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1.
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115337, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590880

RESUMO

A gel delivery system was developed in the present work using whey protein isolate and lotus root amylopectin via regulating pH. The texture, thermodynamics, rheology and microstructure of gels were evaluated. Results showed that pH at 7.0 induced a more compact and stable gel structure than other pH. The composite gel formed at pH 7.0 was accordingly employed to encapsulate vitamin D3. Results exhibited that the encapsulation of composite gel of whey protein isolate and lotus root amylopectin could enhance the storage stability of vitamin D3 and protect vitamin D3 from photochemical degradation. Moreover, this encapsulation could control the release of vitamin D3 in simulated intestinal fluid. Animal experiments exhibited that the bioavailability was significantly increased after vitamin D3 was encapsulated by the composite gel. This work indicated that the whey protein isolate-lotus root amylopectin gel is a good delivery system to improve the stability and bioavailability of vitamin D3.

2.
Carbohydr Polym ; 228: 115359, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635738

RESUMO

This study investigated the chain conformation, physicochemical properties of fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Stichopus chloronotus (fCS-Sc) using HPSEC-MALLS and worm-like cylinder model methods and its impact on human gut microbiota by 16s RNA gene sequencing. The results indicated that fCS-Sc adopted rigid rods chain conformation in PBS based on chain conformational parameters αη (1.11) and αh (0.70). Stiffness parameters deduced from worm-like cylinder model suggested that fCS-Sc exhibited as stiff chains. The congo red assay indicated a single-helical structure. fCS-Sc demonstrated a negative zeta-potentials in a wide pH ranges and good thermal stability. Besides, fCS-Sc could modulate the community structure of gut microbiota by elevating the absolute abundance of microbiota, increasing the beneficial bacterium Megamonas, Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Parabacteroides, Prevotella, Faecalibacterium, suppressing pathogenic microorganism and promoting the short-chain fatty acids production. The present studies improved the understanding of the spatial structures of fCSs and its application as prebiotics.

3.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685729

RESUMO

In this study, we document a case of phenobarbital-induced anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS), which has been rarely reported in veterinary medicine. A 2-year-old, 5.4 kg, neutered male Russian Blue cat was diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy and started on phenobarbital treatment. Eight days after initiation of phenobarbital treatment, the cat showed tachypnea and hyperthermia. CBC and serum biochemistry were unremarkable. However, the patient showed high serum amyloid A (SAA). On abdominal ultrasonography, generalized enlargement of abdominal lymph nodes and splenic multiple hypo-echoic nodules, which were consistent with reactive lymphadenopathy were found. The cat was diagnosed with AHS, and phenobarbital was discontinued. After 10 days of cessation, the patient had normal SAA, and clinical signs were resolved.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15647, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666545

RESUMO

Clathrins, composed of clathrin heavy chains (CHCs) and clathrin light chains (CLCs), are usually hijacked by viruses for infection. However, the role of CLCs, especially in regulating fish virus infection, remains poorly understood. Here, two isoforms of CLCs were cloned from the red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) (EaCLCa and EaCLCb). Both EaCLC transcripts were expressed in all examined tissues, and the expression of EaCLCa was much higher than that of EaCLCb. Over-expressing EaCLCa-W119R mutant significantly reduced Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) infectivity. However, no effect of EaCLCb-W122R on SGIV infection was observed. The detailed steps were further studied, mainly including virus attachment, entry and the following transport to early endosomes. EaCLCa-W119R mutant notably inhibited internalization of SGIV particles with no effect on SGIV attachment. Furthermore, EaCLCa-W119R mutant obviously impaired the delivery of SGIV to early endosomes after virus internalization. In addition, the EaCLCa-W119R mutant markedly reduced the colocalization of SGIV and actin. However, EaCLCb is not required for such events during SGIV infection. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that EaCLCa and EaCLCb exerted different impacts on iridovirus infection, providing a better understanding of the mechanisms of SGIV infection and opportunities for the design of new antiviral strategies.

5.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691874

RESUMO

Preoperative judgement of which children is likely to benefit from endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is still the most difficult challenge. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of third ventricular floor bowing (TVFB) and ETV success score (ETVSS) in selecting ETV candidates and achieve a better preoperative patient selection method for ETV based on our institutional experience. Children (≤ 16 years old) with newly diagnosed hydrocephalus treated with ETV between January 2013 and June 2018 were included in this prospective study. Patients with TVFB will receive ETV procedure in the pediatric subgroup of our department. ETVSS was calculated in every patient. The ETVSS predicted ETV success rate and the actual ETV success rate in our institution were compared and further analyzed. One hundred twenty-nine children with TVFB were enrolled in our study. The mean age at ETV was 5.84 ± 5.17 years (range, 0.04-16). Brain tumors, aqueductal stenosis, and inflammatory are the most common hydrocephalus etiologies. The most common complication was noninfectious fever (3.1%). During the average follow-up of 19.5 ± 14.95 months, twenty-five patients had depicted ETV failure. The actual ETV success rate (81%) in our study was higher than the success rate (69%) predicted by ETVSS. TVFB is a pragmatic, efficient, and simple model to predict the ETV outcome. We suggest that for hydrocephalic patients with preoperative third ventricular floor bowing, ETV should be the first-treatment choice regardless of the ETV success score. And for patients without such sign, ETVSS should be applied to select ETV candidates.

6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 314-327, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669279

RESUMO

As a dietary supplement, poly-ß-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) has been reported to positively influence growth, boost the immune system and enhance disease resistance in fish and shellfish. However, the protective mechanism is little known. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of PHB supplementation on immune-related enzyme activity and transcriptome-based gene expression in soiny mullet (Liza haematocheila). Results showed that dietary PHB supplementation could increase antioxidant enzyme activity, including total antioxidant capacity, catalase and superoxide dismutase. A total of 7,082,094,175 and 7,650,341,357 raw reads with mean length of 757 bp were obtained from control and PHB (dietary PHB supplementation at 2%) groups, respectively. There were 46,106 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between control and PHB groups, including 21,828 upregulated and 24,278 downregulated DEGs. All the DEGs were classified into three gene ontology categories, and 312 DEGs related with immune system process and 760 with the response to a stimulus. Additionally, all DEGs were allocated to 261 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genome pathways, and major immune-related pathways were detected, including MAPK/PI3K-Akt/TNF/NF-κB/TCR/TLR signaling pathways. Moreover, the regulation of several observed immune-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Altogether, this study suggests that antioxidant system is more effective for dietary PHB supplementation and lays the foundation for further study on the precise immunostimulatory mechanism of PHB. Hopefully, it provides insights into exploring biomarker for assessment of immunostimulants in fish culture.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669472

RESUMO

Laccaria amethystine and L. bicolor have served as model species for studying the life history and genetics of ectomycorrhizal fungi. However, the characterizations and variations of their mitogenomes are still unknown. In the present study, the mitogenomes of the two Laccaria species were assembled, annotated, and compared. The two mitogenomes of L. amethystine and L. bicolor comprised circular DNA molecules, with the sizes of 65,156 bp and 95,304 bp, respectively. Genome collinearity analysis revealed large-scale gene rearrangements between the two Laccaria species. Comparative mitogenome analysis indicated the introns of cox1 genes in Agaricales experienced frequent lost/gain eveants, which promoted the organization and size variations in Agaricales mitogenomes. Evolutionary analysis indicated the core protein-coding genes in the two mitogenomes were subject to strong pressure of purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on a combined mitochondrial gene set resulted in identical and well-supported tree topologies, wherein the two Laccaria species were most closely related to Coprinopsis cinerea. This study severed as the first study on the mitogenomes of Laccaria species, which promoted a comprehensive understanding of the genetics and evolution of the model ectomycorrhizal fungi.

8.
Med Phys ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705768

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although carbon-ion therapy is becoming increasingly attractive to the treatment of tumors, details about the ionization pattern formed by therapeutic carbon-ion beam in tissue have not been fully investigated. In this work, systematic calculations for the nanodosimetric quantities and RBE of a clinically relevant carbon-ion beam were studied for the first time. METHODS: The method combining both track structure and condensed history Monte Carlo (MC) simulations was adopted to calculate the nanodosimetric quantities. Fragments and energy spectra at different positions of the radiation field of a clinically relevant carbon-ion pencil beam were generated by means of MC simulations in water. Nanodosimetric quantities such as mean ionization cluster size ( M 1 ), the first moment of conditional cluster size ( M 1 C 2 ), cumulative probability ( F 2 ) and conditional cumulative probability ( F 3 C 2 ) at these positions were then acquired based on the spectra and the pre-calculated nanodosimetric database created by track structure MC simulations. What's more, a novel approach to calculate RBE based on the said nanodosimetric quantities was introduced. The RBE calculations were then conducted for the carbon-ion beam at different water-equivalent depths. RESULTS: Lateral distributions at various water-equivalent depths of both the nanodosimetric quantities and RBE values were obtained. The values of M 1 , M 1 C 2 , F 2 and F 3 C 2 were 1.49, 2.67, 0.30 and 0.38 at the plateau at the beam central axis and maximized at 2.79, 5.69, 0.47 and 0.68 at the depths around the Bragg peak, respectively. At a given depth, M 1 and F 2 decreased laterally with increasing the distance to the beam central axis while M 1 C 2 and F 3 C 2 remained nearly unchanged at first and then decreased except for M 1 C 2 at the rising edge of the Bragg peak. The calculated RBE values were 1.07 at the plateau and 3.13 around the Bragg peak. Good agreement between the calculated RBE values and experimental data was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Different nanodosimetric quantities feature the track structure of therapeutic carbon-ion beam in different manners. Detailed ionization patterns generated by carbon-ion beam could be characterized by nanodosimetric quantities. Moreover, the combined method adopted in this work to calculate nanodosimetric quantities is not only valid but also convenient. Nanodosimetric quantities are significantly helpful for the RBE calculations in carbon-ion therapy.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17709, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rising maternal and child healthcare costs and the lack of training and educational resources for healthcare workers have reduced service quality in primary health centers of China. We sought to compare strategies promoting healthcare service utilization in rural western China. METHOD: A randomized community trial was carried out in Zhen'an country between 2007 and 2009. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted to compare the outcomes of financial subsidy for pregnant women seeking antenatal care and clinical training provided to healthcare workers by difference-in-difference estimation. RESULTS: In all, 1113 women completed the questionnaires. The proportion of postnatal visits increased three times in the training group, reaching 35.7%. The number of women who received advice from their doctors regarding nutrition and warning signs necessitating immediate medical attention also improved significantly (5.8% and 8.2%, respectively). Furthermore, the percentage of women who underwent blood tests increased significantly to 19.5% in the training group. Compared to the financial group, the training group had more women who breastfed for longer than 4 months (15.8%) and provided timely complementary feeding (8.9%). CONCLUSION: The training intervention appeared to have improved prenatal care utilization. Essential obstetric training helped enhance knowledge and self-efficacy among healthcare workers.

10.
Opt Lett ; 44(21): 5254-5257, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674981

RESUMO

Here we present a design of a traveling-wave optical cavity containing four identical ellipsoidal mirrors arranged in a square. The cavity proves to support more than 21 Laguerre-Gaussian modes simultaneously. There is a polarization splitting in the cavity that can be used for polarization filtering with a high isolation level.

12.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16227, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700055

RESUMO

The complexity of the leaf constitution of foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) makes it difficult to obtain high-purity cpDNA. Here, we developed a protocol to isolate high-quality cpDNA from foxtail millet and other crops. The new protocol replaces previous tissue grinding and homogenization by enzyme digestion of tiny leaf strips to separate protoplasts from leaf tissue and protects chloroplasts from damage by undue grinding and homogenization and from contamination of cell debris and nuclear DNA. Using the new protocol, we successfully isolated high-quality cpDNAs for whole-genome sequencing from four foxtail millet cultivars, and comparative analysis revealed that they were approximately 27‰ longer than their reference genome. In addition, six cpDNAs of four other species with narrow and thin leaf blades, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea may L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), were also isolated by our new protocol, and they all exhibited high sequence identities to their corresponding reference genomes. A maximum-likelihood tree based on the chloroplast genomes we sequenced here was constructed, and the result was in agreement with previous reports, confirming that these cpDNA sequences were available for well-supported phylogenetic analysis and could provide valuable resources for future research.

14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582601

RESUMO

The paracrine function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during transplantation has been recently studied due to its poor differentiation ratio. Dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) has been used to promote angiogenesis in experimental animal models, however, comparable approaches for canine MSCs are not sufficient. In the present study, we assessed whether DMOG improves angiogenesis in canine adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (cAT-MSCs). cAT-MSCs were treated with DMOG and their effect on angiogenesis was investigated by cell proliferation assay, western blotting, and tube formation assay. Dimethyloxalylglycine preconditioning enhanced the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) among pro-angiogenic factors in cAT-MSCs via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α stabilization. Dimethyloxalylglycine primed-cAT-MSC-conditioned media increased angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. These results suggest that DMOG conditioning of cAT-MSCs augmented the secretion of VEGF, which acted as a prominent pro-angiogenic factor during angiogenesis. DMOG-primed cAT-MSCs may have the potential to induce beneficial effects in ischemic diseases in clinical trials.

15.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5483-5494, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Canine mammary gland tumors (CMGTs) are the most common tumors in female dogs. Rivoceranib (also known as apatinib) is a novel anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively binds to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2). The aim of this study was to disclose the antitumor effects of rivoceranib on CMGT cell lines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The direct effects of rivoceranib on CMGT cells in vitro were analyzed by cell proliferation and migration assays. Cell-cycle distribution and apoptotic ratio were analyzed by flow cytometry. Expression levels of phosphorylated VEGFR2 were evaluated by western blot analysis. RESULTS: Rivoceranib treatment significantly reduced the proliferation and migration of CMGT cells in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results revealed significant increases in G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis proportional to the drug concentration used. Rivoceranib reduced the level of phosphorylated VEGFR2. CONCLUSION: We confirm that rivoceranib exerts antitumor effects on CMGT cells by inhibiting biological functions.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Piridinas/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Feminino , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fase de Repouso do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
16.
Nat Chem Biol ; 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591566

RESUMO

Iron is essential for a broad range of biochemical processes in the brain, but the mechanisms of iron metabolism in the brain remain elusive. Here we show that iron functionally translocates among brain regions along specific axonal projections. We identified two pathways for iron transport in the brain: a pathway from ventral hippocampus (vHip) to medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to substantia nigra; and a pathway from thalamus (Tha) to amygdala (AMG) to mPFC. While vHip-mPFC transport modulates anxiety-related behaviors, impairment of Tha-AMG-mPFC transport did not. Moreover, vHip-mPFC iron transport is necessary for the behavioral effects of diazepam, a well-known anxiolytic drug. By contrast, genetic or pharmacological promotion of vHip-mPFC transport produced anxiolytic-like effects and restored anxiety-like behaviors induced by repeated restraint stress. Taken together, these findings provide key insights into iron metabolism in the brain and identify the mechanisms underlying iron transport in the brain as a potential target for development of novel anxiety treatments.

17.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 168, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638914

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of some therapeutic methods (open surgical debridement (OSD), conservative treatment (CST) and minimally invasive drainage (MID)) for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP) has been widely evaluated. However, the results remained controversial. We performed this study to illuminate whether any difference in incidence exists on patients with SAP/MSAP treated with OSD and MID. METHODS: Eligible articles were collected base of a comprehensive review of PUBMED, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CKNI and WANGFANG for published randomized controlled trials. Two steps of meta-analysis were performed, routine pair-wise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included in this study. Participants were classed as 5 groups, CST, early MID (EMID), late MID (LMID), early OSD (EOSD) and late OSD (LOSD). And MID contains endoscopic drainage (ESD), percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Compared with CST, MID could decrease both mortality and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) rate but OSD couldn't. Both EMID and MID can significantly decrease the mortality and MODS rate compared to CST. PCD might be most likely to have a benefit compared to CST. CONCLUSION: Existing evidence for the use of MID in SAP/MSAP is reliable and it can be used as early treatment. OSD, if necessary, should be avoided or delayed as long as possible.

18.
J Vet Med Sci ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645504

RESUMO

The Hedgehog-GLI signaling pathway is activated in human and canine osteosarcoma (OSA) and represents a potential therapeutic target for cancers, including OSA. Arsenic trioxide represses GLI expression. Melarsomine, an arsenic compound-containing drug, has been approved for the treatment of canine heartworm disease. Hence, we hypothesized that melarsomine inhibits GLI signaling in canine OSA cell lines. The present study aimed to assess this hypothesis. Cell viability and colony formation were decreased in the canine OSA cell lines Abrams and D17 after treatment with melarsomine. Melarsomine-induced apoptotic cell death was assessed via cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide staining. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses revealed a downregulation of genes downstream of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, including GLI1, GLI2, and PTCH, after melarsomine treatment. The present results suggest that melarsomine exerts antitumor effects and serves as a GLI inhibitor in canine OSA cells. Additional studies are required to evaluate and confirm the anticancer effect and relevant therapeutic dose of melarsomine in vivo.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646376

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We conducted a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy and safety of multiple endovascular treatments for femoropopliteal lesions. METHODS: Nine treatments for femoropopliteal lesions were identified. We compared major amputation and all-cause mortality at 12-month follow-ups and primary patency at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups of the treatments. RESULTS: Altogether, 26 studies (52 study arms; 4102 patients) were considered eligible. In terms of primary patency, drug-eluting stent (DES) placement was the most effective treatment at 6- and 12-month follow-ups and covered stent (CS) placement at 24-month follow-ups, whereas directional atherectomy (DA) was the least effective treatment during all follow-up periods; both DES and CS placements were better than the majority of other single treatments, including balloon angioplasty, DA, nitinol stent (NS) placement and drug-coated balloon use, during all follow-up periods. In terms of 12-month major amputation and all-cause mortality, DA was the most safe treatment, whereas NS placement was the least safe single treatment. CONCLUSIONS: DES and CS placements have shown encouraging results in terms of primary patency for femoropopliteal lesions, DES placement performs better within 12 months after operation and CS placement at approximately 24 months, while DA seems to be less effective. DA may be better than other treatments in terms of major amputation and all-cause mortality, while NS seems to be less safe.

20.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642614

RESUMO

The incidence of breast cancer has increased dramatically in China. We evaluated the clinical and epidemiologic factors associated with breast cancer, and its stage in a case-control study of Northeast Chinese women. We also examined whether these factors were differentially distributed among molecular subtypes of breast cancer in a case-only analysis. We identified 1118 breast cancer patients and 2284 healthy women from Cancer Hospital of Medical University between January 2014 and December 2017. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that postmenopausal women had a decreased risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted OR = 0.33, 95% CI:0.25-0.43), and tended to have breast cancer of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing (multivariate-adjusted OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.49-5.97) and triple-negative (multivariate-adjusted OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.02-4.56) subtypes, compared with the luminal B subtype. Women with history of abortion had an increased risk of breast cancer (multivariate-adjusted OR = 4.70, 95% CI: 3.60-6.14). Women with high breast density and high Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) scores of lesions tended to have breast cancer of advanced stage, but were not differentially distributed among its molecular subtypes. In conclusion, postmenopausal women had decreased risk of breast cancer, and tended to have nonluminal subtype, while women with history of abortion had increased risk of breast cancer. Women with high breast density and BIRADS scores of lesions tended to have advanced stage breast cancer. We provide evidence on the epidemiologic factors for breast cancer and its subtypes, which may help with breast cancer risk stratification.

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