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1.
J Hazard Mater ; 382: 121014, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445413

RESUMO

A single particle aerosol mass spectrometry (SPAMS) was deployed to investigate the mixing state and chemical processing of Pb-rich particles in suburban Beijing. Based on a large dataset of mass spectra, Pb-rich particles were classified into Pb-O-Cl-N-S (55%), Pb-N (17%), Pb-N-S (15%), and Pb-EC (7%). Residual coal combustion, industrial activities, and meteorological conditions were identified as main factors regulating the variations of Pb-rich particles in the atmosphere. The highest abundance of the Pb-rich particles was observed during heating period (HP) primarily due to the increase in coal usage. Pb in Pb-O-Cl-N-S type was identified in forms of PbO, PbCl2, and Pb(NO3)2. Dominantly presented in the form of Pb(NO3)2, Pb-N type represented the completely transformed Pb-rich particles from PbO/PbCl2 by atmospheric processes. It is found that PbCl2 and PbO could be transformed to Pb(NO3)2, highly dependent on the amount of NO2 and RH. Significant enhancement of nitrate in Pb-O-Cl-N-S particles was observed when the RH was greater than 60%, emphasizing the importance of heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 on the formation of Pb(NO3)2. Compared with non-carcinogenic PbCl2/PbO and insoluble PbO, soluble and carcinogenic Pb(NO3)2 produced by atmospheric processes may significantly enhance negative effects of Pb-rich particles on human health and the ecosystem.

2.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 2081-2094, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720815

RESUMO

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors impair tumor cell proliferation and alter gene expression. However, the impact of these changes on anti-tumor immunity is poorly understood. Here, we showed that the class I HDAC inhibitor, entinostat (ENT), promoted the expression of immune-modulatory molecules, including MHCII, costimulatory ligands, and chemokines on murine breast tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. ENT also impaired tumor growth in vivo-an effect that was dependent on both CD8+ T cells and IFNγ. Moreover, ENT promoted intratumoral T-cell clonal expansion and enhanced their functional activity. Importantly, ENT sensitized normally unresponsive tumors to the effects of PD1 blockade, predominantly through increases in T-cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that class I HDAC inhibitors impair tumor growth by enhancing the proliferative and functional capacity of CD8+ T cells and by sensitizing tumor cells to T-cell recognition.

3.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770582

RESUMO

Corticosteroid insensitivity is a feature of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Erythromycin exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in COPD, but the concrete mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of erythromycin on corticosteroid sensitivity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and U937 cells (a human monocytic cell line). PBMCs were collected from non-smokers, healthy smoker volunteers, and COPD subjects. U937 cells were incubated with or without erythromycin and stimulated with TNF-α in the presence or absence of cigarette smoke extract (CSE). The dexamethasone (Dex) concentration required to achieve 50% inhibition of TNF-α-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production was determined and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Activator protein-1 (AP-1) pathway was also evaluated. Erythromycin improved corticosteroid sensitivity in PBMCs obtained from COPD patients and CSE-treated U937 cells. This improvement in corticosteroid sensitivity was associated with reduced c-Jun expression, which resulted from the inhibition of P38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK)1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Erythromycin had no effects on the phosphorylated and total protein expression levels of P38MAPK and ERK; however, it induced inhibition of the phosphorylated and total protein expression levels of JNK. This study provides evidence that erythromycin restores corticosteroid sensitivity in PBMCs and U937 cells. JNK inhibition by erythromycin restores corticosteroid sensitivity via the inhibition of c-Jun expression. Thus, JNK/c-Jun is a potential novel therapeutic target for COPD.

4.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 188: 105617, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775069

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to explore the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracranial hemorrhage (SSICH) and determine which intervention is most suitable for such patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched the PubMed, Medline, OVID, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The quality of the included studies was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 13.0 and RevMan 5.3. RESULTS: Endoscopic surgery (ES), minimally invasive surgery combined with urokinase (MIS + UK), minimally invasive surgery combined with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (MIS + rt-PA), and craniotomy were associated with higher survival rates and a lower risk of intracranial rebleeding than standard medical care (SMC) in patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. The order from highest to lowest survival rate was ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from lowest to highest intracranial rebleeding risk was ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, MIS + rt-PA, and SMC. Additionally, compared with SMC, all four surgical interventions (ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, and craniotomy) improved the prognosis and reduced the proportion of patients with serious disability. The order from most to least favorable prognosis was MIS + rt-PA, ES, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC. The order from highest to lowest proportion of patients with serious disability was ES, MIS + rt-PA, MIS + UK, craniotomy, and SMC. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the efficacy and safety of different surgical interventions (ES, MIS + UK, MIS + rt-PA, craniotomy) were superior to those of SMC in the patients with SSICH, especially in younger patients with few comorbidities. Among them, ES was the most reasonable and effective intervention. ES was found not only to improve the survival rate and prognosis but also to have the lowest risk of intracranial rebleeding and the lowest proportion of patients with serious disability.

5.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 336, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the tolerability and safety of DQTM tablet, which contains a complex mixture of Salvia miltiorrhiza salvianolic acids and Panax notoginseng saponins. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase I dose escalation study was conducted in 84 healthy volunteers. In a single ascending dose study, active ingredients were administered in various doses (90, 270, 540, 1080, 1800, 2880, 4320 or 5760 mg) to 60 subjects in cohorts 1-8. In a multiple ascending dose study, active ingredients were administered at doses of 360, 720 or 2160 mg twice daily to 24 subjects in cohorts 9-11 for 14 consecutive days. Safety was evaluated based on clinical symptoms, vital signs, physical examinations, electrocardiography, laboratory tests and adverse events. RESULTS: No serious adverse events or clinically significant changes in vital signs or electrocardiography were observed. One subject experienced mildly elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase but recovered spontaneously. Five subjects experienced a small increase in the number of daily stools. CONCLUSIONS: DQTM tablet was well tolerated at single doses of up to 5760 mg and twice-daily doses of up to 2160 mg for 14 consecutive days. The most frequent adverse event was an increase in the number of daily stools.

6.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 236, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visual impairment occurred as an infrequent form of chemotherapeutic toxicity and was often underestimated despite of several reports. We described a case of acute unilateral visual impairment after one cycle of intravenous chemotherapy of a normal dose, aiming at raising attention to chemotherapy-induced ocular toxicity. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient developed a progressive vision loss in the right eye during the chemotherapy. After one cycle of intravenous chemotherapy, her visual acuity decreased by 0.6 in the right eye (VOD = 0.4) compared to the previous value of 1.0 (VOD = 1.0). No evidence of ocular infiltration was observed from the cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). During her follow-up period, we documented the ophthalmologic examinations including visual acuity, visual field (VF), visual evoked potential (VEP), electroretinogram (ERG), fundus photograph (FP), fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Ophthalmoscope examination and fundus photograph showed optic disc edema, fuzzy boundary and linear hemorrhages in her right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) revealed capillary underdevelopment at the nasal and superior temporal area of the optic disc in the early phase and capillary fluorescein leakage in the late phase. The result of VEP test suggested the impaired function of the optic nerve. Thus, a diagnosis of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) was made by the ophthalmologist according to these results. The patient was prescribed prednisone combined with neuroprotective drugs, which did not work. After the cessation of chemotherapy, her impaired vision gradually recovered. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first reported case of acute visual impairment in a patient who underwent chemotherapy of a normal dose. It is indicated that while receiving benefits from chemotherapy, cancer patients simultaneously suffer from the risk of vision loss.

7.
Plant Signal Behav ; 14(12): 1684423, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668114

RESUMO

Phytosulfokine-α (PSK-α) is a disulfated pentapeptide with the sequence YIYTQ. As a new peptide hormone, PSK-α promotes plant growth and development but represses pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) against bacterial pathogens. Our recent study identified a novel phytosulfokine, PSK-γ, from soybean. The sequence of PSK-γ is YVYTQ in which the tyrosines are sulfated. Expression of PSK-γ significantly increased seed size and weight in transgenic plants by inducing embryo cell expansion. In this study, we further found that the constitutive expression of PSK-γ in Arabidopsis promotes the growth of vegetative organs as well as seeds. Moreover, overexpressed PSK-γ does not influence plant PTI against bacterial pathogens. These findings demonstrate a potential use of PSK-γ in genetic improvement of crop growth and yield by molecular breeding.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711047

RESUMO

The dissolution and diffusion of polysulfides leading to inferior cycling performance are still the main bottleneck hindering commercialization of Li-S battery, although they have received many restrictive policies in recent years. Herein, a new strategy that lithium polyacrylate (LiPAA) was introduced to clad on multiwalled carbon nanotube/sulfur (MWNT/S) composites as the interface layer for MWNT/S/LiPAA cathode, was proposed to not only suppress polysulfides migration through physical encapsulation and chemical adsorption but also facilite Li+ diffusion during the charge-discharge process. Attributing to these functions of LiPAA, the MWNT/S/LiPAA exhibited the rate capability and cycling performance superior to MWNT/S and MWNT/S/PAA. Moreover, thanking to the introduction of LiPAA, the MWNT/S/LiPAA were endowed with robust mechanical property, which was qualified as flexible cathode to assemble flexible Li-S battery with stable output under deformation condition. This work would open up a promising way to suppress polysulfides migration for high-performance flexible Li-S battery.

9.
Cornea ; 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714404

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that pterygium presents with both refractive and anatomical changes, especially short axial length. METHODS: A retrospective, hospital-based cross-sectional study included 521 eyes from 521 patients who were enrolled through a community survey by Shanghai Heping Eye Hospital was conducted. Patients with primary pterygium in at least 1 eye were considered the pterygium group, and those with normal eyes were considered the nonpterygium group. The prevalence and length of pterygium, refractive characteristics including spherical power, astigmatism, corneal curvature, and anatomical parameters including axial length, anterior chamber depth, endothelial cell density, and corneal thickness were compared between groups. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-one eyes of 521 patients (214 men and 307 women) with a mean age of 70.5 ± 7.6 years were included in the study. The prevalence of hyperopia (81.6%, 65.1%, P = 0.001), axial length (23.1 ± 1.2 mm, 24.2 ± 2.4 mm, P < 0.001), anterior chamber depth (2.9 ± 0.3 cm, 3.1 ± 0.4 cm, P = 0.001), flat K value (42.94 ± 2.16 diopters, 43.73 ± 1.48 diopters, P = 0.002), Kmax (51.13 ± 7.74 diopters, 47.49 ± 5.62 diopters, P < 0.001), and spherical power (0.97 ± 2.40 diopters, -0.82 ± 4.40 diopters, P < 0.001) were statistically different between the pterygium and nonpterygium groups. Age (r = -0.21, P = 0.025), corneal astigmatism (r = -0.41, P < 0.001), flat K value (r = -0.39, P < 0.001), and endothelial cell density (r = -0.33, P = 0.001) were all negatively correlated with the length of pterygium. The prevalence of pterygium and severe pterygium over 3 mm were statistically different according to the severity of hyperopia (P < 0.001) and axial length (P < 0.001). Stratified χ analysis showed that axial length, rather than hyperopia, was a related factor to pterygium (odds ratio = 5.23, 95% confidence interval: 2.50-10.93). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude from our study that the prevalence of pterygium is related to small eye size. SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling may play a vital role in pterygium and shorter axial length. Further study focused on SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling will be needed.

10.
J Surg Res ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of a small circular stapler (CS) has been reported to increase the incidence of benign anastomotic stricture of the intrathoracic anastomosis after esophagectomy, but no study has evaluated the effects of the CS size on cervical esophagogastrostomy. Based on a propensity-matched comparison, the present study was designed to determine whether the perioperative outcomes differ between 21- and 25-mm CSs after minimally invasive esophagectomy with cervical anastomosis. METHODS: From January 2015 to December 2017, 162 patients who received CS cervical esophagogastric anastomosis after minimally invasive esophagectomy for esophageal cancer were identified from our surgical database. A propensity-matched analysis was used to compare the outcomes between the 21- and 25-mm CS groups. Endpoints included anastomotic leak, dysphagia, reflux, stricture, and other major postoperative outcomes within 6 postoperative months. RESULTS: There were 69 and 93 patients in the 21- and 25-mm CS groups, respectively. Propensity matching produced 57 patients in each group. The two groups were not remarkably different in benign anastomotic stricture rate (P = 0.528). All strictures were resolved by balloon dilatation. The 25-mm CS group had a significantly longer operative time in cervical anastomosis than the 21-mm group (P = 0.005). No statistically significant differences in anastomotic leak rates, dysphagia scores, reflux scores, or other postoperative complications were noted between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a 21-mm CS in minimally invasive esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastric anastomosis did not result in greater anastomotic stricture as compared with a 25-mm CS. The 21-mm CS was associated with a significantly shorter operative time.

11.
Acta Biomater ; 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722254

RESUMO

Correct selection of alloying elements is important for developing novel biodegradable magnesium alloys with superior mechanical and biological performances. In contrast to various reports on nutrient elements (Ca, Zn, Sr, etc.) as alloying elements of biomedical magnesium alloys, there is limited information about how to choose the right rare earth elements (REEs) as alloying elements of magnesium. In this work, 16 kinds of REEs were individually added into Mg, including Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Du, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu, to fabricate binary Mg-RE model alloys with different composition points. Under the same working history, comparative studies were undertaken and the impact of each kind of rare earth element on the microstructure, mechanical property, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of Mg were investigated. The corresponding influence level for the 16 kinds of REEs were ranked. The results showed that the second phases were detected in some Mg-RE alloys, which were mainly composed of Mg12RE. By adding different REEs into Mg with proper contents, the mechanical properties of resulting Mg-RE binary alloys could be adjusted in wide range. The corrosion resistance of Mg-light REE alloys was generally better than Mg-heavy REE alloys. As for biocompatibility, Mg-RE model alloys showed no cytotoxic effect on MC3T3-E1 cells. The hemolysis rates of all experimental Mg-RE model alloys were lower than 5% except for Mg-Lu alloy model. In general, the addition of different REEs into Mg could improve its performance from different aspects. This work provides a better understanding on suitable REEs as alloying elements for magnesium, and the future R&D direction on biomedical Mg-RE alloys was proposed. Statement of Significance In contrast to various reports on nutrient elements (Ca, Zn, Sr, etc.) as alloying elements of biomedical magnesium alloys, until now there is limited information about how to choose the right rare earth elements (REEs) as alloying elements of magnesium. In this work, comparative studies were undertaken by individually adding 16 kinds of REEs, including Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Du, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu, into Mg to fabricate binary Mg-RE model alloys, with different composition points, then the impact of each kind of rare earth element on the microstructure, mechanical property, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of Mg under the same working history were investigated, and the corresponding influence level for the 16 kinds of REEs were ranked. This work provides a better understanding on suitable REEs as alloying elements for magnesium, and the future R&D direction on biomedical Mg-RE alloys was proposed.

12.
Br J Pharmacol ; 2019 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immunosuppressive drugs have shown great promise in treating the autoimmune diseases in recent years. A series of novel oxazole derivatives were screened for their immunosuppressive activity. PO-322 [1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-ylhydrazone)] was identified as the most effective of these compounds. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential mechanism of PO-322 in inhibiting T cell proliferation in vitro, as well as its effects on the delayed-type hypersensitivity response and imiquimod-induced dermatitis in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: T cell proliferation and apoptosis were analysed with flow cytometry. Cell viability was assessed with a CCK-8 assay. Protein kinase activity was assessed by SelectScreen Kinase Profiling Services. The phosphorylation of signal-regulated molecules was measured by western blot. Cytokine levels were determined by ELISA. The effect of PO-322 on delayed-type hypersensitivity and imiquimod-induced dermatitis was evaluated in a mouse model. KEY RESULTS: PO-322 inhibited human T cell proliferation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 mAbs or alloantigen without significant cytotoxicity. Importantly, PO-322 was a selective SGK1 inhibitor and decreased NDRG1 phosphorylation but not p70S6K, STAT5, AKT or ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Furthermore, PO-322 inhibited IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 expression but not IL-10 expression. Finally, the administration of PO-322 was safe and effective for ameliorating the delayed-type hypersensitivity response and imiquimod-induced dermatitis. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Taken together, PO-322 exerts immunosuppressive activity in vitro and in vivo by selectively inhibiting SGK1 activity. PO-322 represents a potential lead compound for the design and development of new drugs for the treatment of the autoimmune diseases.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 134466, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704412

RESUMO

Heavy metals (HMs) in soil cause adverse effects on ecosystem and human health. Quantifying ecological risk and human health risk (HHR) from sources can determine priority sources and help to mitigate the risks. In this research, geostatistics and positive matrix factorization (PMF) were used to identify and quantify the sources of soil HMs; and then ecological risk and HHR from different sources under woodland, construction land and farmland were quantitatively calculated by combining the potential ecological risk index (RI) and HHR assessment models with PMF model. Taking Jiedong District as an example, four sources were quantitatively apportioned, which were agricultural practices (23.08%), industrial activities (29.10%), natural source (22.87%) and traffic emissions (24.95%). For ecological risk, industrial activities were the greatest contributor, accounting for about 49.71%, 48.11% and 47.15% under construction land, woodland and farmland, respectively. For non-carcinogenic risk, agricultural practices were the largest source under woodland and farmland, while industrial activities were the largest source under construction land. As for carcinogenic risk, no matter which kind of land use, agricultural practices were the largest source. In addition, the health risks of children, including non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, were higher than those of adults, and the trends in health risks for children and adults were similar. The integrated approach was useful to evaluate ecological risk and HHR quantification from sources under different land use, thereby providing valuable suggestions for reducing pollution and protecting human health from the sources.

14.
Ann Transplant ; 24: 594-604, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712547

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressant in renal transplant recipients. It was demonstrated in rats and healthy volunteers that Wuzhi capsules could inhibit metabolism and maintain blood concentration of tacrolimus. However, there are no clinical studies of Wuzhi capsules in renal transplant recipients. This research aimed to assess the effect of Wuzhi capsules on the blood concentration of tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 158 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus with or without Wuzhi capsules were included in this retrospective study. The cohort study included 126 recipients, with 86 recipients receiving Wuzhi capsules (WZCs) and the other 40 recipients not receiving WZCs. Another 32 recipients were involved in a self-control study. RESULTS Dose- and body weight-adjusted trough concentrations (C0/D/W) of tacrolimus in the WZC group were found to be significantly higher than that in the non-WZC group (P<0.05). The improvement of C0/D/W by administration of Wuzhi capsules was more significant in CYP3A5 expressers than in non-expressers following subgroup analysis. Furthermore, the WZC group had a remarkably higher proportion of subjects who reached target tacrolimus concentration than in the non-WZC group, both in CYP3A5 expressers (P=0.01) and non-expressers (P<0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis and self-control analysis confirmed the positive impact of Wuzhi capsules on tacrolimus concentration (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Wuzhi capsules can increase tacrolimus trough concentration without adverse effects on allograft function, especially in CYP3A5 expressers. Efficient and convenient immunosuppressive effects on renal transplant recipients can be achieved by treatment including administration of Wuzhi capsules.

15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e17982, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764808

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is an infection-associated encephalitis/encephalopathy syndrome that is predominately caused by a virus. MERS has no direct association with central nervous system (CNS) infections or inflammation. Non-CNS infections may cause reversible lesion in the splenium of corpus callosum. Recently, there have been reports of many patients with hyponatremia related MERS. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was also found elevated in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with MERS. The role of IL-6 in the non-osmotic release of vasopressin is crucial. Persistent hyponatremia may be linked to this effect. The following is a case report of MERS secondary to encephalitis, complicated by hyponatremia. We will summarize the latest research and progress regarding MERS. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 31-year-old man was admitted to our department with a 5-day history of fever and headache. His initial diagnosis was encephalitis and hyponatremia; during this period the patient also developed MERS secondary to the encephalitis. DIAGNOSES: Encephalitis was diagnosed by reviewing the history of fever, headache, neck rigidity and Kerning sign (+) on clinical examination. Lab tests revealed: serum VCA IgG (+), EBNA-1 IgG (-), EBV IgM (-), and inflammation in the analysis of CSF. Cranial MRI+C showed that the blood vessels on the surface of the brain were obviously increasing and thickening and diffuse slow waves were detected on the electroencephalogram (EEG). The patient's hyponatremia aggravated on the third day of hospitalization. On the fourth day of hospitalization, the patient was somnolent, apathetic, and slow. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, with a T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery image, showed high-signal intensity in the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) on the fifth day of hospitalization. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed splenial hyperintensity as a "boomerang sign" and reduced diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Cranial MRI findings returned to normal after 1 month. The diagnosis of MERS was confirmed. INTERVENTIONS: We administered an intravenous drip infusion of acyclovir and prescribed oral sodium supplementation. OUTCOMES: The patient's neurological symptoms gradually improved. The MRI lesion in the SCC disappeared on the 30th day. LESSONS: In patients with encephalitis accompanied by hyponatremia, elevated IL-6 or urinary ß2-microglobulin (ß2MG), and exacerbations such as sudden somnolence, delirium, confusion, and seizures, the possibility of secondary MERS should be investigated, in addition to the progression of encephalitis.

16.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 526, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is the most efficient vector of the plague. Pyrethroid insecticides such as cypermethrin, cyhalothrin and deltamethrin have been often used to limit plague transmission via controlling the vector during outbreaks. However, this strategy is threatened by the development of insecticide resistance. Understanding the mechanisms underlying pyrethroid resistance is the prerequisite for successful flea control. METHODS: Partial DNA sequences of X. cheopis voltage gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene were amplified from a total of 111 individuals, collected from a natural plague epidemic foci in Baise City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China. These DNA fragments were sequenced. The frequency and distribution of kdr mutations were assessed in four X. cheopis populations. The origin of kdr mutations was investigated by phylogenetic and network analysis. RESULTS: The classical knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation (L1014F) was detected in four field populations at frequencies ranging between 0.021-0.241. The mutant homozygote was observed only in one of the four populations. Seven haplotypes were identified, with two of them carrying the resistance L1014F mutation. Phylogenetic tree and network analysis indicated that the L1014F allele was not singly originated. Based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) profiling, an easy-to-use and accurate molecular assay for screening individual fleas for the L1014F mutation was developed. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this work represents the first report of the L1014F mutation in the plague vector X. cheopis. The incidence of the L1014F allele highlights the need of further studies on the phenotypic effect of this mutation in this plague vector. Early detection and monitoring of insecticide resistance is suggested in order to make effective control strategies in case of plague outbreaks in this region.

17.
Anal Chem ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682106

RESUMO

Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ultrasensitive label-free analytical technique that can provide unique chemical and structural fingerprint information. However, gaining reliable quantitative analysis with SERS remains a huge challenge because of poor reproducibility and the instability of nanostructured SERS active surfaces. Herein, an effective strategy of coating Au nanoparticles (NPs) with ultrathin and uniform Prussian blue (PB) shell (Au@PB NPs) was developed for quantitative detection of dopamine (DA) concentrations in blood serum and crystal violet (CV) contaminants in lake water. The only intense PB Raman signal at 2155 cm-1 served as an ideal and interference-free internal standard (IS) for correcting fluctuations in the Raman intensities of analytes. Also, the stability of Au@PB NPs was investigated, exhibiting good functionality in strong acid solutions and thermal stability at 100 °C. This work demonstrates a convenient and fast quantitative SERS technique for detecting analyte concentrations in complex systems and has a great number of potential applications for use in analytical chemistry.

18.
Malar J ; 18(1): 366, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to meet the requirement of malaria elimination (ME), three courses of the External Competency Assessment of Malaria Microscopists (ECAMM) were conducted during 2017-2018 in China by facilitators designated by the World Health Organization (WHO-ECAMM). A training course with a model copied from the WHO-ECAMM course was also held a week ahead of ECAMM in March 2018. Thirty-six participants completed these courses and obtained different results. METHODS: The slide structures, agendas, score calculations, and the levels of certifications of the four courses strictly adhered to the WHO guidelines. All the data were collected in Excel 2016 and analysed in Graphpad Prism5 or SPSS 23. Significant differences were evaluated in Graphpad Prism5 by two-tailed paired t tests between the pre-assessment and final-assessment for each of the four courses, as well as one-way ANOVAs with Kruskal-Wallis tests and Dunn's post hoc tests among the final assessments of the four courses. Correlations between participants' competency results and their ages, years working on malaria, and numbers of malaria cases reported in their provinces were evaluated by bivariate correlations (two-tailed) and linear regression (excluding cases pairwise) in SPSS 23. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r values), P values (two tailed), adjusted R square (Adjusted R2), standardized coefficients (ß) and Sig. P values were recorded. The percentages of participants who gave the right answer to each slide (PPS) in the final assessments of the three WHO-ECAMM courses were calculated. Correlation analysis between PPS and parasitaemia (100-2000 parasites/µL) of Plasmodium falciparum slides used in species identification and parasite counting, were also evaluated via bivariate correlations (two-tailed) tests. RESULTS: Among the 36 participants, 16 participants were certificated as Level 1 (two from NRL), 10 were certified as Level 2 (one from NRL). Within the same course, participants had improved their average scores from pre-assessments to final assessments. The numbers of malaria cases reported in participants' provinces were strongly correlated to their species identification (SI) scores; r = 0.45, P = 0.040, n = 21; r = 0.57, P = 0.001, n = 32; r = 0.56, P = 0.007). The parasitaemia of P. falciparum within 100-2000 parasites/µL was correlated significantly (r = 0.44, P = 0.008, n = 36) with the PPS of all counting slides but not with slides for identification (r = - 0.018, P = 0.93, n = 30). CONCLUSIONS: The analysis and comparison of participants' competency results not only verified that the model of the WHO-ECAMM course had strong power in improving and assessing microscopists' competencies but also reflected the correlation between decreased numbers of indigenous malaria cases and microscopists' competencies in certain areas in China.

19.
FASEB J ; : fj201901329RR, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690106

RESUMO

Chronic islet inflammation is associated with development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Intermediate-conductance calcium-activated K+ (KCa3.1) channel plays an important role in inflammatory diseases. However, the role and regulation of KCa3.1 in pancreatic ß cells in progression of T2DM remain unclarified. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the specific KCa3.1 channel blocker 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34) on diabetic phenotype in the db/db model. In diabetic mice, blockade of KCa3.1 significantly improved glucose tolerance, enhanced secretion of postprandial insulin level, and reduced loss of ß-cell mass through attenuating the expression and secretion of inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, in cultured pancreatic ß cells, exposure to high levels of glucose or palmitic acid significantly increased expression and current density of the KCa3.1 channel as well as secretion of proinflammatory chemokines, and the effects were similarly reversed by preincubation with TRAM-34 or a NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate. Additionally, expression of KCa3.1 in pancreas islet cells was up-regulated by activation of NF-κB with IL-1ß stimulation. In summary, up-regulated KCa3.1 due to activation of NF-κB pathway leads to pancreatic inflammation via expression and secretion of chemokines and cytokines by pancreatic ß cells, thereby facilitating progression of T2DM.-Pang, Z.-D., Wang, Y., Wang, X.-J., She, G., Ma, X.-Z., Song, Z., Zhao, L.-M., Wang, H.-F., Lai, B.-C., Gou, W., Du, X.-J., Deng, X.-L. KCa3.1 channel mediates inflammatory signaling of pancreatic ß cells and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

20.
J Cell Physiol ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691974

RESUMO

Inflammation is considered to be critical in the pterygium progression and recurrence. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. Herein, we investigated the potential role of RNA binding protein human antigen R (HuR) responsible for the impact of inflammation on pterygium development. The expression of HuR and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) in pterygium and normal conjunctiva was detected with immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The influence of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) on HuR expression and cellular distribution was determined with western blot and immunofluorescence. The pterygium fibroblast (PTF) migration was determined with scratch wound healing assay and Transwell migration assay. MMP-9 production was determined with qRT-PCR and gelatin zymography. The interaction between HuR and MMP-9 was investigated with RNP immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by RT-PCR and messenger RNA (mRNA) stability analysis. HuR and MMP-9 expression are elevated in pterygium, especially progressive pterygium compared with normal conjunctiva. IL-1ß could increase the expression and nucleus-cytoplasm shuttle of HuR in cultured PTFs. HuR mediated the stimulatory effect of IL-1ß on PTF migration and MMP-9 production. HuR bound to MMP-9 mRNA and in turn increased it stability. Our results suggest that posttranscriptional regulation of MMP-9 via stabilizing mRNA by HuR might contribute to the stimulatory effect of inflammatory factor IL-1ß on pterygium progression. These findings shed light on the pathogenesis of pterygium and provide a promising target for adjuvant treatment of pterygium.

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