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1.
Biomater Sci ; 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000784

RESUMO

Correction for 'Melittin-encapsulating peptide hydrogels for enhanced delivery of impermeable anticancer peptides' by Jue-Ping Feng et al., Biomater. Sci., 2020, 8, 4559-4569, DOI: 10.1039/C9BM02080B.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2004835, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33000881

RESUMO

Elemental 2D materials with fascinating characteristics are regarded as an influential portion of the 2D family. Iodine is as a typical monoelemental molecular crystal and exhibits great prospects of applications. To realize 2D iodine, not only is it required to separate the weak interlayer van der Waals interactions, but also to reserve the weak intramolecular halogen bonds; thus, 2D iodine is still unexploited until now. Herein, atomically thin iodine nanosheets (termed "iodinene") with the thickness around 1.0 nm and lateral sizes up to hundreds of nanometers are successfully fabricated by a liquid-phase exfoliation strategy. When used for the cathode of rechargeable sodium-ion batteries, the ultrathin iodinene exhibits superb rate properties with a high specific capacity of 109.5 mA h g-1 at the high rate of 10 A g-1 owing to its unique 2D ultrathin architecture with remarkably enhanced pseudocapacitive behavior. First-principles calculations reveal that the diffusion of sodium ions in few-layered iodinene changes from the original horizontal direction in bulk to the vertical with a small energy barrier of 0.07 eV because of the size effect. The successful preparation and intensive structural investigation of iodinene paves the way for the development of novel iodine-based science and technologies.

4.
Chemistry ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006821

RESUMO

We report a series of two-coordinate Au(I) and Cu(I) complexes (3a-3b and 5a-5b) as new organometallic thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters, which were based on the carbene-metal-carbazole model with pyridine-fused-1,2,3-triazolylidene (PyTz) ligand. The PyTz features small steric hindrance and low-energy LUMO (LUMO = -1.47 eV) locating over the π* orbitals of the whole ligand, which facilitates the intermolecular charge transfer (CT) between a donor (carbazole) and an accepter (PyTz). These compounds exhibit efficient TADF with microsecond lifetimes. Temperature-dependent PL kinetics of 3a supports a rather small energy gap between S1 and T1 (ΔES1-T1 = 60 meV). Further experiments reveal that there exist dual-emission properties from a monomer-dimer equilibrium in the solution, exhibiting single-component multicolor emission from blue to orange including white-light emission.

5.
Liver Int ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025657

RESUMO

Liver plays a critical role in metabolism, nutrient storage and detoxification. Emergency signals or appropriate immune response lead to pathological inflammation and break the steady state when liver dysfunction appears, which makes body more susceptible to chronic liver infection, autoimmune diseases and tumor. Compelling proof has illustrated the nonredundant importance of C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2), one of G-protein-coupled receptors, in different diseases. Selectively expressed on the surface of cells, CCR2 is involved in various signaling pathways and regulates the migration of cells. Especially, a peculiar role of CCR2 has been identified within decades in the onset and progression of hepatic diseases, which led to particular focusing on CCR2 as a new therapeutic and diagnostic target for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we discuss the effect of CCR2 in monocytes/macrophages on liver diseases. The application and translation of the decades of discoveries into therapies promise novel approaches in the treatment of liver disease.

6.
AMB Express ; 10(1): 181, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026522

RESUMO

With PCR becoming one of the most important and widely-used diagnostic tools for infectious diseases of poultry, an urgent need has developed for an endogenous internal control (EIC) that monitors the quality and quantity of poultry DNA in test samples. In this study we developed a SYBR-qPCR to target the poultry homolog of the hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) gene as an EIC for avian species. The avian HMBS-based qPCR was very sensitive, detecting one HMBS gene copy in a 20 µL reaction, and is highly specific for avian species. It amplified DNA from 11 organs and tissues of chickens showing it can be used as an EIC on a large variety of samples. The application of the established EIC on clinically and experimentally infected samples demonstrated that false negativity and result variations could result from samples being collected using different operators, techniques, preservatives, and storage times. The high sensitivity and specificity of the avian HMBS-based qPCR, its ability to quantify DNAs extracted from a wide range of tissues and poultry species along with its usefulness in reducing false negativity in PCR results associated with inadequate sampling and storage degradation makes it an ideal EIC for poultry DNA and RNA PCR diagnostics. The study also highlights the importance of appropriate sampling and storage of samples in ensuring accuracy of molecular diagnostic testing.

7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1717, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013823

RESUMO

Vascular endothelial injury caused by post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) return is an important manifestation during refractory hemorrhagic shock. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and transcriptome analysis, this study sought to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the adverse effect of PHSML on vascular endothelium. Post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph was collected from male rats after they underwent hemorrhagic shock and following resuscitation, while normal mesenteric lymph (NML) was harvested from sham rats. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with the culture medium containing either 10% phosphate buffered saline (Control), NML, or PHSML for 3 h, and then were harvested for RNA sequencing. In comparison with NML treated cells, 37 genes were differentially expressed in PHSML-treated HUVECs, including 32 upregulated genes and five downregulated genes. These differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in inflammatory pathways, including signaling pathways for activation of the NOD-like receptors, NF-κB, and TNF. Furthermore, we found that C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) was increased significantly after PHSML treatment, and Bindarit, a CCL2 production inhibitor, attenuated the damage of HUVECs induced by PHSML. The results provide molecular evidence on vascular endothelium damage caused by PHSML. C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 might represent a new target for reducing vascular injury after severe hemorrhagic shock.

8.
Angiogenesis ; 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011960

RESUMO

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. Increasing reports demonstrated that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been crucially involved in the development of CVDs. Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a novel cluster of small non-coding RNAs with strong uracil bias at the 5' end and 2'-O-methylation at the 3' end that are mainly present in the mammalian reproductive system and stem cells and serve as potential modulators of developmental and pathophysiological processes. Recently, piRNAs have been reported to be widely expressed in human tissues and can potentially regulate various diseases. Specifically, concomitant with the development of next-generation sequencing techniques, piRNAs have been found to be differentially expressed in CVDs, indicating their potential involvement in the occurrence and progression of heart diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways involved with piRNA function have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we present the current understanding of the piRNAs from the perspectives of biogenesis, characteristics, biological function, and regulatory mechanisms, and highlight their potential roles and underlying mechanisms in CVDs, which will provide new insights into the potential applications of piRNAs in the clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic strategies for heart diseases.

9.
Small ; : e2003096, 2020 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015944

RESUMO

Configuring metal single-atom catalysts (SACs) with high electrocatalytic activity and stability is one efficient strategy in achieving the cost-competitive catalyst for fuel cells' applications. Herein, the atomic layer deposition (ALD) strategy for synthesis of Pt SACs on the metal-organic framework (MOF)-derived N-doped carbon (NC) is proposed. Through adjusting the ALD exposure time of the Pt precursor, the size-controlled Pt catalysts, from Pt single atoms to subclusters and nanoparticles, are prepared on MOF-NC support. X-ray absorption fine structure spectra determine the increased electron vacancy in Pt SACs and indicate the Pt-N coordination in the as-prepared Pt SACs. Benefiting from the low-coordination environment and anchoring interaction between Pt atoms and nitrogen-doping sites from MOF-NC support, the Pt SACs deliver an enhanced activity and stability with 6.5 times higher mass activity than that of Pt nanoparticle catalysts in boosting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Density functional theory calculations indicate that Pt single atoms prefer to be anchored by the pyridinic N-doped carbon sites. Importantly, it is revealed that the electronic structure of Pt SAs can be adjusted by adsorption of hydroxyl and oxygen, which greatly lowers free energy change for the rate-determining step and enhances the activity of Pt SACs toward the ORR.

10.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047885

RESUMO

Exosomes have recently emerged as a pivotal mediator of many physiological and pathological processes. However, the role of exosomes in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of exosomes in PVR. Transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFß-2) was used to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, as an in vitro model of PVR. Exosomes from normal and EMTed RPE cells were extracted and identified. We incubated extracted exosomes with recipient RPE cells, and co-cultured EMTed RPE cells and recipient RPE cells in the presence of the exosome inhibitor GW4869. Both experiments suggested that there are further EMT-promoting effects of exosomes from EMTed RPE cells. MicroRNA sequencing was also performed to identify the miRNA profiles in exosomes from both groups. We identified 34 differentially expressed exosomal miRNAs (P <. 05). Importantly, miR-543 was found in exosomes from EMTed RPE cells, and miR-543-enriched exosomes significantly induced the EMT of recipient RPE cells. Our study demonstrates that exosomal miRNA is differentially expressed in RPE cells during EMT and that these exosomal miRNAs may play pivotal roles in EMT induction. Our results highlight the importance of exosomes as cellular communicators within the microenvironment of PVR.

11.
J Am Coll Nutr ; : 1-8, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As effective medication to treat COVID-19 is currently unavailable, preventive remedies may be particularly important. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) level and COVID-19 infection, its severity, and its clinical case characteristics. METHODS: This case-control study compared serum 25(OH)D levels and rates of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) between 80 healthy controls and 62 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and admitted to Guangxi People's Hospital, China, 2/16/2020-3/16/2020. Cases were categorized into asymptomatic, mild/moderate, and severe/critical disease. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the associations between 25(OH)D level, or VDD, and case status/severity of COVID-19 while controlling for demographics and comorbidities. A threshold level of vitamin D for conveying COVID-19 risk was estimated. RESULTS: Severe/critical COVID-19 cases were significantly older and had higher percentages of comorbidity (renal failure) compared to mild cases. The serum 25(OH)D concentration in COVID-19 patient was much lower than that in healthy control. And 25(OH)D level was the lowest in severe/critical cases, compared with mild cases. In further, significantly higher rates of VDD were found in COVID-19 cases (41.9%) compared to healthy controls (11.1%). And VDD was the greatest in severe/critical cases (80%), compared with mild cases (36%). These statistically significant associations remained even after controlling for demographics and comorbidities. A potential threshold of 25(OH)D (41.19 nmol/L) to protect against COVID-19 was identified. CONCLUSION: Elderly and people with comorbidities were susceptible to severe COVID-19 infection. VDD was a risk factor for COVID-19, especially for severe/critical cases. While further confirmation is needed, vitamin D supplementation may have prevention or treatment potential for COVID-19 disease.

12.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037400

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been redetected after discharge in some coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The reason for the recurrent positivity of the test and the potential public health concern due to this occurrence are still unknown. Here, we analyzed the viral data and clinical manifestations of 289 domestic Chinese COVID-19 patients and found that 21 individuals (7.3%) were readmitted for hospitalization after detection of SARS-CoV-2 after discharge. First, we experimentally confirmed that the virus was involved in the initial infection and was not a secondary infection. In positive retests, the virus was usually found in anal samples (15 of 21, 71.4%). Through analysis of the intracellular viral subgenomic messenger RNA (sgmRNA), we verified that positive retest patients had active viral replication in their gastrointestinal tracts (3 of 16 patients, 18.7%) but not in their respiratory tracts. Then, we found that viral persistence was not associated with high viral titers, delayed viral clearance, old age, or more severe clinical symptoms during the first hospitalization. In contrast, viral rebound was associated with significantly lower levels of and slower generation of viral receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific IgA and IgG antibodies. Our study demonstrated that the positive retest patients failed to create a robust protective humoral immune response, which might result in SARS-CoV-2 persistence in the gastrointestinal tract and possibly in active viral shedding. Further exploration of the mechanism underlying the rebound in SARS-CoV-2 in this population will be crucial for preventing virus spread and developing effective vaccines.

13.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068490

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of season, age, gonad and accessory sex glands on semen characteristics of jackass and to construct multivariate regression models to predict semen quality. In autumn, spring and summer, semen characteristics of 30 sexually mature donkeys (1014 ejaculations) were analyzed to investigate the effect of seasons on semen quality, and gonad and accessory sex gland parameters of 12 jackasses were measured immediately after ejaculation by ultrasonography to investigate the effect of seasons on reproductive organ size. Semen (598 ejaculates), gonad and accessory sex gland parameters of 40 jackasses aged between 3-7 years old were analyzed in autumn to investigate the effects of age and reproductive organ size on semen quality and to construct multivariate models. To verify the accuracy of the models, semen (476 ejaculates), gonad and accessory sex gland parameters of 20 jackasses were measured from March to June. Results revealed that semen, gonad and accessory sex gland parameters were not affected by season and age. Progressive motility (PM) was positively correlated with long axis of the spermatic cord (LASC) and negatively correlated with percentages of sperm abnormality (PSA). Total sperm count (TSC) was positively correlated with testis circumferences (TC) and cross-sectional area of cauda epididymis (CSACE). TC, CSACE, LASC and PSA were included into multivariate models to predict PM, TSC and functional sperm count (FSC) in 20 jackasses (PM = 72.332 + 0.428 LASC - 0.441 PSA; TSC = -169.929 + 8.728 TC + 0.253 CSACE; FSC = -206.645 + 8.788 TC + 0.258 CSACE). The predicted and observed values corresponded well. In conclusion, the tested models can be used for predicting semen quality of donkey.

14.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; : 115286, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068621

RESUMO

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is deemed to a severe surgical complication without effective treatment. Previous work has confirmed the important modulatory role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in cognitive function. This study was proposed to explore whether H2S relieves POCD and the possible mechanisms. We demonstrated that NaHS (a donor of H2S) reversed the inhibited endogenous H2S generation in the hippocampus of postoperative rats. NaHS attenuated the cognitive impairment of postoperative rats in the Y-maze, Novel object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. NaHS enhanced the expressions of synaptic plasticity-related proteins, synapsin-1 and PSD-95, increased the synaptic density, and decreased the destruction of synaptic structures in the hippocampus of postoperative rats. Moreover, NaHS promoted Warburg effect in the hippocampus of postoperative rats, as reflected by increases in the expressions of hexokinase 2, pyruvate kinase M2, lactate dehydrogenase A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, an enhancement in the content of lactate, and a reduction in the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase. The inhibitor of Warburg effect, 2-Deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG), not only reversed NaHS-enhanced Warburg effect in the hippocampus of postoperative rats, but also significantly abolished NaHS-exerted protective effect on cognitive function. Furthermore, 2-DG reversed NaHS-exerted enhancement in the expressions of synapsin-1 and PSD-95, increase in the synaptic density, and decrease in the destruction of synaptic structures in the hippocampus of postoperative rats. Collectively, these results indicate that H2S alleviates POCD through enhancing hippocampal Warburg effect, which subsequently improves synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

15.
J Pharm Sci ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058891

RESUMO

This workshop report summarizes the proceedings of Day 2 of a three-day workshop on "Current State and Future Expectations of Translational Modeling Strategies toSupportDrug Product Development, Manufacturing Changes and Controls". From a drug product quality perspective, physiologically based biopharmaceutics models (PBBM) are a tool to link variations in the drug product quality attributes to in vivo outcomes enabling the establishment of clinically relevant drug product specifications (CRDPS). Day 2 of the workshop focused on best practices in developing, verifying and validating PBBM. This manuscript gives an overview of podium presentations and summarizes breakout (BO) session discussions related to (1) challenges and opportunities for using PBBM to assess the clinical impact of formulation and manufacturing changes on the in vivo performance of a drug product, (2) best practices to account for parameter uncertainty and variability during model development, (3) best practices in the development, verification and validation of PBBM and (4) opportunities and knowledge gaps related to leveraging PBBMs for virtual bioequivalence simulations.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059922

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a chronic vascular inflammatory disease that initially starts from an arterial intima lesion and endothelial barrier dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of TM4SF19, a recently identified member of the transmembrane 4L six superfamily, in vascular endothelial cell adherens junctions. We found TM4SF19 expression was significantly increased in atherosclerotic plaques and sera of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) compared with healthy people by immunohistochemistry and ELISA. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). TM4SF19 and VE-cadherin expression as well as cell adherens junctions were assessed. Additionally, LPS could upregulate TM4SF19 expression and downregulate VE-cadherin expression in HUVECs in a concentration dependent manner. Overexpression of TM4SF19 substantially aggravated LPS-induced reduction of VE-cadherin expression and attenuation of vascular endothelial cell adherens junctions. However, both the decreased VE-cadherin expression and weakened cell adherens junctions induced by LPS could be dramatically reversed when the expression of TM4SF19 was depressed. This study is the first to reveal the effect of TM4SF19 on endothelial cell adherens junctions. Meanwhile, our results also provide novel therapeutic strategies for atherosclerotic diseases.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033930

RESUMO

High-yielding and sustainable production of rice in salt-affected mudflat is restricted by high soil salinity. Although sewage sludge can be used for mudflat amendment especially soil salt reduction, the possibility of potential heavy metal contamination in sludge-amended mudflat especially under paddy cultivation remains unclear, which hinders the further utilization of sewage sludge. In this study, a field experiment was conducted in a newly reclaimed mudflat to assess the sustained effects of one-time sludge input with different addition rates (0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 t ha-1) on soil salinity, rice yield, and potential metal contamination under paddy cultivation. The results indicated that sewage sludge addition (SSA) significantly decreased soil salinity and increased soil fertility. The increasing SSA rates and amending years led to the gradual increase of rice yield in salt-affected mudflat. The maximum increases in rice yield were 125.1%, 124.7%, and 127.9% in 2016, 2017, and 2018, and the average annual increase in rice yield in sludge-treated mudflat was 1.7%. Sludge addition increased metals accumulation in mudflat soil and metals uptake by rice tissues except Cr, Cu, and Pb in rice grain. The maximum increments in metal concentrations in soil and rice plant all occurred at 180 t ha-1 sludge addition rate. However, the metal concentrations in rice grain were below the safety limits even in the treatment with the highest sludge addition rate. Metal concentrations in sludge-treated soil and rice plant showed downward trend during the 3-year trial, and the decreases in total amount of soil metals were mainly concentrated in the first amending year, accounting for more than 50%. In summary, one-time sludge input achieved sustained mudflat amendment and efficient rice production. In addition, controlling the total amount of sludge input realized safe utilization of sewage sludge in salt-affected mudflat under paddy cultivation.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 125(13): 135501, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034495

RESUMO

As opposed to the common monotonic relaxation process of glasses, the Kovacs memory effect describes an isothermal annealing experiment, in which the enthalpy and volume of a preannealed glass first increases before finally decreasing toward equilibrium. This interesting behavior has been observed for many materials and is generally explained in terms of heterogeneous dynamics. In this Letter, the memory effect in a model Au-based metallic glass is studied using a high-precision high-rate calorimeter. The activation entropy (S^{*}) during isothermal annealing is determined according to the absolute reaction rate theory. We observe that the memory effect appears only when the second-annealing process has a large S^{*}. These results indicate that a large value of S^{*} is a key requirement for observation of the memory effect and this may provide a useful perspective for understanding the memory effect in both thermal and athermal systems.

20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1525, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was intended to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 clusters and the severity distribution of clinical symptoms of involved cases in Sichuan Province, so as to provide information support for the development and adjustment of strategies for the prevention and control of local clusters. METHODS: The epidemiological characteristics of 67 local clusters of COVID-19 cases in Sichuan Province reported as of March 17, 2020 were described and analyzed. Information about all COVID-19 clusters and involved cases was acquired from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and analyzed with the epidemiological investigation results taken into account. RESULTS: The clusters were temporally and regionally concentrated. Clusters caused by imported cases from other provinces accounted for 73.13%; familial clusters accounted for 68.66%; the average attack rate was 8.54%, and the average secondary attack rate was 6.11%; the median incubation period was 8.5 d; a total of 28 cases met the criteria for incubation period determination, and in the 28 cases, the incubation period was > 14 d in 21.43% (6/28). a total of 226 confirmed cases were reported in the 67 clusters. Ten cases were exposed before the confirmed cases they contacted with developed clinical symptoms, and the possibility of exposure to other infection sources was ruled out; two clusters were caused by asymptomatic carriers; confirmed cases mainly presented with fever, respiratory and systemic symptoms; a gradual decline in the severity of clinical symptoms was noted with the increase of the case generation. CONCLUSIONS: Population movement and gathering restrictions and strict close contact management measures will significantly contribute to the identification and control of cases. Transmission during the incubation period and asymptomatic infections have been noted. Studies on the pathogenicity and transmissibility in these populations and on COVID-19 antibody levels and protective effects in healthy people and cases are required.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
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