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1.
Redox Biol ; 56: 102469, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Excessive inflammatory responses and oxidative stress are considered the main characteristics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to show anti-inflammatory activity in IBD. The main aim of this study was to explore the role of 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (MPST), a key enzyme that regulates endogenous H2S biosynthesis, in IBD. METHODS: Colonic MPST expression was evaluated in mice and patients with IBD. Various approaches were used to explore the concrete mechanism underlying MPST regulation of the progression of colitis through in vivo and in vitro models. RESULTS: MPST expression was markedly decreased in colonic samples from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) and from mice treated with DSS. MPST deficiency significantly aggravated the symptoms of murine colitis, exacerbated inflammatory responses and apoptosis, and inhibited epithelium stem cell-derived organoid formation in an H2S-independent manner. Consistently, when HT29 cells were treated with TNF-α, inhibition of MPST significantly increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, the amount of ROS and the prevalence of apoptosis, whereas overexpression of MPST markedly improved these effects. RNA-seq analysis showed that MPST might play a role in regulating apoptosis through AKT signaling. Mechanistically, MPST directly interacted with AKT and reduced the phosphorylation of AKT. Additionally, MPST expression was positively correlated with AKT expression in human IBD samples. In addition, overexpression of AKT rescued IEC apoptosis caused by MPST deficiency, while inhibition of AKT significantly aggravated it. CONCLUSIONS: MPST protects the intestines from inflammation most likely by regulating the AKT/apoptosis axis in IECs. Our results may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of colitis.

2.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5523, 2022 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36130950

RESUMO

Retinoblastoma (RB) is a cancer that forms in the developing retina of babies and toddlers. The goal of therapy is to cure the tumor, save the eye and maximize vision. However, it is difficult to predict which eyes are likely to respond to therapy. Predictive molecular biomarkers are needed to guide prognosis and optimize treatment decisions. Direct tumor biopsy is not an option for this cancer; however, the aqueous humor (AH) is an alternate source of tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Here we show that DNA methylation profiling of the AH is a valid method to identify the methylation status of RB tumors. We identify 294 genes directly regulated by methylation that are implicated in p53 tumor suppressor (RB1, p53, p21, and p16) and oncogenic (E2F) pathways. Finally, we use AH to characterize molecular subtypes that can potentially be used to predict the likelihood of treatment success for retinoblastoma patients.


Assuntos
Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Neoplasias da Retina , Retinoblastoma , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias da Retina/metabolismo , Retinoblastoma/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
3.
Biomimetics (Basel) ; 7(3)2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36134931

RESUMO

European law now requires AI to be explainable in the context of adverse decisions affecting the European Union (EU) citizens. At the same time, we expect increasing instances of AI failure as it operates on imperfect data. This paper puts forward a neurally inspired theoretical framework called "decision stacks" that can provide a way forward in research to develop Explainable Artificial Intelligence (X-AI). By leveraging findings from the finest memory systems in biological brains, the decision stack framework operationalizes the definition of explainability. It then proposes a test that can potentially reveal how a given AI decision was made.

4.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(18): 12863-12872, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36047919

RESUMO

Accurate determination of acidity (pH) and ion activities in aqueous droplets is a major experimental and theoretical challenge for understanding and simulating atmospheric multiphase chemistry. Here, we develop a ratiometric Raman spectroscopy method to measure the equilibrium concentration of sulfate (SO42-) and bisulfate (HSO4-) in single microdroplets levitated by aerosol optical tweezers. This approach enables determination of ion activities and pH in aqueous sodium bisulfate droplets under highly supersaturated conditions. The experimental results were compared against aerosol thermodynamic model calculations in terms of simulating aerosol ion concentrations, ion activity coefficients, and pH. We found that the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) can well reproduce the experimental results. The alternative model ISORROPIA, however, exhibits substantial deviations in SO42- and HSO4- concentrations and up to a full unit of aerosol pH under acidic conditions, mainly due to discrepancies in simulating ion activity coefficients of SO42--HSO4- equilibrium. Globally, this may cause an average deviation of ISORROPIA from E-AIM by 25 and 65% in predicting SO42- and HSO4- concentrations, respectively. Our results show that it is important to determine aerosol pH and ion activities in the investigation of sulfate formation and related aqueous phase chemistry.


Assuntos
Sulfatos , Óxidos de Enxofre , Aerossóis/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Água
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 854: 158564, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36075420

RESUMO

Under the continuing influence of global warming, resolving the inconsistency of permafrost degradation rates and quantifying the spatial distribution characteristics are critical for high-altitude water cycle processes. The dynamics of permafrost degradation are mainly manifested in soil temperature, which can be measured with high accuracy and high temporal resolution. This study considered the influence of soil thermal conductivity (K) by periodic land surface temperature (LST), improved the static output of the temperature at the top of permafrost (TTOP) model, and verified the reliability of the TTOP model improvement by the Kappa coefficient. The results showed that from 2000 to 2020, the extent of dynamically simulated permafrost was 5.42 × 105 km2 less than that of static simulated permafrost, and the linear degradation rate doubled. The degraded permafrost showed an increasing degradation from southeast to northwest. Among them, the degradation in the Nujiang River and the Changjiang River north of the Nyainqentanglha Mountain has exacerbated the permafrost degradation in the hinterland of the Qiangtang Plateau. Based on the AWI-CM-1-1-MR LST from CMIP6, SSP126 to SSP585 dynamic simulation results of permafrost indicate that the extent will decrease by 11.35 % by 2100. Overall, the extent and rate of permafrost degradation, considering high spatiotemporal resolution, were twice as fast as expected. Our results will inform policymakers with a more accurate spatiotemporal distribution of frozen soil types in high-altitude regions and characteristics of permafrost degradation within the watershed.

6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While a variety of evidence supports a prenatal component in schizophrenia, there are few data regarding the cell populations involved. We sought to identify cells of the human prenatal brain mediating genetic risk for schizophrenia by integrating cell-specific gene expression measures generated through single-nuclei RNA sequencing with recent large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) and exome sequencing data for the condition. METHODS: Single-nuclei RNA sequencing was performed on 5 brain regions (frontal cortex, ganglionic eminence, hippocampus, thalamus, and cerebellum) from 3 fetuses from the second trimester of gestation. Enrichment of schizophrenia common variant genetic liability and rare damaging coding variation was assessed in relation to gene expression specificity within each identified cell population. RESULTS: Common risk variants were prominently enriched within genes with high expression specificity for developing neuron populations within the frontal cortex, ganglionic eminence, and hippocampus. Enrichments were largely independent of genes expressed in neuronal populations of the adult brain that have been implicated in schizophrenia through the same methods. Genes containing an excess of rare damaging variants in schizophrenia had higher expression specificity for developing glutamatergic neurons of the frontal cortex and hippocampus that were also enriched for common variant liability. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for a distinct contribution of prenatal neuronal development to genetic risk for schizophrenia, involving specific populations of developing neurons within the second-trimester fetal brain. Our study significantly advances the understanding of the neurodevelopmental origins of schizophrenia and provides a resource with which to investigate the prenatal antecedents of other psychiatric and neurologic disorders.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36151450

RESUMO

The purpose of this preclinical study in a sheep model was to confirm the feasibility and safety of the LuX-Valve transjugular tricuspid valve (TV) replacement apparatus and to optimize the implantation procedure before beginning first-in-man study. The LuX-Valve was implanted in a sheep model (n = 8) via transjugular approach. Six of eight sheep underwent successful implantation procedure on beating heart. The first two sheep died during the prostheses deployment. In the remaining 6 sheep that survived, postoperative echocardiography results showed there was no paravalvular leakage (PVL) and central tricuspid regurgitation in 5 animals, whereas 1 animal had mild PVL. The mean transvalvular gradient was 1.1 ± 0.9 mm Hg at the 4-week follow-up. No right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction, device malposition, pericardial effusion, coronary artery compression, or arrhythmias were observed. This technology may be a promising alternative for TR patients who are at high risk for open-heart surgery. Transjugular tricuspid valved-stent implantation. a Transjugular tricuspid valve replacement in a sheep model. b and c Valved stent. d, e, and f Schematic depiction of the implantation procedure.

8.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(9)2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36140759

RESUMO

The tree peony (Paeonia ostii 'Feng Dan Bai') has excellent drought tolerance. Although it has already been reported that the cuticle is an essential barrier against drought stress, the critical genes for cuticle resistance to drought remain unclear. However, the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACS) family of genes may be significant for the synthesis of cuticle wax. To test whether the LACS gene family is involved in cuticle response to drought stress in tree peony, we measure the thickness of cuticle stems and leaves alongside LACS enzyme activity. It is found that the cuticle thickens and the LACS enzyme increases with the maturation of stems and leaves, and there is a positive correlation between them. The LACS enzyme increases within 12 h under drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG). The transcriptome sequencing result (BioProject accession number PRJNA317164) is searched for, and a LACS gene with high expression is cloned. This gene has high homology and similarity with LACS4 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The gene is named PoLACS4. It is show to be highly expressed in mature leaves and peaks within 1 h under drought and salt stresses. All these results suggest that the LACS family of genes may be involved in cuticle response to drought stress and that PoLACS4 is a crucial gene which responds rapidly to drought in the tree peony.

9.
Small ; : e2204225, 2022 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117112

RESUMO

Highly efficient thermoelectric materials require, including point defects within the host matrix, secondary phases generating positive effects on lowering lattice thermal conductivity (κL ). Amongst effective dopants for a functional thermoelectric material, SnTe, Cu doping realizes the ultra-low κL approaching the SnTe amorphous limit. Such effective κL reduction is first attributed to strong phonon scattering by substitutional Cu atoms at Sn sites and interstitial defects in the host SnTe. However, other crystallographic defects in secondary phases have been unfocused. Here, this work reports micro- to atomic-scale characterization on secondary phases of Cu-doped SnTe using advanced microscopes. It is found that Cu-rich secondary phases begin precipitation ≈1.7 at% Cu (x = 0.034 where Sn1- x Cux Te). The Cu-rich secondary phases encapsulate two distinct solids: Cu2 SnTe3 ( F 4 ¯ 3 m $F\bar{4}3m$ ) has semi-coherent interfaces with SnTe ( F m 3 ¯ m $Fm\bar{3}{\rm{m}}$ ) such that they minimize lattice mismatch to favor the thermoelectric transport; the other resembles a stoichiometric Cu2 Te model, yet is so meta-stable that it demonstrates not only various defects such as dislocation cores and ordered/disordered Cu vacancies, but also dynamic grain-boundary migration with heating and a subsequent phase transition ≈350 °C. The atomic-scale analysis on the Cu-rich secondary phases offers viable strategies for reducing κL through Cu addition to SnTe.

10.
ChemSusChem ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121337

RESUMO

The economical consideration of using an electrocatalyst in energy-related field, composed of non-precious/sustainable elements is quite noteworthy. In this work, the phosphorus (V) complex of tris-(pentafluorophenyl)corrole [ (TPFC)P V (OH) 2 ] was firstly reported as electrocatalyst in driving hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The electrochemical studies revealed that the HER experienced a ECEC pathway (E: electron transfer step, C: chemical step) and the possible intermediate [P V ]-H species was suggested. (TPFC)P V (OH) 2 displayed excellent HER activity in dimethylformamide (DMF) with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as the proton source, and the turnover frequency (TOF) reached 31.75 s -1 at an overpotential of 900 mV. Interestingly, the HER electro-catalytic performance remained to be extraordinary even applying water as a proton source in acetonitrile/water (V/V = 2/3), with TOF was recorded as 18.40 mol H 2 (mol Cat) -1 h -1 at an overpotential of 900 mV.

11.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121640

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by brain atrophy and closely correlated with sarcopenia. Mounting studies indicate that parameters related to sarcopenia are associated with AD, but some results show inconsistent. Furthermore, the association between the parameters related to sarcopenia and gray matter volume (GMV) has rarely been explored. AIM: To investigate the correlation between parameters related to sarcopenia and cerebral GMV in AD. METHODS: Demographics, neuropsychological tests, parameters related to sarcopenia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected from 42 patients with AD and 40 normal controls (NC). Parameters related to sarcopenia include appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), grip strength, 5-times sit-to-stand (5-STS) time and 6-m gait speed. The GMV of each cerebral region of interest (ROI) and the intracranial volume were calculated by computing the numbers of the voxels in the specific region based on MRI data. Partial correlation and multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis explored the correlation between different inter-group GMV ratios in ROIs and parameters related to sarcopenia, adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The 82 participants included 40 NC aged 70.13 ± 5.94 years, 24 mild AD patients aged 73.54 ± 8.27 years and 18 moderate AD patients aged 71.67 ± 9.39 years. Multivariate stepwise linear regression showed that 5-STS time and gait speed were correlated with bilateral hippocampus volume ratios in total AD. Grip strength was associated with the GMV ratio of the left middle frontal gyrus in mild AD and the GMV ratios of the right superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus in moderate AD. However, ASMI did not have a relationship to any cerebral GMV ratio. CONCLUSIONS: Among parameters related to sarcopenia, 5-STS time and gait speed were associated with bilateral hippocampus volume ratios at different clinical stages of patients with AD. Five-STS time provide an objective basis for early screening and can help diagnose patients with AD.

12.
J Org Chem ; 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099344

RESUMO

This report discloses a novel Pd-catalyzed sequential three-component multiple reaction of alkenes, bromoalkynes, and boronic acids using alkenes as hydride and alkenyl donors, leading to highly stereoselective assembly of (Z,E)-1,3-diene derivatives. Mechanistic studies demonstrate that the generation and reutilization of palladium hydride species are critical to the success of this transformation. In addition, the good functional group compatibility, late-stage modification, and investigation of photophysical properties of 1,3-diene products illustrate the synthetic value of this strategy.

13.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP2200171, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099549

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The rapidly rising costs of targeted oral anticancer medicines (TOAMs) raise concerns over their affordability. Our goal was to examine recent trends in the uptake of TOAMs among cancer patients with Medicare Part D, the share of TOAM users who reached catastrophic coverage, and the annual spending on TOAMs in the catastrophic phase. METHODS: Using the 5% SEER-Medicare, we included patients age 65 years and older who had one primary cancer diagnosis between 2011 and 2016. We included person-years where patients were enrolled in a Part D plan for the entire year, did not receive the low-income subsidy at any time of the year, and received anticancer systemic therapies. We estimated the trends in the share of patients who used TOAMs, the percentage of TOAM users reaching catastrophic coverage, and the total and patient out-of-pocket spending on TOAMs in the catastrophic phase in a year. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2016, the uptake of TOAMs among our study population increased from 3.6% to 8.9%. The percentage of non-low-income subsidy TOAM users who reached catastrophic coverage increased from 54.6% to 60.3%. Among those who reached the catastrophic phase, mean total gross spending on TOAMs in the catastrophic phase increased from $16,074 (USD) to $64,233 (USD) and mean patient out-of-pocket spending from $596 (USD) to $2,549 (USD). The mean 30-day total spending increased from $4,011 (USD) to $8,857 (USD), and the mean 30-day out-of-pocket spending from $154 (USD) to $328 (USD). CONCLUSION: The high and growing burden from TOAMs highlighted the need for reining in drug prices and capping out-of-pocket spending.

14.
Front Oncol ; 12: 960490, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119537

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify and compare the value of functional MRI (fMRI) in predicting the early response of metastatic cervical lymph nodes (LNs) to induction chemotherapy (IC) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. Methods: This prospective study collected 94 metastatic LNs from 40 consecutive NPC patients treated with IC from January 2021 to May 2021. Conventional diffusion-weighted imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging, intravoxel incoherent motion, and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging were performed before and after IC. The parameter maps apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), mean diffusion coefficient (MD), mean kurtosis (MK), Dslow, Dfast, perfusion fraction (PF), Ktrans, Ve, and Kep) of the metastatic nodes were calculated by the Functool postprocessing software. All LNs were classified as the responding group (RG) and non-responding group (NRG) according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. The fMRI parameters were compared before and after IC and between the RG and the NRG. The significant parameters are fitted by logistic regression analysis to produce new predictive factor (PRE)-predicted probabilities. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to further identify and compare the efficacy of the parameters. Results: After IC, the mean values of ADC, MD, and Dslow significantly increased, while MK, Dfast, and Ktrans values decreased dramatically, while no significant difference was detected in Ve and Kep. Compared with NRG, PF-pre and Ktrans-pre values in the RG were higher statistically. The areas under the ROC for the pretreatment PF, Ktrans, and PRE were 0.736, 0.722, and 0.810, respectively, with the optimal cutoff value of 222 × 10-4, 934 × 10-3/min, and 0.6624, respectively. Conclusions: The pretreatment fMRI parameters PF and Ktrans showed promising potential in predicting the response of the metastatic LNs to IC in NPC patients. Clinical Trial Registration: This study was approved by the ethics board of the Chinese PLA General Hospital, and registered on 30 January 2021, in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=121198, identifier (ChiCTR2100042863).

15.
Clin Cardiol ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36124718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryoballoon ablation (CBA) is recommended for patients with symptomatic drug refractory paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF). However, substantial atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence is common during follow-up. Searching for a potential biomarker representing both myocardial injury and inflammation to identify patients at high risk of AF recurrence after CBA is very meaningful for postoperative management of AF patients. HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein released from the left atrium to predict AF recurrence in pAF patients after CBA at 1-year follow-up. METHODS: We included 72 pAF patients who underwent CBA. To determine the expression levels of HMGB1, left atrial blood samples were collected from the patients before CBA and after the procedure through the transseptal sheath. Patients were followed up for AF recurrence for 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients of the 72 experienced AF recurrence. The level of postoperative HMGB1 (HMGB1post) was higher in the AF recurrence group than in the AF non recurrence group (p = .03). However, no differences were noted in the levels of other biomarkers such as preoperative high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), postoperativehs-CRP, and preoperative HMGB1 between the two groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher level of serum HMGB1post was associated with AF recurrence (odds ratio: 5.29 [1.17-23.92], p = .04). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that HMGB1post had a moderate predictive power for AF recurrence (area under the curve: 0.68; sensitivity: 72%; and specificity: 68%). The 1-year AF-free survival was significantly lower in patients with a high HMGB1post level than in those with a low HMGB1post level (hazard ratio: 3.81 [1.49-9.75], p = .005). CONCLUSION: In pAF patients who under went CBA, the level of HMGB1 after CBA was associated with AF recurrence and demonstrated a moderate predictive power. Thus, we offer a potential biomarker to identify pAF patients at high risk of AF recurrence.

16.
Genes Genomics ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking behavior is influenced by multiple genes, including the bitter taste gene TAS2R38. It has been reported that the correlation between TAS2R38 and smoking behavior has ethnicity-based differences. However, the TAS2R38 status in Chinese smokers is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the possible relationship between genetic variations in TAS2R38 (A49P, V262A and I296V) and smoking behaviors in the Han Chinese population. METHODS: The haplotype analyses were performed and smoking behavior questionnaire was completed by 1271 individuals. Genetic association analyses for smoking behavior were analyzed using chi-square test. Further, for investigating the molecular mechanism of TAS2R38 variants effect on smoking behavior, we conducted TAS2R38-PAV and TAS2R38-AVI expression plasmids and tested the cellular calcium assay by cigarette smoke compounds stimulus in HEK293. RESULTS: Significant associations of genetic variants within TAS2R38 were identified with smoking behavior. We found a higher PAV/PAV frequency than AVI/AVI in moderate and high nicotine dependence (FTND ≥ 4; X2 = 4.611, 1 df, p = 0.032) and strong cigarette smoke flavor intensity preference (X2 = 4.5383, 1 df, p = 0.033) in participants. Furthermore, in the in vitro cellular calcium assay, total particle matter (TPM), N-formylnornicotine and cotinine, existing in cigarette smoke, activated TAS2R38-PAV but not TAS2R38-AVI-transfected cells. CONCLUSION: Our data highlights that genetic variations in TAS2R38 are related to smoking behavior, especially nicotine dependence and cigarette smoke flavor intensity preference. Our findings may encourage further consideration of the taste process to identify individuals susceptible to nicotine dependence, particularly Han Chinese smokers.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049891

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether abnormal uterine artery Doppler ultrasound during weeks 21-23 of pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study analyzed uterine artery ultrasound parameters in singleton pregnant women at 21-23 weeks of pregnancy and assessed the association between abnormal ultrasound findings and the risk of pre-eclampsia. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the relative risk between uterine artery ultrasound and pre-eclampsia. RESULTS: Compared with normal results, unilateral pulsatile index abnormality (odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.71-3.10), bilateral pulsatile index anomalies (OR 6.21, 95% CI 3.53-10.95), unilateral resistance index abnormality (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.75-3.17), bilateral resistance index anomalies (OR 2.83, 95% CI 1.27-6.32), unilateral notch (OR 3.66, 95% CI 2.03-6.62), bilateral notch (OR 5.80, 95% CI 3.30-10.20) were associated with pre-eclampsia. For every 0.1 increase in the median multiple of mean pulsatile index, the risk of pre-eclampsia increased by 13%; for every 0.1 increase in the median multiple of mean resistance index, the risk of pre-eclampsia increased by 22%. CONCLUSION: Multiples of the median for the pulsatile and resistance indices are an effective evaluation tool. Abnormal uterine artery ultrasound indices are strongly associated with the development of pre-eclampsia.

18.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(9)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113891

RESUMO

Kidney trade has been on the rise despite the domestic and international law enforcement aiming to protect the vulnerable population from potential exploitation. Regional hubs are emerging in several parts of the world including South Asia, Central America, the Middle East and East Asia. Kidney trade networks reported in these hot spots are often complex systems involving several players such as buyers, sellers and surgery countries operating across international borders so that they can bypass domestic laws in sellers and buyers' countries. The exact patterns of the country networks are, however, largely unknown due to the lack of a systematic approach to collect the data. Most of the kidney trade information is currently available in the form of case studies, court materials and news articles or reports, and no comprehensive database exists at this time. The present study thus explored online newspaper scraping to systematically collect 10 419 news articles from 24 major English newspapers in South Asia (January 2016 to May 2019) and build transnational kidney trade networks at the country level. Additionally, this study applied text mining techniques to extract words from each news article and developed machine learning algorithms to identify kidney trade and non-kidney trade news articles. Our findings suggest that online newspaper scraping coupled with the machine learning method is a promising approach to compile such data, especially in the dire shortage of empirical data.


Assuntos
Comércio , Humanos , Oriente Médio
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129656

RESUMO

Granular waste rocks filled in goaf can replace coal seams to support roofs, thus reducing the extent of overlying strata movement, and thus reducing the environment damage caused by coal mining. To better to control the compression-induced deformation (CID) of waste rocks for backfill (WRBs), a loose material, it is feasible to apply lateral cyclic loads on granular waste rocks in advance. In order to study the effect of lateral cyclic loading on granular waste rocks, by utilising pre-lateral cyclic loading and axial loading, the deformation of granular waste rocks under load was tested on a compression simulation experimental platform for solid backfill materials. Furthermore, the changes in displacement, stress and mass of granular waste rocks during lateral cyclic loading were attained. The test results showed that (1) the loading stress progressively increased with the growth of the loading displacement, in which the rising process was divided into three stages according to the rate of loading. (2) With the increase in number of loading cycles, the rate of increase of stress in stage I increased and the stress reached increasingly higher levels; at the same time, stage II was gradually shortened. Eventually, only a single stage prevailed as the stress rapidly reached its preset maximum value, and the final displacement of the samples gradually declined. (3) The axial stress-strain curves of the samples exhibited a quasi-exponential relationship. Through lateral cyclic loading, the relative density of WRBs was significantly improved, and their deformation resistance was strengthened. (4) During backfill mining, lateral cyclic loads were applied to granular waste rocks, which improved the bearing capacity thereof and reduced strata movement and surface subsidence. This is beneficial to the protection of the surface environment and surrounding buildings.

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