast cancer. We revealed the high expression of NCAPH in breast cancer by using Oncomine, Ualcan and GOBO analysis. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to detect the mRNA expression of NCAPH in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells, and thus higher mRNA level of NCAPH in MCF-7 cells was confirmed. STRING and gene enrich analysis were conducted to explore the interaction between NCAPH and other proteins, hence the functionality of NCAPH in mitosis is demonstrated. With Kaplan-Meier plotter we found that upregulation of NCAPH is indicative of a poor prognosis especially in hormone receptor positive breast cancer. We confirmed the potential competence of NCAPH as a promising biomarker in breast cancer prognosis.

3.
Ann Palliat Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33040549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise capacity is evaluated using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in various cardiovascular diseases. Bevacizumab (BEV) has been associated with significant risk of cardiovascular complications. The aim of this study was to investigate BEV-related influences on cardiac hemodynamic response to 6MWT. METHODS: We prospectively studied 24 patients with intestinal carcinoma to assess the hemodynamic response during 6MWT, of whom eight underwent BEV treatment. Obtained data was analyzed to identify hemodynamic differences between BEV and non-BEV treated patients. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients with stage IV intestinal carcinoma consented to assessment after the completion of three cycles of BEV-combined chemotherapy (age, 46.4±16.7 years) or standard chemotherapy alone (age, 56.4±13.7 years). In comparison with non-BEV treated patients, BEV-treated patients walked less (484.3±42.4 vs. 503.0±48.2, P=0.339). These two groups manifested similar hemodynamic response during the 6MWT. The change of hemodynamic parameters at 1 minute after completion of 6MWT was defined as hemodynamic parameter recovery. BEV-treated patients had significantly lower change of left cardiac work index (LCWi), cardiac index (CI), cardiac output (CO) and stroke volume (SV) after 6MWT. Interestingly, in BEV-treated patients CI change after 6MWT was predominantly related to the decrease in SV instead of heart rate (HR) as suggested by a higher standardized beta coefficient (0.883 vs. 0.657) and semi-partial correlations (0.821 vs. 0.677). CONCLUSIONS: Estimation of hemodynamic response to 6MWT is feasible, and may provide useful information of myocardial damage in BEV-treated patients.

4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(19)2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050074

RESUMO

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have long been used for many applications. The efficiency of a WSN is subject to its monitoring accuracy and limited energy capacity. Thus, accurate detection and limited energy are two crucial problems for WSNs. Some studies have focused on building energy-efficient transmission mechanisms to extend monitoring lifetimes, and others have focused on building additional systems to support monitoring for enhanced accuracy. Herein, we propose a distributed cooperative mechanism where neighboring sensors mutually confirm event occurrences for improved monitoring accuracy. Moreover, the mechanism transmits events in a time- and energy-efficient manner by using smart antennae to extend monitoring lifetimes. The results of the simulations reveal that monitoring lifetime is extended and time for event notifications is shortened under the proposed mechanism. The evaluations also demonstrate that the monitoring accuracy of the proposed mechanism is much higher than that of other existing mechanisms.

5.
Mol Med Rep ; 22(5): 4320-4328, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000233

RESUMO

Hypertension is one of the critical risk factors of cerebrovascular disease. Caveolin­1 (Cav­1) has been suggested to be involved in the development of hypertension; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying Cav­1 in hypertension. In the present study, the hypertension model was induced by infusion of angiotensin II (Ang­II) in rats. Cell Counting Kit­8 assay was used to detect the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Flow cytometry was used to determine the apoptosis of HUVECs. Transmission electron microscopy was utilized to address the thickness of the vessel walls. Reverse transcription­quantitative PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were used to assess the mechanism of cav­1/Notch1 involved in hypertensive vascular remodeling. In the present study, an Ang­II­induced hypertension model was successfully established in rats. With this model, it was found that the expression levels of cav­1 and Notch1 were significantly increased in brain tissues in the hypertension group compared with the sham­operated group. In cultured HUVECs, knockdown of cav­1 regulated Ang­II­induced HUVEC viability and apoptosis, and modulated hypertensive vascular remodeling, which was mediated by the Notch pathway. The data of the present study demonstrated that the cav­1/Notch signaling plays an important role in the regulation of Ang­II­induced hypertension and vascular remodeling.

6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058822

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated hepatic stiffness by shear wave elastography (SWE) to investigate subclinical hepatic changes in a cohort of congenital biventricular heart disease (BHD). METHODS: BHD patients and age-matched healthy controls were prospectively recruited for hepatic US and SWE. Real-time B-mode imaging with Doppler was performed for celiac axis, superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and main portal vein (MPV) and hepatic SWE was assessed. Vascular Doppler indices included peak velocities, velocity time integral, resistive, pulsatility, acceleration indices (RI, PI, AI), and portal vein volumetric flow. One-way ANOVA was used for comparisons between controls, BHD, and a cohort of Glenn and Fontan patients. RESULTS: In all, 66 subjects were included. Thirty-six subjects were in BHD group (male - 25; female - 11; mean age 27.4 ± 4.6 years; mean weight 76.8 ± 18.5 kg), and 30 were normal controls (male - 11; female - 23, mean age 27.4 + 3.8 years; mean weight 70.0 + 17.2 kg). SWE was increased in BHD (8.11 ± 2.07 kPa) compared to controls (5.44 ± 1.18 kPa; P < 0.0001). Hepatic stiffness in BHD was significantly different from that in the Fontan cohort but not the Glenn cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Increased hepatic stiffness was observed in young adults with repaired BHD. Although cause is not established, possibilities include hepatic congestion early in life and/or elevated central venous pressures due to right heart burden. Further research is required to determine if these patients will ultimately suffer from clinically relevant liver disease.

8.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063511

RESUMO

Drawing inspiration from biology, neuromorphic systems are of great interest in direct interaction and efficient processing of analogue signals in the real world and could be promising for the development of smart sensors. Here, we demonstrate an artificial sensory neuron consisting of an InGaZnO4 (IGZO4)-based optical sensor and NbOx-based oscillation neuron in series, which can simultaneously sense the optical information even beyond the visible light region and encode them into electrical impulses. Such artificial vision sensory neurons can convey visual information in a parallel manner analogous to biological vision systems, and the output spikes can be effectively processed by a pulse coupled neural network, demonstrating the capability of image segmentation out of a complex background. This study could facilitate the construction of artificial visual systems and pave the way for the development of light-driven neurorobotics, bioinspired optoelectronics, and neuromorphic computing.

9.
Oncol Rep ; 44(5): 2185-2197, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000250

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer­related morbidity and mortality globally. Despite the remarkable improvements in comprehensive HCC treatment, the underlying mechanistic details of HCC remain elusive. We screened HCC patients for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using the Gene Expression Omnibus (GSE113850) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. LINC01554 expression in 40 paired samples was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT­qPCR), and its clinical significance was assessed. LINC01554 was found to have a gain­of­function role in HCC in vitro. Additionally, the bioinformatics analysis of the genes co­expressed with LINC01554 was performed using the Co­LncRNA website, and potential molecular mechanisms were investigated using the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes resources and validated by in vitro experiments. A total of 229 DEGs were identified from the GSE113850 dataset. Among the identified DEGs, three long non­coding RNAs (lncRNAs) (DIO3OS, LINC01554, and LINC01093) with |logFC| ≥2 and P<0.05 were screened. A total of 148 lncRNAs with |logFC| ≥1 and P<0.05 were identified from TCGA dataset. Low LINC01554 expression levels were significantly correlated with overall survival, pathological stage, hepatitis B infection, tumour size, portal vein tumour thrombus, and TNM stage. Using gain­of­function assays, we further showed that LINC01554 inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of the HCCLM9 and SK­Hep1 cells and promoted G0/G1 arrest, but it did not significantly affect apoptosis. Western blotting revealed that LINC01554 overexpression resulted in increased ZO­1 and E­cadherin expression levels, but decreased N­cadherin and vimentin expression levels. Moreover, LINC01554 overexpression inhibited Akt, p­Akt, ß­catenin, and p­Gsk3ß expression. Our results showed that LINC01554 repressed HCC cell invasiveness and epithelial­to­mesenchymal transition partly by inhibiting Wnt and PI3K­Akt signalling in vitro. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying HCC tumourigenesis and implicate LINC01554 as a potential target for HCC therapy.

10.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 50(5): 638-644, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Tspan8 (tetraspanin 8) plays critical roles in cell adhesion and motility. Recently, Tspan8 overexpression has been found in various tumors. However, its expression status and prognostic significance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) remains unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess the expression of Tspan8 and its correlation with clinicopathological features in ccRCC. METHODS: Tspan8 expression was detected in 150 cases of ccRCC and matched paracancerous tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and its relevance with prognosis was analyzed. RESULTS: Our data showed that the high-expression rate of Tspan8 in ccRCC tissues was 74.0%, which was significantly higher than those in paracancerous kidney tissues (43.3%, P=0.001). Meanwhile, Tspan8 expression was positively correlated with tumor size and WHO/ISUP grade in ccRCC. Significantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test revealed that Tspan8 higher expression was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) in ccRCC patients (P<0.05). Cox regression analysis further showed that Tspan8 was a significant independent negative prognostic factor for these patients. CONCLUSION: Tspan8 is overexpressed in ccRCC and indicates poor prognosis, suggesting potential roles of Tspan8 in prognostication and targeted therapy.

11.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33074590

RESUMO

This 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of linagliptin in 206 Chinese patients with inadequately controlled (glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] 7.5-10.0%) type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) receiving insulin (basal or premixed) ± metformin. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive linagliptin 5 mg/day or placebo. The decrease from baseline in HbA1c (primary endpoint) was greater with linagliptin than placebo (-0.61% versus -0.20%; adjusted mean difference, -0.40%; P = 0.0016). Linagliptin demonstrated significantly greater improvement in 2-hour postprandial glucose (-31.95 mg/dL; P <0.001), and a numerical reduction in fasting plasma glucose (-6.2 mg/dL; P = 0.2241) versus placebo. Proportionally more patients on linagliptin achieved HbA1c ≥0.5% reduction versus placebo (odds ratio, 2.293; P <0.01). Adverse events in both groups were similar, with no new safety findings or clinically relevant changes in body weight. Among investigator-defined hypoglycemic events (linagliptin, 17.3%; placebo, 12.7%; odds ratio, 1.48; P = 0.337), none were severe. In Chinese patients with T2DM, linagliptin add-on to insulin improves glycemic control and is well tolerated, without increased risk for hypoglycemia or weight gain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034052

RESUMO

To compare the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy of pegaspargase, gemcitabine, cisplatin and dexamethasone (DDGP) combined with RT in newly diagnosed stage I-II natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL), we designed a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial. Data from 65 stage I-II NKTL patients whose diagnoses were confirmed using immunohistochemistry were enrolled from January 2011 to December 2013 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. Patients were randomly divided into the RT group (n = 35) and the DDGP combined with RT group (n = 30). There was a difference between the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score in the two arms (P = .013). The complete response rate (CRR) and objective response rate (ORR) of DDGP combined with RT group were superior to those in the RT group (CRR: 73.3% vs 48.6%; ORR: 83.3% vs 60.0%, respectively). The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate in the DDGP combined with RT group were higher than those in the RT group (82.9% vs 56.5% for PFS, P = .023; 85.7% vs 60.4% for OS, P = .040), and treatment methods and lactate dehydrogenase were independent risk factors. Myelosuppression (P < .001), gastrointestinal reactions (P < .001), abnormal liver function (P = .007), coagulation abnormalities (P < .001) and baldness (P < .001) were more likely to occur in the DDGP combined with RT group. In conclusion, DDGP combined with radiotherapy obviously obtained great efficacy and prolonged the survival time of patients, also the side effects were mild for stage I-II NKTL. This trial was registered at https://register.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01501136.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(20)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065999

RESUMO

A novel CoS@Fe3O4@rGO aerogel with a unique 3D porous heterostructure was prepared via the solvothermal method, in which cobalt sulfide (CoS) microspheres embedded with Fe3O4 nanoparticles were randomly scattered on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) flakes. The introduction of magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and rGO regulated the impedance matching, and the excellent electromagnetic wave (EMW) absorption capability of the CoS@Fe3O4@rGO aerogel could be attributed to optimal dielectric loss and abundant conductive networks. The results demonstrated that the minimum reflection loss (RL) value of CoS@Fe3O4@rGO aerogel was -60.65 dB at a 2.5 mm coating thickness with an ultra-wide bandwidth of 6.36 GHz (10.24-16.6 GHz), as the filler loading was only 6 wt%. Such a lightweight CoS@Fe3O4@rGO aerogel with an outstanding absorbing intensity and an ultra-wide effective absorption bandwidth could become a potential EMW absorber.

14.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(10)2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066545

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate and assess salivary biomarkers and microbial profiles as a means of diagnosing periodontitis. A total of 121 subjects were included: 28 periodontally healthy subjects, 24 with Stage I periodontitis, 24 with Stage II, 23 with Stage III, and 22 with Stage IV. Salivary proteins (including active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), pro-MMP-8, total MMP-8, C-reactive protein, secretory immunoglobulin A) and planktonic bacteria (including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas nigrescens, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter rectus, Eubacterium nodatum, Eikenella corrodens, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Actinomyces viscosus) were measured from salivary samples. The performance of the diagnostic models was assessed by receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) and area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis. The diagnostic models were constructed based on the subjects' proteins and/or microbial profiles, resulting in two potential diagnosis models that achieved better diagnostic powers, with an AUC value > 0.750 for the diagnosis of Stages II, III, and IV periodontitis (Model PA-I; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.754, specificity: 0.712) and for the diagnosis of Stages III and IV periodontitis (Model PA-II; AUC: 0.796, sensitivity: 0.756, specificity: 0.868). This study can contribute to screening for periodontitis based on salivary biomarkers.

15.
Mol Cell ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068521

RESUMO

Well-balanced and timed metabolism is essential for making a high-quality egg. However, the metabolic framework that supports oocyte development remains poorly understood. Here, we obtained the temporal metabolome profiles of mouse oocytes during in vivo maturation by isolating large number of cells at key stages. In parallel, quantitative proteomic analyses were conducted to bolster the metabolomic data, synergistically depicting the global metabolic patterns in oocytes. In particular, we discovered the metabolic features during meiotic maturation, such as the fall in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) level and the active serine-glycine-one-carbon (SGOC) pathway. Using functional approaches, we further identified the key targets mediating the action of PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA) on meiotic maturation and demonstrated the control of epigenetic marks in maturing oocytes by SGOC network. Our data serve as a broad resource on the dynamics occurring in metabolome and proteome during oocyte maturation.

16.
Curr Gene Ther ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recruitment of gene modify bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been considered an alternative to single cell injection in articular cartilage repair. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect whether of runt-related transcription factor 2(Runx2) overexpression bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vivo could improve the quality of repaired tissue of a knee cartilage defect in a rabbit model. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into four groups.The blank group (Con) don't received anything, the model group (Mo) was administered saline, the simple stem cell group (MSCs) received MSCs injection, the Runx2 transfection group (R-MSCs) received Runx2 overexpression MSCs injection. After adapting to the environment for a week, a 5 mm diameter cylindrical osteochondral defect was created in the center of medial femoral condyle. Cell and saline injections are performed in the first and third weeks after surgery. The cartilage repair was evaluated by macroscopically and microscopically at 4 and 8 weeks. RESULTS: Macroscopically, defects were filled and surfaces were smoother in the MSCs groups than in the Mo group at 4 weeks. Microscopically, the R-MSCs group showed coloration similar to surrounding normal articular cartilage tissue at 8weeks in masson trichrome staining. The COL-Ⅱ, SOX9 and Aggrecan mRNA expression of MSCs was enhanced at 4 weeks compared with R-MSCs, then the expression reduced at 8 weeks, but was still higher than Mo group level (P<0.05). The western blot examination revealed that the COL-Ⅱand SOX9 expression of MSCs was higher than R-MSCs at 4 weeks, then the expression reduced at 8 weeks, but was still higher than Mo level (P<0.05). The IL-1ß content in joint fluid also revealed that cartilage repair with R-MSCs was better than that with MSCs at 8 weeks (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The R-MSCs group showed cellular morphology and arrangement similar to surrounding normal articular cartilage tissue, Runx2 overexpression of MSCs resulted in overall superior cartilage repair as compared with MSCs at 8 weeks.

17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 266: 113438, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017635

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The roots of Rubia yunnanensis Diels (Chinese name 'Xiao-Hong-Shen'), a traditional Chinese medicine native to Yunnan province (China), have a long history of use for treating several diseases, such as tuberculosis, rheumatism and cancers. A bicyclic hexapeptidic glucoside named RA-XII was isolated from R. yunnanensis, which has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to investigate the antitumor activity and potential mechanism of RA-XII on colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sulforhodamine B assay, clonogenic assay and cell cycle analysis were conducted to assess the anti-proliferative activity of RA-XII on CRC cells. GFP-LC3B plasmid transfection, MDC and AO staining assays, cathepsin activity assay, and siRNAs against several genes were used to investigate the effect of RA-XII on autophagy. Western blotting was used to examine the expression levels of proteins associated with cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Human CRC xenograft-bearing BALB/c nude mice were used to evaluate the antitumor effect of RA-XII in vivo. RESULTS: RA-XII showed favorable antineoplastic activity in SW620 and HT29 cells in vitro and in vivo. RA-XII did not induce apoptosis indicated by no obvious changes on mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis-related marker proteins in SW620 or HT29 cells. Treatment of RA-XII inhibited the formation of autophagosomes, which is implied by the GFP-LC3 fluorescent dots, MDC-stained autophagic vesicles and LC3 protein expression. It was indicated that RA-XII suppressed autophagy by regulating several signaling pathways including mTOR and NF-κB pathways. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy could enhance the cytotoxicity of RA-XII while autophagy inducer could rescue RA-XII-induced cell death. Besides, RA-XII could increase the susceptibility of CRC cells to bortezomib. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that RA-XII exerted antitumor activity independent of apoptosis, and suppressed protective autophagy by regulating mTOR and NF-κB pathways in SW620 and HT29 cell lines, which suggested that RA-XII is a key active ingredient for the cancer treatment of Rubia yunnanensis and possesses a promising prospect as an autophagy inhibitor for CRC therapy.

18.
Cell Rep ; 33(2): 108253, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053339

RESUMO

While plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is known to potentiate cellular migration via proteolytic regulation, this adipokine is implicated as an oncogenic ligand in the tumor microenvironment. To understand the underlying paracrine mechanism, here, we conduct transcriptomic analysis of 1,898 endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) exposed and unexposed to PAI-1-secreting adipose stromal cells. The PAI-1-dependent action deregulates crosstalk among tumor-promoting and tumor-repressing pathways, including transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß). When PAI-1 is tethered to lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), the internalized signaling causes downregulation of SMAD4 at the transcriptional and post-translational levels that attenuates TGF-ß-related transcription programs. Repression of genes encoding the junction and adhesion complex preferentially occurs in SMAD4-underexpressed EECs of persons with obesity. The findings highlight a role of PAI-1 signaling that renders ineffective intercellular communication for the development of adiposity-associated endometrial cancer.

19.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046867

RESUMO

Retinal blood vessels provide information on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Here, we report the development and validation of deep-learning models for the automated measurement of retinal-vessel calibre in retinal photographs, using diverse multiethnic multicountry datasets that comprise more than 70,000 images. Retinal-vessel calibre measured by the models and by expert human graders showed high agreement, with overall intraclass correlation coefficients of between 0.82 and 0.95. The models performed comparably to or better than expert graders in associations between measurements of retinal-vessel calibre and CVD risk factors, including blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol and glycated-haemoglobin levels. In retrospectively measured prospective datasets from a population-based study, baseline measurements performed by the deep-learning system were associated with incident CVD. Our findings motivate the development of clinically applicable explainable end-to-end deep-learning systems for the prediction of CVD on the basis of the features of retinal vessels in retinal photographs.

20.
Prog Brain Res ; 255: 69-97, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008516

RESUMO

Migraine and epilepsy share in many ways with regard to their clinical presentation and pathophysiological mechanisms. A state of central hyper-excitability or hyper-responsivity is fundamental in their pathophysiology. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have long been used for migraine prevention, other than for seizure control. Evidence from numerous clinical trials has well demonstrated the therapeutic effects of some of the AEDs in this regard. In this paper, we will first discuss the clinical similarity between migraine and epilepsy. Then, to address the rationale of AEDs usage in migraine prevention, we focus on those electrophysiological studies conducted in patients with migraine demonstrating evidence of central hyper-excitability or hyper-responsivity. Although controversies remain, three common findings are derived from the literature: (1) cortical hyper-excitability, (2) impaired intra-cortical inhibition or increased intra-cortical facilitation, and (3) dis-habituation (hyper-responsivity). Each single feature may actually represent one of the different manifestations derived from an overall central excitation/inhibition imbalance. Finally, we review those studies addressing the therapeutic effects of AEDs and the associated alteration in central excitability. These studies provided direct evidence that effective prevention by AEDs is associated with the restoration of excitation/inhibition imbalance.

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