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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 558: 47-54, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580954

RESUMO

The unique antibacterial characteristics of Ag nanomaterials offer a wide potential range of applications, but achieving rapid and durable antibacterial efficacy is challenging. This is because the speed and durability of the antibacterial function make conflicting demands on the structural design: the former requires the direct exposure of Ag to the surrounding environment, whereas the durability requires Ag to be protected from the environment. To overcome this incompatibility, we synthesize sandwich-structured polydopamine shells decorated both internally and externally with Ag nanoparticles, which exhibit prompt and lasting bioactivity in applications. These shells are biocompatible and can be used in vivo to counter bacterial infection caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus superbugs and to inhibit biofilm formation. This work represents a new paradigm for the design of composite materials with enhanced antibacterial properties.

2.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 20(4): 2416-2422, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492256

RESUMO

In this paper, loofah sponge-based activated carbon (LAC) is prepared via loofah sponge as precursors and KOH as activator. N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the surface morphology and the structure of loofah sponge-based activated carbon. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge cycle and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were utilized to test electrochemical properties of loofah spongebased activated carbon. The results showed that loofah sponge-based activated carbon (LAC-700) prepared at 700 °C has the highest specific surface area (936 m²·g-1). The material delivers specific capacitance of 152.89 F·g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A·g-1, and specific capacitance of 116.69 F·g-1 at the current density of 5 A·g-1 in 30 wt% KOH aqueous electrolyte.

3.
J Neurosci Res ; 98(1): 168-178, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157469

RESUMO

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the deadliest stroke subtype and neuroinflammation is a critical component of the pathogenesis following ICH. Annexin A1-FPR2 signaling has been shown to play a protective role in animal stroke models. This study aimed to assess whether Annexin A1 attenuated neuroinflammation and brain edema after ICH and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Male CD-1 mice were subjected to collagenase-induced ICH. Annexin A1 was administered at 0.5 hr after ICH. Brain water content measurement, short-term and long-term neurobehavioral tests, Western blot and immnunofluorescence were performed. Results showed that Annexin A1 effectively attenuated brain edema, improved short-term neurological function and ameliorated microglia activation after ICH. Annexin A1 also improved memory function at 28 days after ICH. However, these beneficial effects were abolished with the administration of FPR2 antagonist Boc-2. Furthermore, AnxA1/FPR2 signaling may confer protective effects via inhibiting p38-associated inflammatory cascade. Our study demonstrated that Annexin A1/FPR2/p38 signaling pathway played an important role in attenuating neuroinflammation after ICH and that Annexin A1 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for ICH patients.

4.
J Pain ; 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683022

RESUMO

Many studies have demonstrated a link between experiences of physical pain and those of social rejection, both of which can trigger cognitive processes involved in detecting, orienting toward, or reacting to potentially threatening events. This study tested the hypothesis that healthy individuals who are more sensitive to physical pain are also more sensitive to social rejection. We recruited participants with high or low pain-sensitivity (HPS and LPS), as assessed by scores on a pain-sensitivity questionnaire and confirmed by experimental pain-sensitivity assessment. A modified social-judgment task was adopted in which participants first provided expectations about being liked/disliked by "peers", and then received "peer" feedback indicating acceptance or rejection. While both groups rated rejection as more unpleasant than acceptance, this difference was greater in the HPS group. EEG results showed that only participants in the HPS group exhibited greater early delta/theta (δ/θ) oscillations in response to rejection than to acceptance, regardless of whether the feedback was expected or unexpected. However, both groups consistently exhibited greater late δ/θ oscillations in response to rejection when the feedback was unexpected. These results suggest that participants in the HPS group were more sensitive to social cues signaling acceptance or rejection at early stages of information processing. Furthermore, neither early nor late δ/θ oscillations following non-social feedback (correct or incorrect time-estimation) differed between groups. Altogether, these results supported the idea of shared sensitivity in detecting potentially physical and social threats in the environment. Perspectives: This study showed the greater emotional reactions and early-latency δ/θ-oscillations in response to social rejection among healthy individuals with high pain sensitivity. It supports the idea of shared sensitivity to physical pain and social evaluation, which could be governed by a common system for detecting and monitoring potentially environmental threats.

5.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684155

RESUMO

The bending properties of three-dimensional (3Dim) and five-directional (5Dir) braided/epoxy resin composites at room temperature, 90 °C, 110 °C, and 150 °C and heating for 0.25 h, 10 h, and 30 h, respectively, were studied. The effect of different temperatures and heating times on the bending property of these composites was discussed. The results showed that the bending strength of these composites at 90 °C, 110 °C, and 150 °C and heating time of 0.25 h is 33.86%, 46.27%, and 83.94% lower, respectively, than that at room temperature. In addition, 3Dim-5Dir braided composites exhibit different damage modes at different temperatures, revealing different failure mechanisms. Heating temperature has greater influence on the bending properties of these composites than heating time. The results provided a basis for the application of resin-based 3Dim-5Dir braided/epoxy resin composites at different temperatures.

6.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 29501-29509, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684210

RESUMO

In this paper, a gas refractometer based on microfiber Sagnac interferometer is demonstrated, which can achieve an ultrahigh sensitivity when operating at the group birefringence turning point. We undertake a theoretical analysis and a simulated calculation to study the device characteristics and obtain the specific parameters of ellipticity and long axis of the elliptic microfiber for the group birefringence turning point. In the experiment, we obtain a positive sensitivity of 0.295 nm/KPa and a negative sensitivity of -0.219 nm/KPa during gas pressure and refractive index (RI) sensing, the obtained highest RI sensitivity can reach 160,938.9 nm/RIU. To further reveal its practical potential in gas detection, we conduct CO2 gas concentration detection and the device also demonstrates ultrahigh sensitivity and good repeatability. Besides, temperature sensing is performed to explore its temperature response wherein it shows a sensitivity of 486.7 pm/ °C. These results show its potential for use in gas- and acoustic-sensing applications.

7.
Opt Express ; 27(21): 30009-30019, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684255

RESUMO

Simultaneously controlling the spatial distribution of multiple parameters of a light field in a three-dimensional (3D) space is highly desirable because of its prominent applications in the areas of optical imaging, microscopy, and manipulation. Phase-only encoding techniques that use a phase-only computer-generated hologram (CGH) to reshape and efficiently reconstruct target fields have fostered substantial interests. In this paper, we propose a convenient encoding method to construct vector fields with spatially structured multiple parameters in a 3D space by integrating the Fourier phase-only encoding technique into a modified Sagnac polarization conversion system. Without spatial filtering, various vector fields are constructed instantly at the image plane. Furthermore, utilizing a macro-pixel encoding approach, we demonstrate the possibility of a simultaneous and an independent construction of multiple vector fields in a 3D space. This method can also benefit the design of a metasurface to implement a polarization hologram.

8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 110932, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682935

RESUMO

Immunomodulatory peptides with the sequences TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ from selenium (Se)-enriched rice protein hydrolysates (SPHs) were identified in our previous study. We synthesized these two peptides to study whether they have neuroprotective effects on Pb2+-induced oxidative stress in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells, SPHs and a purified SPH fraction (SPHs-2) were used to compare the effects. Peptides pretreatments significantly suppressed Pb2+-induced cytotoxicity by increasing cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis. TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ reduced nitric oxide (NO) levels by 37.47% and 14.72% of Pb2+ group, as well as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release by 12.98% and 6.32% of Pb2+ group. TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ could increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes; for example, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased by 47.79% and 13.93%, respectively, and that of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) increased by 94.7% and 78.73% of Pb2+ group. Additionally, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression were triggered. These results suggest that TSeMMM and SeMDPGQQ can suppress oxidative damage caused by Pb2+; moreover, TSeMMM showed better neuroprotective potential than SeMDPGQQ.

9.
Immunotherapy ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713453

RESUMO

Aim: We performed a meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of immunotherapy for patients with squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials & methods: Randomized clinical trials comparing immunotherapy with chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC patients were included. Results: A total of 11 trials (3112 patients) were included. PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors demonstrated significant superiority to chemotherapy in overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.74; p < 0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (HR: 0.66; p < 0.001) for squamous NSCLC. The OS and PFS benefits of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for squamous NSCLC were similar in subgroup analyses of line settings, PD-L1 expression and different study methodologies. No advantage in OS was found in advanced squamous NSCLC patients treated with atezolizumab (HR: 0.87; p = 0.087). Conclusion: PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors significantly improved OS and PFS in advanced squamous NSCLC patients when compared with chemotherapy.

10.
Nanoscale ; 11(44): 21493-21501, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686063

RESUMO

Pressure-induced surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (PI-SERS) represents a new frontier in the research field of SERS. However, relatively few studies have focused on PI-SERS due to many difficulties, such as easy aggregation of nanoparticles, and difficulty in understanding the interaction mechanisms between probe molecules and the SERS substrate at high pressure. Here we developed an efficient semiconductor-metal SERS substrate (MoS2/Au) to study PI-SERS. Different from the previously reported monotonous decrease in Raman intensities upon compression, an anomalous Raman enhancement of R6G molecules adsorbed on the MoS2/Au substrate was observed up to 2.39 GPa, at which the degree of charge transfer (ρCT) between the R6G molecules and the MoS2/Au substrate reaches a maximum. By comparison, it is proposed that the decoration of Au on the SERS system could bring about a two-step charge transfer (CT) process, introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), and thus favor the PI-SERS enhancement. Moreover, this charge transfer also causes obvious changes in the optical behaviors of R6G molecules upon compression. This brings new insights into the SERS study and also offers new ideas for the development of SERS application in high pressure studies.

11.
IEEE Trans Cybern ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689230

RESUMO

This article investigates the global exponential stabilization (GES) of inertial memristive neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays (DIMNNs). By introducing the inertial term into memristive neural networks (MNNs), DIMNNs are formulated as the second-order differential equations with discontinuous right-hand sides. Via a variable transformation, the initial DIMNNs are rewritten as the first-order differential equations. By exploiting the theories of differential inclusion, inequality techniques, and the comparison strategy, the pth moment GES (p≥ 1) of the addressed DIMNNs is presented in terms of algebraic inequalities within the sense of Filippov, which enriches and extends some published results. In addition, the global exponential stability of MNNs is also performed in the form of an M-matrix, which contains some existing ones as special cases. Finally, two simulations are carried out to validate the correctness of the theories, and an application is developed in pseudorandom number generation.

12.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 15(12): 2376-2392, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748018

RESUMO

Busulfan and other chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of cancer may result in temporary or even permanent damage to spermatogenesis. During spermatogenesis, the rapidly dividing spermatogonia are highly susceptible to chemotherapy. Consequently, there is significant interest in developing an approach that could provide stimulation and regenerate spermatogenesis after chemotherapy. In a previous study, we suggested the potential application for vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) because of its key role in stimulating the proliferation of spermatogonia. However, methods to facilitate the recovery of spermatogenesis in such patients using VEGFC, or other regulatory factors, are sorely lacking because of the rapid degradation of these proteins and restrictions created by the blood-testis-barrier. To this end, we loaded VEGFC into polyanion dextran sulfate incorporated in a polycation chitosan shell to produce VEGFC sustained-release ultrafine particles (UFPs, CS-DS-VEGFC). We tested such particles in an azoospermic mouse model, created using busulfan. For each mouse, CS-DS-VEGFC was injected into the seminiferous tubules of one testis, while unloaded UFPs (CS-DS), or the VEGFC protein alone, was injected into the opposite testis as a control. All mice were sacrificed and evaluated 5 weeks later. Spermatogenesis in the tubules that were injected with CS-DS-VEGFC was clearly better than those injected with controls, and contained more spermatogonia and spermatocytes, along with Ki67 and PCNA positive-cells per tubule. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of AKT and MAPK in these tubules were also higher than in controls, indicating that CS-DS-VEGFC could induce the sustained activation of these pathways. In conclusion, CS-DS-VEGFC, combined with the efferent tubule injection technique, is a feasible approach with which to improve the regeneration of spermatogenesis in busulfan-induced azoospermic mice.


Assuntos
Espermatogênese , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Regeneração , Espermatogônias , Fator C de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
13.
EBioMedicine ; 49: 157-171, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver is one of the most preferred destinations of distant metastasis in gastric cancer (GC). As effective treatment is still limited, the prognosis of GC patients bearing liver metastasis is poor. We filter out lysyl oxidase (LOX) to study its function in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and seek for potential therapeutic targets. METHODS: Transcription analysis on 6 cases of liver metastasis of GC patients with respective paired primary tumors and adjacent normal livers was performed. The filtration out of LOX was done using 5 datasets. 69 GC liver metastasis tissues were utilized to perform immunohistochemistry (IHC) and analyze prognosis. Computed Tomography (CT) combined 3D organ reconstruction bioluminescence imaging was performed to precisely evaluate the metastatic tumor burden on liver of intrasplenic injection mouse model. Human and mouse cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in liver metastasis were separated to culture to study the interaction of LOX and TGF-ß1. Patients-derived xenograft (PDX) model was established using liver metastasis of patients to evaluate the therapeutic value of LOX inhibitor ß-aminopropionitrile (BAPN). RESULTS: CAFs-derived LOX at liver metastatic niche of GC promotes niche formation and outgrowth thus predicts poor prognosis. Meanwhile tumor cells in niche secrete TGF-ß1 to nourish CAFs and stimulate them to produce more LOX in turn. The mechanism involved in LOX-mediated proliferation facilitation is enhancement of Warburg effect. The inhibitor of LOX, BPAN could hamper the effect brought by LOX in vivo and in vitro. INTERPRETATION: Our study has unveiled a positive feedback loop between CAFs and tumor cells in liver metastasis niche of GC. The core molecule is LOX which facilitates Warburg effect. Targeting LOX with its inhibitor BAPN might serve as a potential therapeutic strategy. FUND: This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872740), the 100-member plan of the Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning (2017BR043), Shanghai Science and Technology Commission Project(17ZR1416800), Renji Hospital Training Fund (PYMDT-003, PYIII-17-015), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81672358), the Shanghai Municipal Education Commission-Gao feng Clinical MedicineGrant Support (20181708), Program of Shanghai Academic/Technology Research Leader(19XD1403400), Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality (18410721000), Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau (2018BR32), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2018M640403), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81701945) and Youth project of Shanghai Municipal Health Commission(20164Y0045).

14.
J Oleo Sci ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735749

RESUMO

In this study, we first isolate phospholipid (PL) from Golden pompano head (GPH), and elucidate its structure. Gas chromatography (GC) was used to assess the GPH-PL fatty acid composition, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UV) were used for the qualitative analysis of GPH-PL, and LC-MS analysis was used to determine the major PL species. The results show that the contents of the various molecular species of GPH-PL were generally in the order phosphatidylcholine (PC) > sphingomyelin (SM) > lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) > phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The main molecular PC species are 16:0/18:2, 13:0/23:2, 27:2/9:0, 16:0/18:1, 12:0/22:2, 18:0/18:1, 18:0/24:1, and 18:1/24:0. The major SM species are 16:1/16:0, 16:0/18:1, 16:0/18:2, 16:0/26:2, and 18:1/24:1. The major LPC species are 18:1 and 16:0. The major PE species are 18:0/18:1 and 16:0/22:6. The total eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) contents in the GPH-PLs were 18.39%, and the content of DHA in the PL fraction was 16.47%. These results suggest that PLs from GPH is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), which have good activity in anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, antiosteoporosis and other aspects, and have important development prospects in the future.

15.
J Dig Dis ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756284

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of transparent cap-assisted endoscopy in esophageal foreign body removal. METHODS: Patients with esophageal foreign body ingestion had cap-assisted or conventional endoscopy between October 2004 and July 2018. Propensity score matching was performed. The success rate of the procedure, procedure time, clearness of the endoscopic view and adverse event rates were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: Of the 838 patients with confirmed foreign body ingestion, 728 (86.9%) underwent endoscopic intervention. After matching, there were 224 pairs of patients. There was no difference between transparent cap-assisted endoscopy and conventional endoscopy regarding the success rate of the procedure (100% vs 99.1%, respectively). Transparent cap-assisted endoscopy was associated with shorter procedure times for removing jujube pits, fish bones and other sharp objects (4.24 ± 2.81 minutes vs 7.62 ± 8.15 minutes, P = 0.001; 2.99 ± 2.15 minutes vs 6.49 ± 6.54 minutes, P < 0.001; 4.29 ± 3.36 minutes vs 10.60 ± 19.79 minutes, P = 0.027, respectively) and higher ratios for clear endoscopic view in the extraction of jujube pits, fish bones, poultry bones and other sharp objects (98% vs 43.4%, 97.5% vs 74.1%, 100% vs 81.3%, and 100% vs 82.7%; P < 0.001, P = 0.014, P = 0.049, and P = 0.026, respectively). No significant differences in the adverse event rates were observed between the two groups (P = 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: The transparent cap-assisted technique is considered an effective and safe method to remove sharp esophageal foreign bodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol ; 240: 110370, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669373

RESUMO

Geckos possess strong adhesion ability, even can climb on smooth surface. Previous studies have shown that the setae of geckos play a crucial role in their ability to climb on vertical walls. But the biological molecular mechanism of their adhesion ability remains unclear. In the present study, the expression patterns of corneous beta proteins (CBPs) genes related to claws, scales, and feathers development (named as ge-gprp-9, ge-gprp-10, ge-gprp-11, ge-gprp-12, ge-gprp-13, ge-gprp-14, ge-gprp-15, and ge-gprp-16 respectively) in the developing pad lamellae of different embryonic stages (stage 34, stage 36, stage 39, and stage 42) of the Japanese gecko Gekko japonicus were detected using fluorescence quantitative PCR approach. The results showed that there were significant up-regulated expression of CBPs mRNA at embryonic stage 39 with the embryonic continuous maturation and the highest expression level was detected at embryonic stage 39 or stage 42. Moreover, the expression levels of four CBPs genes ge-gprp-9, ge-gprp-10, ge-gprp-11, and ge-gprp-12 in the embryonic and adult development of gecko were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. The results from in situ hybridization detection revealed that the positive signals of these CBPs genes expression were the same in the developing pad lamellae of G. japonicus. The positive signals of eight CBPs genes were mainly found in the setae tissue, oberhautchen, and ß layer, which suggests these CBPs genes are involved in the growth of setae.

17.
Biosci Rep ; 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710086

RESUMO

We appreciate to receive commentary from Dr Guangtong Deng and Dr Liang Xiao to our article "Nomograms based on inflammatory biomarkers for predicting tumor grade and micro-vascular invasion in stage I/II hepatocellular carcinoma". First, NLR and dNLR are two different parameters. Some studies show that NLR is inconsistent with dNRL in prognostic value through multivariate Cox regression, therefore, it is reasonable that both of NLR and dNLR were entered into multivariate analysis simultaneously. Second, it is common that articles of predictive nomograms turned continuous variables into categorical variables. The reason is that the categorisation of patient clinical variables is beneficial to doctors make decisions based on the risk level of individual patients in clinical. Last, Multicenter validation is quite difficult and we have listed the shortcomings in the limitations of our article. Further validation will need the joint efforts by other institutions.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751522

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) analysis to assess the long-term radiographic outcomes of early secondary alveolar bone grafting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The most recent postoperative CBCT scans of 79 alveolar cleft patients who underwent anterior iliac crest bone grafting by a single surgeon over a 6-year period and met all inclusion criteria were analyzed using a modified assessment tool. Clefts were measured vertically, horizontally, and superiorly in terms of nasal support and then assigned corresponding scores of 0 to 4 to help determine radiographic success. The sites were deemed poor (score of 0 or 1), acceptable (score ≥ 2), or favorable (score ≥ 3). Similarly, overall clefts (vertical plus horizontal scores) were classified as poor (score of 0 to 3), acceptable (score ≥ 4), or favorable (score ≥ 5). Statistical analysis was used to characterize patient demographic characteristics, to perform subgroup comparisons, and to identify factors specifically predictive of favorable outcomes. RESULTS: The study included 79 patients with a total of 105 clefts. Male patients comprised 60.8% of patients, and 32.9% of patients had a bilateral cleft. The average age at the time of surgery was 8 years 0 months, and the average time until the most recent postoperative CBCT scan was 2 years 8 months. The average scores were as follows: vertical, 2.9 (maximum score possible, 4); horizontal, 3.1 (maximum score possible, 4); nasal support, 2.7 (maximum score possible, 4); and overall cleft, 6.0 (maximum score possible, 8). All 79 patients were discharged on postoperative day 1, and the regraft rate was 0%. Multivariate analysis showed that younger patients had a significantly higher chance of achieving favorable results in terms of vertical scores (P = .0081) and overall cleft scores (P = .0204). The association between younger age and horizontal scores was marginally significant (P = .0667), but no significant association was found between age and nasal support. CONCLUSIONS: Younger patients have improved long-term radiographic success with grafted alveolar clefts. This finding supports performing anterior iliac crest bone grafting at a younger age in cleft lip patients.

19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752180

RESUMO

Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) selectively catalyze carotenoids, forming smaller apocarotenoids that are essential for the synthesis of apocarotenoid flavor, aroma volatiles, and phytohormone ABA/SLs, as well as responses to abiotic stresses. Here, 19, 11, and 10 CCD genes were identified in Nicotiana tabacum, Nicotiana tomentosiformis, and Nicotiana sylvestris, respectively. For this family, we systematically analyzed phylogeny, gene structure, conserved motifs, gene duplications, cis-elements, subcellular and chromosomal localization, miRNA-target sites, expression patterns with different treatments, and molecular evolution. CCD genes were classified into two subfamilies and nine groups. Gene structures, motifs, and tertiary structures showed similarities within the same groups. Subcellular localization analysis predicted that CCD family genes are cytoplasmic and plastid-localized, which was confirmed experimentally. Evolutionary analysis showed that purifying selection dominated the evolution of these genes. Meanwhile, seven positive sites were identified on the ancestor branch of the tobacco CCD subfamily. Cis-regulatory elements of the CCD promoters were mainly involved in light-responsiveness, hormone treatment, and physiological stress. Different CCD family genes were predominantly expressed separately in roots, flowers, seeds, and leaves and exhibited divergent expression patterns with different hormones (ABA, MeJA, IAA, SA) and abiotic (drought, cold, heat) stresses. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the NtCCD gene family and a foundation for future functional characterization of individual genes.

20.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0219642, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the changes of morphology and internal airflow in upper airways (UA) after the use of oral appliances (OAs) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and investigate the mechanisms by which OAs function as a therapy for OSAHS. METHODS: Eight OSAHS patients (all male, aged 37-58, mean age 46.25) underwent CT scans before and after OA use. Then, computational fluid dynamics(CFD) models were built on the base of the CT scans using Mimics and ANSYS ICEM CFD software. The internal airflow of the upper airways was simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT and the results were analyzed using ANSYS-CFD-Post. The data were analyzed to identify the most important changes of biomechanical properties between patients with and without OA intervention. Upper airway morphology and the internal airflow changes were compared using t-tests and Spearman correlation coefficient analysis. RESULTS: The narrowest area of upper airways was found to be located in the lower bound of velopharynx, where the volume and pressure were statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) and the air velocity was statistically significantly decreased (P<0.05) in the presence of the OA(P<0.05). After wearing OA, pharyngeal resistance was significantly decreased (P<0.05), from 290.63 to 186.25Pa/L, and the airflow resistance of the pharynx has reduced by 35.9%. CONCLUSION: The enlargement of the upper airway after wearing the OA changed its airflow dynamics, which decreased the negative pressure and resistance in narrow areas of the upper airways. Thus, the collapsibility of the upper airways was reduced and patency was sustained.

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