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1.
Neuroscientist ; : 10738584211040786, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470515

RESUMO

As resident immune cells of the brain, microglia serve pivotal roles in regulating neuronal function under both physiological and pathological conditions, including aging and the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Instructed by neurons, microglia regulate synaptic function and guard brain homeostasis throughout life. Dysregulation of microglial function, however, can lead to dire consequences, including aggravated cognitive decline during aging and exacerbated neuropathology in diseases. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a key regulator of microglial function. Loss-of-function variants of TREM2 are associated with an increased risk of AD. TREM2 orchestrates the switch of microglial transcriptome programming that modulates microglial chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and inflammatory responses, as well as microglial regulation of synaptic function in health and disease. Intriguingly, the outcome of microglial/TREM2 function is influenced by age and the context of neuropathology. This review summarizes the rapidly growing research on TREM2 under physiological conditions and in AD, particularly highlighting the impact of TREM2 on neuronal function.

2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests beneficial impacts of plant-based diets on glucose metabolism among generally healthy individuals. Whether adherence to these diets is related to risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to examine associations between plant-based diets and GDM in a large prospective study. METHODS: We included 14,926 women from the Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2001), who reported ≥1 singleton pregnancy and without previous GDM before the index pregnancy. Prepregnancy adherence to plant-based diets was measured by an overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful plant-based diet index (hPDI), and unhealthful plant-based diet index (uPDI) as assessed by FFQs every 4 y. Incident first-time GDM was ascertained from a self-reported physician diagnosis, which was previously validated by review of medical records. We used log-binomial models with generalized estimating equations to calculate RRs and 95% CIs for associations of PDIs with GDM. RESULTS: We documented 846 incident GDM cases over the 10-y follow-up among 20,707 pregnancies. Greater adherence to the PDI and hPDI was associated with lower GDM risk. For the PDI, the multivariable-adjusted RR (95% CI) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles (Q5 compared with Q1) was 0.70 (0.56, 0.87) (Ptrend = 0.0004), and for each 10-point increment was 0.80 (0.71, 0.90). For the hPDI, the RR (95% CI) of Q5 compared with Q1 was 0.75 (0.59, 0.94) (Ptrend = 0.009) and for each 10-point increment was 0.86 (0.77, 0.95). After further adjustment for prepregnancy BMI, the associations were attenuated but remained significant: for the PDI, the RR (95% CI) for each 10-point increment was 0.89 (0.79, 1.00) and the corresponding RR (95% CI) was 0.89 (0.80, 0.99) for the hPDI. The uPDI was not associated with GDM. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that greater prepregnancy adherence to a healthful plant-based diet was associated with lower risk of GDM, whereas an unhealthful plant-based diet was not related to GDM risk.

3.
Hum Reprod ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492112

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: Can abnormalities in retinal microvasculature representing adverse microcirculatory perfusion and inflammation shed light on the pathophysiology of female fecundability? SUMMARY ANSWER: In our prospective study, abnormalities in retinal vascular geometric morphology (i.e. sparser arteriolar fractal and larger venular bifurcation) during pre-conception phase are temporarily associated with a prolonged time-to-pregnancy (TTP). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Suboptimal retinal microcirculatory morphology has been associated with obesity, psychological stress and hypertension, all of which are known risk factors for reduced female fecundability. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A total of 652 women of Chinese, Malay or Indian ethnicity 18-45 years of age and planning to conceive spontaneously within the next 12 months were recruited during the pre-conception period into the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes (S-PRESTO), from February 2015 to October 2017. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: During recruitment, we collected information on socio-demographic factors, menstrual characteristics and lifestyle behaviors and made anthropometric measurements. We assessed the following retinal microvascular features: caliber, branching angle and fractal dimension. We conducted follow-up telephone surveys to track each participant's pregnancy status at 6, 9 and 12 months after enrolment. We ascertained clinical pregnancies via ultrasonography, with TTP measured by the number of menstrual cycles required to achieve a clinical pregnancy over a 1-year follow-up. Then, we performed discrete-time proportional hazards models to estimate the fecundability odds ratio (FOR) and 95% CI for each retinal microvascular feature in association with TTP, after adjusting for major confounders, including body mass index and fasting glycemic level at study entry. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF THE CHANCE: Among 652 recruited women, 276 (42.3%) successfully conceived within 1 year of follow-up. The mean (and SD) was 1.24 (0.05) Df for retinal arteriolar dimension fraction and 78.45 (9.79) degrees for retinal venular branching angle, respectively. Non-linear relationship testing was performed before multiple adjustment in all associations and a non-monotonic association was detected between retinal venular branching angle and TTP. Compared with women in the highest tertile of retinal arteriolar fractal dimension, women in the second tertile had a prolonged TTP (FOR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51-0.92), as did women in the lowest tertile (FOR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.55-0.98). Compared with women in the middle tertile of retinal venular branching angle, women in the highest tertile had a borderline prolonged TTP (FOR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.56-1.02). No other retinal vascular features were significantly associated with TTP. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: We were unable to adjust for other potential confounding factors such as female sexual function (e.g. frequency of sexual intercourse), which might introduce a residual bias. Moreover, even though this is a prospective cohort design, our findings can identify the temporal relationship but not necessarily infer a causal relationship between maternal microvasculature and TTP. Lastly, our study involving mainly Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicities might not be generalizable to other races or ethnicities. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Suboptimal microcirculation may lead to reduced female fecundability. In the future, in addition to conventional ultrasonographic evaluation of ovarian and uterine physiological function, assessing the retinal microvasculature might be useful for assessment of ovarian age, fertility prediction and endometrial evaluation before assisted reproductive techniques for fertility treatments. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This research is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (NRF) under its Translational and Clinical Research (TCR) Flagship Programme and administered by the Singapore Ministry of Health's National Medical Research Council (NMRC) (Singapore-NMRC/TCR/004-NUS/2008; NMRC/TCR/012-NUHS/2014) and Singapore National Medical Research Council Transition Award (NMRC TA/0027/2014). The authors have no competing interests to declare. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03531658.

4.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 192, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators in tumor progression. However, their biological functions and underlying mechanisms in hypoxia adaptation remain largely unclear. RESULTS: Here, we established a correlation between a Chr3q29-derived lncRNA gene and tongue squamous carcinoma (TSCC) by genome-wide analyses. Using RACE, we determined that two novel variants of this lncRNA gene are generated in TSCC, namely LINC00887_TSCC_short (887S) and LINC00887_TSCC_long (887L). RNA-sequencing in 887S or 887L loss-of-function cells identified their common downstream target as Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA9), a gene known to be upregulated by hypoxia during tumor progression. Mechanistically, our results showed that the hypoxia-augmented 887S and constitutively expressed 887L functioned in opposite directions on tumor progression through the common target CA9. Upon normoxia, 887S and 887L interacted. Upon hypoxia, the two variants were separated. Each RNA recognized and bound to their responsive DNA cis-acting elements on CA9 promoter: 887L activated CA9's transcription through recruiting HIF1α, while 887S suppressed CA9 through DNMT1-mediated DNA methylation. CONCLUSIONS: We provided hypoxia-permitted functions of two antagonistic lncRNA variants to fine control the hypoxia adaptation through CA9.

5.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 555-560, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed at investigating the role of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase in the growth, migration, and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: To assess the role of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase, we silenced isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells using lentiviral 2 specific short hairpin RNAs (short hairpin RNAs 1 and 2) and examined silencing efficiency using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. Short hairpin RNAs 1-isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase had greater knockdown efficiency, it was used in the entire downstream analysis. Short hairpin RNAs 1- isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase silencing effects on cell proliferation, cell colony generation, cell migration, as well as angiogenesis were assessed using cell counting kit-8, colony development, cell migration, and angiogenesis tube formation assays, respectively. RESULTS: Compared to the control group, anti-isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase short hairpin RNAs significantly silenced isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and suppressed their proliferation, migration, and angiogenic capacity. To characterize the underlying mechanism, western blot analyses showed that isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase knockdown suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase ½ and protein-serine- threonine kinase, as well as expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, GSK-3ß, and ß-catenin. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown, for the first time, the critical role of isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Our data show that isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase knockdown suppresses human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis. We have also shown that isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase knockdown suppresses phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase ½ and protein-serine- threonine kinase, as well as expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, GSK-3ß, and ß-catenin. Together, these data highlight isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase as a potential antitumor anti-angiogenic target.


Assuntos
Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos
6.
Chem Biodivers ; : e2100578, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499797

RESUMO

Chemical investigation of the marine sponge Dysidea avara, collected from the South China Sea, yielded 13 steroids, including nine new (1-9) and four known (10-13) ones. The new structures were elucidated as (3S,14R)-3,14-dihydroxycholesta-5,8-dien-7-one (1), (22E,24R)-7α-ethoxy-5α,6α-epoxyergosta-8(14),22-dien-3ß-ol (2), 3ß-hydroxy-7α-ethoxy-5α,6α-epoxy-8(14)-cholestene (3), 3ß,5α-dihydroxy-6α-ethoxychofesta-7,9(11)-diene (4), 3ß,5α-dihydroxy-6ß-ethoxycholest-7-ene (5), (22E,24R)-24-ethoxy-3ß,5α-dihydroxy-6ß-ethoxyergosta-7,22-diene (6), (22E)-3ß,5α-dihydroxy-6ß-ethoxycholesta-7,22-diene (7), 24-ethoxy-3ß,5α-dihydroxy-6ß-ethoxycholest-7-ene (8 and 9), by extensive spectroscopic analyses, such as HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR data. The absolute configuration of 1 was assigned by comparison the experimental ECD spectra with the calculated ones. Among the 13 metabolites, compounds 1, 4, 11, 12, and 13 showed NF-κB inhibitory activities in human HER-293 cells with IC50 values of 6.4, 18.7, 8.1, 9.6, and 7.5 µM, respectively. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis unveiled that the conjugated ketones or unsaturated double bonds might be the functional groups for the five active steroids.

7.
Adv Mater ; : e2103627, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34515384

RESUMO

Improving singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) lifespan by fractionated delivery in dark and hypoxic conditions is a better way to achieve enhanced phototherapeutic efficacy. Herein, three boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes are synthesized to demonstrate that anthracence-functionalized BODIPY, namely ABDPTPA is an efficient heavy-atom-free photosensitizer for the reversible capture and release of 1 O2 . The spin-orbit charge-transfer intersystem crossing of ABDPTPA promises a high 1 O2 quantum yield of 60% in dichloromethane. Under light irradiation, the anthracene group reacts with 1 O2 to produce endoperoxide. Interestingly, after termination of irradiation, the endoperoxide undergoes thermal cycloreversion to produce 1 O2 , and regenerates the anthracene module to achieve 1 O2 "afterglow," which results in a prolonged half lifetime of 1 O2 for 9.2 min. In vitro cytotoxicity assays indicate that ABDPTPA nanoparticles have a low half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 ) of 3.6 µg mL-1 on U87MG cells. Further, the results of near-infrared-II fluorescence-imaging-guided phototherapy indicate that ABDPTPA nanoparticles can inhibit tumor proliferation even at a low dose (200 µg mL-1 , 100 µL) without any side effects. Therefore, the study provides a generalized 1 O2 "afterglow" strategy to enhance phototheranostics for complete tumor regression.

8.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt A): 111949, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478720

RESUMO

Photocatalysis is regarded as one of the most effective strategies for the removal of the toxic organic pollutants from aqueous solutions. However, a lack of the efficient photocatalysts prevents the widespread practical application. Herein, the electrostatic self-assembly method has been designed for facile synthesis of a novel BaSnO3/PDDA/MXene (BSO/P/MX) nanocomposite as high efficient photocatalyst. In this nanocomposite, the BaSnO3 (BSO), poly (dimethyl-diallylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and MXene (Ti3C2Tx) act as the active species, structure stabilizer and efficient electron transfer medium, respectively. Due to the strong synergy of the nanocomposite, the electron-transferring ability as well as the charge separation efficiency is boosted and thus high catalytic activity achieves towards the photodegradation of 4-nitrophenol. The superior degradation rate of 98.8% and a rate constant K of 0.09113 min-1 have been realized within 75 min of ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation over the BSO/P/MX-8% catalyst. This as-prepared nanocomposite with the excellent catalytic activity can be employed as a promising photocatalyst for treating the organic pollutants from aqueous solutions.

9.
Pain ; 162(10): 2590-2598, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534180

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Pain disorders are associated with aberrant oscillations in the pain-related cortical regions; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between the functional cortical network and migraine chronification through direct neural signals. Magnetoencephalography was used to record the resting-state brain activity of healthy controls as well as patients with episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM). The source-based oscillatory dynamics of the pain-related cortical regions, which comprises 10 node regions (the bilateral primary [SI] and secondary somatosensory cortices, insula, medial frontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]), were calculated to determine the intrinsic connectivity and node strength at 1 to 40 Hz. The total node strength within the pain-related cortical regions was smaller in the beta band in patients with migraine (70 EM and 80 CM) than in controls (n = 65). In the beta band, the node strength and functional connectivity values of patients with CM and patients with EM differed from those of controls in specific cortical areas, notably the left SI (EM < control) and bilateral ACC (CM < control); moreover, the node strength was lower in patients with CM than in those with EM. In all patients with migraine, negative correlations were observed between headache frequency and node strength in the bilateral ACC. In conclusion, migraine is characterized by reduced beta oscillatory connectivity within the pain-related cortical regions. Reduced beta connectivity in the ACC is linked to migraine chronification. Longitudinal studies should verify whether this oscillation change is a brain signature and a potential neuromodulation target for migraine.

10.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High cholesterol aggravates the risk development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is closely related to the transport impairment of amyloid-ß (Aß) in the blood-brain barrier. It is unclear whether high cholesterol affects the risk of cognitive impairment in AD by affecting Aß transport. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether high cholesterol regulates Aß transport through low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in the risk development of AD. METHODS: We established high cholesterol AD mice model. The learning and memory functions were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM). Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells were isolated, cultured, and observed. The expression levels of LRP1 and RAGE of endothelial cells and their effect on Aß transport in vivo were observed. The expression level of LRP1 and RAGE was detected in cultured microvessels after using Wnt inhibitor DKK-1 and ß-catenin inhibitor XAV-939. RESULTS: Hypercholesterolemia exacerbated spatial learning and memory impairment. Hypercholes- terolemia increased serum Aß40 level, while serum Aß42 level did not change significantly. Hyper- cholesterolemia decreased LRP1 expression and increased RAGE expression in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. Hypercholesterolemia increased brain apoptosis in AD mice. In in vitro experiment, high cholesterol decreased LRP1 expression and increased RAGE expression, increased Aß40 expression in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. High cholesterol regulated the expressions of LRP1 and RAGE and transcriptional activity of LRP1 and RAGE promoters by the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: High cholesterol decreased LRP1 expression and increased RAGE expression in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, which led to Aß transport disorder in the blood-brain barrier. Increased Aß deposition in the brain aggravated apoptosis in the brain, resulting to cognitive impairment of AD mice.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478379

RESUMO

Disease similarity analysis impacts significantly in pathogenesis revealing, treatment recommending, and disease-causing genes predicting. Previous works study the disease similarity based on the semantics obtaining from biomedical ontologies (e.g., disease ontology) or the function of disease-causing molecules. However, such methods almost focus on a single perspective for obtaining disease features, which may lead to biased results for similar disease detection. To address this issue, we propose a disease information network-based integrate approach named MISSION for detecting similar diseases. By leveraging the associations between diseases and other biomedical entities, the disease information network is established firstly. And then, the disease similarity features extracted from the aspects of disease taxonomy, attributes, literature, and annotations are integrated into the disease information network. Finally, the top-k similar disease query is performed based on the integrative disease information. The experiments conducted on real-world datasets demonstrate that MISSION is effective and useful in similar disease detection.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520183

RESUMO

Compared with conventional mirrors that behave as isotropic electromagnetic (EM) reflectors, metamirrors composed of periodically aligned artificial meta-atoms exhibit increased degrees of freedom for EM manipulations. However, the functionality of most metamirrors is fixed by design, and how to achieve active EM control is still elusive. Here, we propose a multistate metamirror based on the nonvolatile phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) with four distinct functionalities that can be realized in the infrared region by exploiting the temperature-activated phase transition. When varying the crystallinity of GST, the metamirror has the capability to perform as a right-handed circular polarization chiral mirror, a narrowband achiral mirror, a left-handed circular polarization chiral mirror, or a broadband achiral mirror, respectively. The inner physics is further explained by the construction or cancellation of extrinsic two-dimensional chirality. As a proof of concept, experimental verification is carried out and the measured results agree well with their simulated counterparts. Such a multifunctional tunable metamirror could address a wide range of applications from sensing and spectroscopy to analytical chemistry and imaging.

13.
Mol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520622

RESUMO

Wilms tumour (WT), an embryonal kidney cancer, has been extensively characterised for genetic and epigenetic alterations, but a proportion of WTs still lack identifiable abnormalities. To uncover DNA methylation changes critical for WT pathogenesis, we compared the epigenome of fetal kidney with two WT cell lines, filtering our results to remove common cancer-associated epigenetic changes, and to enrich for genes involved in early kidney development. This identified four hypermethylated genes, of which ESRP2 (epithelial splicing regulatory protein 2) was the most promising for further study. ESRP2 was commonly repressed by DNA methylation in WT, and this occurred early in WT development (in nephrogenic rests). ESRP2 expression was reactivated by DNA methyltransferase inhibition in WT cell lines. When ESRP2 was overexpressed in WT cell lines, it inhibited cellular proliferation in vitro, and in vivo it suppressed tumour growth of orthotopic xenografts in nude mice. RNA-seq of the ESRP2-expressing WT cell lines identified several novel splicing targets. We propose a model in which epigenetic inactivation of ESRP2 disrupts the mesenchymal to epithelial transition in early kidney development to generate WT.

14.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34532973

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious disease for which effective therapeutic agents are required. The capacity of curcumin (CUR) to resolve renal inflammation/oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage has been reported, but crosstalk between these effects and the consequence of this crosstalk remain elusive. In this study, a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced renal tubular epithelial cell (TEC) injury model and an ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced mouse AKI model were treated with CUR with or without mitochondrial inhibitors (rotenone and FCCP) or siRNA targeting mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM). Changes in mitochondrial function, inflammation, the antioxidant system and related pathways were analysed. In vitro, CUR suppressed NFκB activation and cytokine production and induced NRF2/HO-1 signalling in TECs under H/R conditions. CUR treatment also reduced mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) and mitochondrial fragmentation and enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, TCA cycle activity and ATP synthesis in damaged TECs. However, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of CUR in damaged TECs were markedly abolished upon mitochondrial disruption. In vivo, CUR treatment improved renal function and antioxidant protein (NRF2 and SOD2) expression and reduced oxidative stress (8-OHdG), tubular apoptosis/death, cytokine release/macrophage infiltration and mitochondrial damage in the kidneys of AKI mice. In vitro, the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of CUR in damaged kidneys were impaired when mitochondrial function was disrupted. These results suggest mitochondrial damage is a driving factor of renal inflammation and redox imbalance. The therapeutic capacity of CUR in kidneys with AKI is primarily dependent on mitochondrial mechanisms; thus, CUR is a potential therapy for various diseases characterized by mitochondrial damage.

15.
J Orofac Orthop ; 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533584

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of anodization on the friction behavior of beta-titanium (ß-Ti) orthodontic archwires in conventional or self-ligating brackets in vitro. METHODS: ß­Ti archwires (0.018â€¯× 0.025 inch) pre- and postanodization were tested in combination with 0.022-inch stainless steel conventional and self-ligating brackets. The surface composition and oxide thickness of the ß­Ti archwires pre- and postanodization were measured using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Detailed surface topography and roughness were assessed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface topographies of the ß­Ti archwires pre- and postanodization were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Friction was measured using a universal testing machine; the data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Postanodization, the identified titanium oxide layer on the surface of the ß­Ti archwires increased in thickness from 10 to 100 nm; at the same time, the values for surface roughness were significantly reduced by half (p < 0.001). The archwire surfaces post anodization were harder and had fewer scratches after the friction test. Anodization significantly reduced 23.77% of the static (p < 0.01) and 25.61% of the kinetic (p < 0.001) friction of the ß­Ti archwires in conventional brackets, while it significantly reduced 85.71% of the static and 84.38% of the kinetic friction (p < 0.01) in self-ligating brackets. CONCLUSION: Anodization reduced the ß­Ti archwire friction, which was particularly more effective in combination with self-ligating brackets. The friction reduction via anodization could be attributed to the increased thickness, surface hardness, and decreased surface roughness of the titanium oxide layer.

16.
Med Teach ; : 1-20, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534043

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ensuring medical students are equipped with essential knowledge and portable skills to face complex ethical issues underlines the need for ethics education in medical school. Yet such training remains variable amidst evolving contextual, sociocultural, legal and financial considerations that inform training across different healthcare systems. This review aims to map how undergraduate medical schools teach and assess ethics. METHODS: Guided by the Systematic Evidence-Based Approach (SEBA), two concurrent systematic scoping reviews were carried out, one on ethics teaching and another on their assessment. Searches were conducted on PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and ERIC between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2020. Data was independently analysed using thematic and content analysis. RESULTS: Upon scrutinising the two sets of full-text articles, we identified 141 articles on ethics teaching and 102 articles on their assessments. 83 overlapped resulting in 160 distinct articles. Similar themes and categories were identified, these include teaching modalities, curriculum content, enablers and barriers to teaching, assessment methods, and their pros and cons. CONCLUSION: This review reveals the importance of adopting an interactive, multimodal and interdisciplinary team-teaching approach to ethics education, involving community resource partners and faculty trained in ethics, law, communication, professionalism, and other intertwining healthcare professions. Conscientious effort should also be put into vertically and horizontally integrating ethics into formal medical curricula to ensure contextualisation and application of ethics knowledge, skills and attitudes, as well as protected time and adequate resources. A stage-based multimodal assessment approach should be used to appropriately evaluate knowledge acquisition, application and reflection across various practice settings. To scaffold personalised development plans and remediation efforts, multisource evaluations may be stored in a centralised portfolio. Whilst standardisation of curricula content ensures cross-speciality ethical proficiency, deliberative curriculum inquiry performed by faculty members using a Delphi approach may help to facilitate the narrowing of relevant topics.

17.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 175: 141-154, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474107

RESUMO

AIMS: Chronic inflammation is a primary reason for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its complications, while disordered branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism is found in T2DM, but the link between BCAA catabolic defects and inflammation in T2DM remains elusive and needs to be investigated. METHODS: The changes in BCAA catabolism, inflammation, organ damage, redox status, and mitochondrial function in db/db mice with treatments of BCAA-overload or BCAA catabolism activator were analyzed in vivo. The changes in BCAA catabolic metabolism, as well as the direct effects of BCAAs/branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKAs) on cytokine release and redox status were also analyzed in primary macrophages in vitro. RESULTS: Inactivation of branched-chain ɑ-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex was found in multiple organs (liver, muscle and kidney) of db/db mice. Long-term high BCAA supplementation further increased BCKA levels, inflammation, tissue fibrosis (liver and kidney), and macrophage hyper-activation in db/db mice, while enhancing BCAA catabolism with pharmacological activator reduced these adverse effects in db/db mice. In vitro, the BCAA catabolism was unchanged in primary macrophages of db/db mice, and elevated BCKAs but not BCAAs promoted the cytokine production in primary macrophages. Moreover, BCKA stimulation was associated with increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and redox imbalance in macrophages and diabetic organs. CONCLUSION: Impaired BCAA catabolism is strongly associated with chronic inflammation and tissue damage in T2DM, and this effect is at least partly due to the BCKAs-induced macrophage oxidative stress. This study highlights that targeting BCAA catabolism is a potential strategy to attenuate T2DM and its complications.

18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17523, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471155

RESUMO

Exposure to arsenic, a ubiquitous metalloid on Earth, results in human cancers. Skin cancer is the most common arsenical cancers. Both autophagy and aquaporin pathway are known to promote carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which arsenic regulates aquaporin and autophagy in arsenical skin cancers remain elusive. This study aims to address how arsenic regulates aquaporin-3, the predominant aquaporin in epidermal keratinocytes, and how this process would induce autophagy. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunofluorescence were used to measure the expression of aquaporin 3 in arsenical skin cancers and arsenic-treated keratinocytes. Beclin-1 expression and autophagy were measured. We examined if blocking aquaporin 3 could interfere arsenic-induced autophagy in keratinocytes. Expression of aquaporin 3 is increased in arsenical cancers and in arsenic-treated keratinocytes. Arsenic induced autophagy in primary human keratinocytes. Notably, the arsenic-induced autophagy was inhibited by pretreatment of keratinocytes with aquaporin inhibitors Auphen or AgNO3, or RNA interference against aquaporin 3. The data indicates that the aquaporin 3 is an important cell membrane channel to mediate arsenic uptake and contributes to the arsenic-induced autophagy.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255504, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473729

RESUMO

Benzophenone (BPs) and 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor are used as ultraviolet (UV) filters to protect the skin and hair in personal care products. The discharging of the three chemicals may endanger the receiving water ecosystem. In the present study, the mutagenicity of BP-6, BP-8, and 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test (Ames test) in the system with and without rat liver microsomal preparations (S9). Four S.typhimurium strains, TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 were employed in the Ames tests. The mutagenicity was detected from all three chemicals. The addition of S9 increased the mutation ratios of three chemicals to four strains, except BP-6 to TA100 strain and 4-MBC to TA97 and TA98 strain. In the mixed experiment, all positive effects were detected in the absence of S9. However, the results all became negative in the presence of S9. For the mixture of BP-6 and 4-MBC, positive results were detected on four tester strains except for the TA100 strain. For the mixture of BP-6, BP-8, and 4-MBC, positive results were detected on four strains. The mixture test results showed antagonism in mutagenicity for the mixture of BP-6 and 4-MBC to TA98 and TA100 strains and the mixture of BP-6, BP-8, and 4-MBC to TA100 and TA102 strains.

20.
Rice (N Y) ; 14(1): 77, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487253

RESUMO

Panicle architecture is one of the major factors influencing productivity of rice crops. The regulatory mechanisms underlying this complex trait are still unclear and genetic resources for rice breeders to improve panicle architecture are limited. Here, we have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to analyze and identify genetic determinants underlying three panicle architecture traits. A population of 340 rice accessions from the 3000 Rice Genomes Project was phenotyped for panicle length, primary panicle number and secondary branch number over two years; GWAS was performed across the whole panel, and also across the japonica and indica sub-panels. A total of 153 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected, of which 5 were associated with multiple traits, 8 were unique to either indica or japonica sub-panels, while 37 QTLs were stable across both years. Using haplotype and expression analysis, we reveal that genetic variations in the OsSPL18 promoter significantly affect gene expression and correlate with panicle length phenotypes. Three new candidate genes with putative roles in determining panicle length were also identified. Haplotype analysis of OsGRRP and LOC_Os03g03480 revealed high association with panicle length variation. Gene expression of DSM2, involved in abscisic acid biosynthesis, was up-regulated in long panicle accessions. Our results provide valuable information and resources for further unravelling the genetic basis determining rice panicle architecture. Identified candidate genes and molecular markers can be used in marker-assisted selection to improve rice panicle architecture through molecular breeding.

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